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Vol.  I. 

JULY,    1895. 

No.   1 

tfffodem  telephone  Qxchangs  Systems. 

By  Geo.  P.  Low. 


The  development  of  the  telephone  exchange  switch- 
board has  kept  apace  with  the  growth  of  the  telephone 
industry,  solely  in  that  its  appliances  have  been  able 
to  successfully  handle  the  business  thrown  upon  them, 
but  the  word  successfully  is  used  in  a  restricted  sense, 
as  it  cannot  be  said  that  heretofore  large  exchanges  have 
been  handled  satisfactorily.  In 
fact,  the  dissatisfaction  expressed 
has  been  universal  and  emphatic, 
but  no  recourse  being  at  hand,  tele- 
phone companies  have  been  forced 
to  invest  mountains  of  money  in 
switching  apparatus  that  was 
realized  to  be  deficient  in  many 
respects.  In  brief,  the  growth  of 
the  telephone  industry  has  placed 
it  far  in  advance  of  the  art  of 
switchboard  building,  particularly 
in  that  heretofore  inventors  have 
apparently  been  unable  to  devise 
switchboards  that  could  be  con- 
structed without  entailing  infinite 
complexity  in  wiring  and  almost 
extortionate  cost. 

It  may  be  said  with  propriety 
that  there  has  been  too  little  origi- 
nality exercised  in  the  invention  of 
methods  of  handling  telephone  ex- 
changes, and  that  telephone  engi- 
neers, having  been  wedded  early 
in  their  experiences  to  the  forms  of 
switchboards  now  almost  univer- 
sally used,  have  unfortunately 
fallen  into  the  belief  that  there  are 
no  "good  fish  in  the  sea."  A  con- 
sideration of  modern  telephone  ex- 
changes must,  perforce,  exclude 
reference  to  the  earlier  devices  of 
the  art,  but  the  single  observation 
may  be  made  that  the  principal 
systems  now  universally  used  con- 
tain points  of  resemblance,  if  not 
identity,  that  lead  to  the  conclusion 
that  the  efforts  of  the  successful 
inventors  have  hitherto  been  con- 
fined to  well  trodden  paths  of  re- 
search, and  certain  it  is  that  no 
system  presenting  features  showing  radical  or  funda- 
mental departures  from  the  generally  accepted  prin- 
ciple of  switchboard  construction,  has  heretofore  achieved 
prominence.  The  "Multiple"  system  has  long  been 
pre-eminent  among  telephone  switchboards  and  an 
acknowledged  authority  *  observed  as  late  as  July,  1893, 

*  Preece  &  Stmbbs'  "Manual  of  Telephony,"  Page  247." 

Fig.  1.     The  "Multiple"  System.— Simpli- 
fied Diagram  op  the  Series-Ml'ltiple 

that  "it  is  difficult  to  conceive  of  a  telephone  exchange 
of,  say,  6,000  subscribers  being  worked  at  all  upon  the 
ordinary  principle,  while  it  is  a  comparatively  simple 
matter  with  Multiple  boards;"  indeed,  the  Multiple 
switchboard  is  described  as  "the  nearest  approach  to 
a  perfect  system  that  has  yet  been  devised,"  and  it  is 
stated  that  "it  is  now  adopted  almost  universally  for 
large  exchanges." 

A  number  of  the  leading  tele- 
phone engineers  of  America,  how- 
ever, who  have  examined  a  system 
invented  and  now  in  use  by  the 
Pacific  Telephone  and  Telegraph 
Co.,  and  which  is  known  as  the 
"  Limited  Express  "  system,  have 
expressed  the  opinion  that  the 
"Express"  system  is  entitled  to 
the  distinction  of  being  the  peer  of 
the  Multiple  switchboard  in  every 
point  as  to  reliability,  flexibility, 
rapidity  of  switching  and  cost  of 
installation  and  maintenance.  As 
yet  no  one  has  been  able  to  indi- 
cate a  real  disadvantage  in  its  use, 
and  the  only  criticism  that  has 
been  offered,  is  that  it  does  not 
present  the  feature  peculiar  to  the 
Multiple  board  that  the  entire  act 
of  switching  may  be  accomplished 
by  a  single  operator. 

The  topic  of  Modern  Telephone 
Exchange  Systems,  therefore,  only 
embraces  the  consideration  of 
Multiple  and  Express  switch- 
boards, but  as  the  Multiple  system 
has  received  extended  description 
in  other  publications  and  as  its 
fundamental  principles  of  opera- 
tion are  well  understood,  it  is  be- 
lieved that  a  detailed  description  of 
its  plan  of  operation  is  unnecessary. 


References.— A,  Ring-off  Drop.—B,  Plugs  —  C,  Sub- 
scribers' Drops.— X  X  X,  Subscribers'  Lines.— a. 
Test    Thimble— e,  Tip  Spring.—/,  Annunci- 
ator Contact.— h.  Line  Closing  Contact. 
j,  2,  s,  Subscribers'  Spring-Jacks. 

It  is  well  understood  that  the  es- 
sential idea  of  the  Multiple  board  is 
to  enable  the  act  of  switching  to  be 
performed  by  a  single  opera- 
tor, and  in  order  to  explain 
how  this  is  accomplished,  it  is  well  to  consider  sub- 
scribers' lines  as  being  "incoming"  or  "outgoing,"  ac- 
cording to  whether  the  subscriber  is  a  (1)  "calling"or  (2) 
an  "answering"  or  a  "called"  subscriber.  Each  operator 
is  capable  of  handling  the  calls  of  say  200  subscribers, 
but  these  "calling"  subscribers  will  desire   connection 

Copyrighted  1895,  by  Geo.  P.  Low.     All  Eights  Reserved. 



I,  No. 

with  the  lines  of  all  subscribers  in  the  exchange  ;  conse- 
quently, each  operator's  section  must  contain  not  only 
the  spring  jacks  and  annunciator  drops  for  the  200  sub- 
scribers whose  calls  she  answers,  but  also  the  spring  jacks 
forming  the  terminals  of  the  of  every  other  subscri- 
ber in  the  exchange.  Upon  this  basis  therefore,  an 
exchange  of  3,000  subscribers  will  be  divided  into  15 
operators'  sections,  and  as  each  operator  answers  the  calls 
for  200  subscribers,  there  will  be  200  subscribers'  drops 
to  each  section,  or  3,000  drops  in  all.  But  each  operator 
must  have  represented  on  her  section  a  spring  jack  form- 
ing the  terminal  of  the  line  of  each  subscriber  in  the 
exchange,  or  3,000  to  each  operator's  section. 

The  necessity  of  some  means  by  which  any  operator 
may  determine  whether  the  line 
of  a  called  or  outgoing  subscriber 
is  busy  is  readily  perceived,  and 
Multiple  boards  of  whatever  va- 
riety are  provided  with  a  test 
circuit  for  each  subscriber  which 
is  brought  out  in  the  form  of  a 
tube  or  thimble  at  the  entrance 
of  each  spring  jack.  Before  in- 
serting the  plug  into  the  jack 
forming  the  terminal  of  the  out- 
going subscriber's  line,  the  oper- 
ator touches  the  tip  of  the  plug  to 
this  test  thimble,  and  if  the  line 
of  the  called  subscriber  is  en- 
gaged the  operator  is  informed 
accordingly  from  the  occurrence 
of  a  sharp  click  in  her  telephone 
receiver.  This  test  thimble  is 
shown  as  a  on  the  accompany- 
ing diagrams  of  Multiple  switch- 
boards, Figs.  1  and  2. 

Having  these  facts  in  mind 
the  consideration  of  the  different 
forms  of  Multiple  boards  may  be 
intelligently  undertaken. 


The  old  form  of  Multiple 
switchboard,  known  as  the  se- 
ries-multiple board,  is  shown 
diagramatically,  and  in  its  great- 
est simplicity,  in  Fig.  1.  It  is 
distinctively  a  magneto  system, 
as  both  the  subscribers  drops  C, 
and  the  ringing-off  drop  A  are 
actuated  by  magneto  currents 
generated  at  the  subscriber's  sta- 
tion. Its  characteristic  feature 
rests  in  the  fact  that  the  spring- 
jack  appearing  on  each  section 
for  a  given  subscriber  is  wired 
in  series  with  the  spring-jacks 
for  the  same  subscriber  appear- 
ing on  every  other  section,  hence 
the  insertion  of  a  plug  in  a  given 
subscriber's  spring-jack  on  any  section  cuts  the  circuits 
terminating  in  the  plug,  into  circuit  with  the  subscriber's 
line.  Obviously,  then,  each  spring-jack  is  liable  to  cause 
an  open  circuit  in  a  subscriber's  line  by  reason  of  opening 
at  the  line-closing  contact  h,  which  may  occur  from  cor- 
rosion or  the  lodgment  of  dust  at  that  point  or  from  the 
weakening  of  the  tip  spring  e,  or  the  line-closing  contact 
/.  The  ringing-off  annunciator  drop  A  remains 
across  the  subscribers'  lines  in  multiple  during  the 
conversation.  The  series-multiple  system  presents  no 
automatic  self-restoring  features,  hence  requires  manual 

Fig.  2.    The  "Multiple"  System. — Simplified 

Diagram  op  the  Bridging-Multiple 


Refekences.— A,    Ring-off  Drop.— S,  Plugs— C,  Self-restoring 
Magnets—  D,  Subscribers'  Drops.— E,  Self-restoring  Magnet 
Battery.— X X X,  Subscribers'  Lines.— a,    Test  Thim- 
bles.— b.  Sleeve  Ring.—c,  d,  Self-restoring  Magnet 
Contacts. — et    Tip   Spring. — g,   Insulated 
Metallic  Ring.— i.  ?,  3,  Subscribers' 

effort  on  the  part  of  the  operator,  not  only  in  restoring 
the  drops,  but  in  ascertaining  whether  the  subscribers 
have  performed  the  ringing  off  and  other  duties  expected 
of  them. 

These  and  other  defects  of  serious  importance  led  to 
the  designing  of  the  Bridging-Multiple  switchboard,  the 
simplified  circuits  of  which  are  shown  in  Fig.  2,  in  their 
most  perfected  forms.  As  its  name  implies,  the  charac- 
teristic of  the  bridging  system  lies  in  the  arrangement 
of  the  subscribers' jacks,  the  spring-jack  for  a  given  sub- 
scriber being  "  bridged  "  or  wired  ia  multiple  with  the 
spring-jacks  for  the  same  subscriber  appearing  on  every 
other  section,  thereby  obviating  the  troubles  common  to 
the  Series  board  from  the  opening  of  circuits  at  the  line- 
closing  contacts  in  the  spring- 
jacks  ;  but  in  obviating  one 
trouble  a  second,  though  less 
serious  one,  is  encountered, 
namely,  the  liability  of  short- 
circuiting  from  the  enormous 
amount  of  parallel  wiring. 

The  most  approved  forms  of 
bridging-.multiple  boards  con- 
tain automatic  or  self-restoring 
subscribers'  drops,  actuated  by 
a  battery,  shown  as  E,  in  Fig.  2. 
The  plug  B  contains  a  metallic 
ring  g  placed  near  the  tip  and 
insulated  therefrom.  When  in- 
serted in  the  spring-jack  this 
ring  g  short  circuits  the  springs 
c  d,  which  closes  the  circuit  of 
the  battery  E  through  the  restor- 
ing winding  C  of  the  subscrib- 
ers' drops  D,  thus  relieving  the 
operator  from  restoring  the  drop 
after  having  answered  the  call. 
The  act  of  inserting  the  plug  B 
in  the  spring-jack  cuts  into  the 
subscriber's  line  in  multiple 
through  the  contacts  of  the  sleeve 
and  tip  of  the  plug  with  the 
sleeve  ring  b  and  the  tip  spring 
e  respectively.  The  ringing-off 
or  clearing  annunciation  must 
be  rendered  by  the  subscriber 
actuating  the  ringing-off  drop  A, 
as  in  the  series-multiple  system. 
In  order  that  a  more  clear  un- 
derstanding of  the  details  of  op- 
eration of  multiple  boards  may 
be  had,  it  is  well  to  refer  again 
to  Fig.  1,  which,  as  stated,  illus- 
trates diagramatically  the  most 
approved  form  of  the  series- 
multiple  switching  system  as 
used  preferably  on  metallic  cir- 
cuits. In  this  the  three  subscrib- 
ers' lines  XXX,  etc.,  are  shown 
entering  three  sections  of  the 
the  last  of  which  is  the  "  answering,"  or  "  local  " 
section  answering  the  calls  of  the 
thereon.     The  plan   of  circuit 


section — that  is  the 
three  subscribers  located 

wiring,  shown  in  the  first  and  second  sections,  describes 
the  manner  in  which  all  remaining  sections  of  the  ex- 
change are  wired,  and  of  course,  each  of  these  other  sec- 
tions forms  the  answering  section  for  a  particulai  group 
of  subscribers  entering  the  exchange,  as  previously  de- 

It  will  be  noted  by  reference  to  Fig.  1  that  one  side 
of  the  subscriber's  line,  when  it  reaches  the  switchboard, 

July,  1895.] 


is  out  into  in  series  by  as  many  spring-jacks  as  there  are 
sections  to  the  board,  while  the  other  side  of  the  sub- 
scriber's line  continues  on  uninterruptedly  paralleling 
the  first  side  of  the  line  until  together  they  reach  the 
subscriber's  annunciator  drop,  shown  as  C,  but  at  each 
point  where  a  spring-jack  is  cut  into  the  first  side  of  the 
line,  a  tap  or  branch  wire  is  taken  from  the  second  side 
of  the  line  and  coutinues  on  to  the  test  thimble  a.  If, 
now,  the  function  of  the  spring-jack  be  considered  as 
opening  the  subscriber's  line  at  the  contact  h,  by  lifting 
the  tip  spring  e  from  the  annunciator  contact  /,  then  the 
spring-jack  becomes  a  simple  series  device  for  opening 
the  line.  If  the  function  of  the  spring-jack  be  consid- 
ered as  a  means  for  enabling  a  plug  circuit  to  be  bridged 
or  cut  in,  in  multiple  with  the  subscriber's  line  through 
the  contact  of  the  tip  spring  e  and  the  test  thimble  a, 
with  the  tip  and  sleeve  respectively  of  the  plug  B,  then 
the  spring-jack  becomes  a.  simple  multiple  device  for 
bridging  on  to  the  circuit  at  any  section.  In  point  of 
fact  the  spring-jack  performs  both  these  functions,  hence 
the  insertion  of  a  plug  in  the  first  section  opens  the  sub- 
scriber's line  on  all  points  beyond  that  section,  which 
explains  why  the  signaling  back  of  a  called  subscriber 
does  not  throw  the  dro'p  of  that  subscriber  on  its  own 
particular  answering  section. 

The  second  side  of  the  subscriber's  line  referred  to 
constitutes  the  "  test  wire,"  the  use  of  which  will  be  un- 
derstood when  it  is  stated  that  the  wiring  of  each  pair 
of  plugs  is  grounded  through  a  small  battery  and  retard- 
ing coil  and  that  each  operator's  receiver  is  also  ground- 
ed, so  that  if  the  spring-jack  for  a  given  subscriber  is  in 
use  on  any  particular  section  a  grounded  battery  current 
will  be  thrown  upon  the  test  thimble  of  each  spring-jack 
for  the  same  subscriber  in  every  other  section,  hence  the 
touching  of  the  tip  of  the  plug  to  the  test  thimble  will 
complete  the  grounded  battery  circuit,  giving  the  sharp 
click  in  the  operator's  instrument,  previously  referred  to. 

Beyond  this  apparatus  the  operators'  tables  are 
equipped  with  listening  keys  and  ringing  keys,  together 
with  the  ringing-off  drop  A. 

Fig.  2,  showing  a  simplified  diagram  of  the  bridg- 
ing-multiple switchboard,  represents  the  most  approved 
form  of  Multiple  switching.  The  spring-jacks  differ 
from  those  in  use  on  the  series  board  in  that  they  have 
five  terminals,  two  of  which,  the  test  thimble  a  and  the 
self-restoring  magnet  spring  d,  are  common  points  and, 
forming  the  test  wire,  are  continued  to  each  section. 
The  self-restoring  magnet  wire  ending  in  the  spring  e, 
and  which  is  grounded,,  is  common  to  every  spring-jack 
in  every  section.  The  spring-jack,  therefore,  has  three 
separate  and  distinct  uses.  First,  to  enable  the  cutting 
of  a  plug  circuit  into  circuit  in  multiple  with  the  sub- 
scribers' lines  XX.  Second,  to  enable  the  operator  to 
apply  the  "  busy  "  test  by  touching  the  plug  switch  to 
the  test  thimble  a,  and  third,  to  restore  the  subscriber's 
indicator  by  short-circuiting  the  springs  c  d  through  the 
plug  ring  g.  The  subscribers'  indicators  contain  two 
windings,  as  shown  at  D  and  C,  which  are  respectively 
used  for  throwing  the  annunciator  drop,  by  means  of  the 
subscriber's  magneto  current,  and  for  restoring  this  drop 
by  means  of  current  sent  through  the  coil  C  from  the 
battery  E,  when  the  spring-jack  points  c  d  are  short  cir- 
cuited. The  test  wire  circuits  are  operated  in  a  manner 
identical  to  that  used  in  the  series-multiple  system,  which 
the  bridging-multiple  system  further  resembles  in  the 
arrangement  of  the  ringing-off  drop  A. 

Experience  has  proven  that  the  bridging-multiple 
system  is  far  more  reliable  than  the  series-multiple 
board,  particularly  for  its  greater  immunity  from  trouble 
and  because  of  the  self-restoring  features  of  its  indica- 
tors.    Like    the    series    system,  however,  it   requires    a 

manual  test  for  "  busy  "  and  for  checking  subscriber3 
who  do  not  ring  off.  It  also  has  the  disadvantage  of 
maintaining  devices,  such  as  the  ringing-off  drop  A  and 
the  subscriber's  drop  D,  permanently  across  the  circuit 
which,  together  with  the  use  of  grounded  circuits  for 
special  work,  is  oftimes  seriously  objectionable.  While 
the  bridging-multiple  board  is  less  liable  to  trouble  than 
the  series-multiple  board,  it  is  at  the  same  time  harder 
to  find  such  troubles  as  do  occur.  A  recent  writer,* 
commenting  on  this  fact,  points  out  that  with  the  older 
styles  of  switchboard,  in  which  the  insertion  of  a  plug 
cuts  out  the  drop,  it  is  an  easy  matter  to  test  all  wires 
from  one  of  the  sections  of  the  board  itself;  but,  with 
the  bridging  type  of  board,  the  case  is  more  difficult  as 
the  drop  is  never  cut  out,  and  a  line  will  show  closed 
through  the  drop  irrespective  of  its  condition  outside  the 

In  order  that  an  idea  may  be  conveyed  as  to  the  dif- 
ficulty attending  the  localizations  of  switchboard  "faults," 
it  may  be  well  to  describe  a  method  due  to  Mr.  Manson, 
in  which  subscribers'  lines  are  handled  by  bridging  mul- 
tiple boards  and  consequently  with  normally  open 
spring-jacks  and  high  resistance  subscribers'  indicators. 


Fig.  3.— The  Express  System.— A  Complete 
Section  op  the  "A"  Switchboard. 

The  peculiarity  of  the  method  is  iu  the  arrangement  of 
the  testing  outfit,  which  is  a  modification  of  the  Wheat- 
stone  bridge.  Its  essential  features  are  a  differentially 
wound  relay ;  that  is,  a  relay  having  two  windings,  A 
and  B,  each  of  equal  resistance  and  connected  in  series ; 
a  third  wire  terminating  in  the  hammer  of  a  telegraph 
key  being  run  from  the  middle  connecting  point.  A 
second  feature  of  the  testing  set  consists  in  the  use  of  a 
resistance  equal  to  that  of  a  regular  subscriber's  indica- 
tor drop.  The  set  also  contains  a  suitable  battery  and 
an  ordinary  plug  with  flexible  cord  to  connect  into  any 
spring-jack  desired. 

The  arrangement  of  these  devices  is  such  that  the 
key  and  battery  are  bridged  across  from  the  middle 
point  of  the  differential   relay,  shunting  the  differential 

*  James  W.  Manson,  Electrical  Engineer  (N.  Y.).  Nov.  28, 1894. 


[Vol.  I,  No. 

relay  coil  B  and  the  resistance  in  series  on  one  side,  and 
the  differential  relay  coil  A  and  the  plug  in  series  on  the 
other,  thus  balancing  a  kuown  resistance  against  what- 
ever resistance  there  may  be  on  the  circuit  of  the  spring- 
jack  into  which  the  plug  is  placed. 

To  make  the  test  the  plug  is  inserted  in  a  spring- 
jack,  and  the  key  closed.  In  case  the  line  is  open  at  any 
point  outside  the  office,  the  current  from  the  battery  di- 
vides equally  between  the  two  coils,  A  and  B,  of  the  dif- 
ferential relay,  with  consequently  no  effect  on  its  arma- 
ture. If,  on  the  contrary,  the  line  is  intact,  coil  A  gets 
more  current  than  coil  B,  as  the  joint  resistance  of  sub- 


Fig.  4. — The  "Express"  System. — A  Complete 
Section  op  the  "B  '  Switchboard. 

scriber's  line  and  drop  in  parallel  is  less  than  that  of  R. 
When  a  line  is  closed  then  the  relay  armature  is  at- 
tracted with  an  intensity  proportional  to  the  difference 
between  the  currents  flowing  through  the  coils  A  and  B. 
Regardless  of  the  many  deficiencies  of  Multiple 
switchboards,  whether  of  the  series  or  bridging-multiple 
forms,  they  have  constituted  the  most  serviceable  ap- 
pliance available,  but  their  chief  drawback,  aud  which 
alone  would  have  long  since  condemned  them  had  there 
been  a  qualified  substitute  available,  lies  in  the  great 
complexity  and  detail  of  the  wiring  essential  to  their 
construction.  When  it  is  remembered  that  in  the  case 
of  3,000  subscribers,  as  cited,  there  must  be  45,000 
spring-jacks  in  an  exchange  using  the  Multiple  board, 
and  when,  as  is  seen  by  reference  to  Fig.  2,  each  spring- 
jack  necessitates  the  use  of  five  wires  to  connect  its 
working  parts  to  the  main  wires  running  through  from 
section  to  section,  the  appalling  complexity  of  the  wir- 
ing of  a  Multiple  board  in  a  large  exchange  will  be  ap- 
preciated, a3  will  also  the  fact  that  the  expense  of  in- 
stallation and  the  cost  of  maintaining  it  free  from  troub- 
les are  important  items. 


The  "  Express  "  system,  which  is  the  joint  inven- 
tion of  Messrs.  John  I.  Sabin  and  William  Hampton,  is 
so  radically  different  in  principle  from  "  Multiple  "  sys- 
tems that  at  first  impression  it  appears  to   be  seriously 

complicated,  but  when  its  working  principles  are  under- 
stood the  idea  of  complexity  vanishes.  Aside  from  its 
thorough  practicability,  moreover,  it  presents  many 
novel,  interesting,  invaluable  and  distinctive  features. 
The  system  has  been  in  use  in  San  Francisco  for  nearly 
two  years,  and  while  the  perfected  methods  of  operation, 
as  hereafter  described,  have  not  been  carried  out  with 
each  subscriber,  yet  each  feature  presented  has  been  fully 
and  extensively  tested  under  actual  working  conditions 
and  its  reliability  has  been  demonstrated.  Rapid  prog- 
ress is  now  being  made  in  changing  the  equipment  of  the 
Pacific  Telephone  and  Telegraph  Company  so  that  it  will 
conform  fully  to  the  perfected  "  Express "  system,  as 
herein  described.  Two  years  ago  the  "  Multiple  "  sys- 
tem was  abandoned  and  experiments  were  undertaken 
in  line  with  the  ideas  herein  set  forth,  and  as  a  result  of 
the  evolution  of  the  perfected  "  Express  "  service  San 
Francisco  to-day  contains  a  mixed  telephone  sj^stem  in 
which  the  use  of  the  perfected  "  Express  "  predominates, 
but  in  some  cases  metallic  "  Express  "  is  connected  to 
grounded  "  Express,"  or  to  metallic  or  grounded  mag- 
neto service,  or  grounded  "Express"  is  connected  to 
grounded  magneto  lines,  and  grounded  magneto  lines  are 
connected  to  grounded  magneto'lines  through  grounded 
or  metallic  "  Express  "  system,  all  with  far  greater  satis- 
faction from  every  point  of  view  than  is  possible  in  the 
use  of  "  Multiple  "  boards. 

A  distinguishing  feature  of  the  Sabin-Hampton 
"  Express  "  system  rests  in  the  fact  that  the  switchboard 
is  split  into  two  sections,  each  independent  and  different 
in  design  from  the  other  and  each  performing  a  separate 
or  individual  function.  These  two  sections  are  arbi- 
trarily designated  as  "A"  boards  and  "  B  "  boards  re- 
spectively, and  the  same  mode  of  designation  follows 
through  all  features  of  the  "  Express  "  system.  There 
are,  for  instance  "A"  operators  and  "  B  "  operators,  and 
"A"  trunks  and  "  B"  trunks,  etc,  which  at  once  defines 
the  purpose  of  the  operator  or  the  trunk.  Subscribers 
become  "A"  and  "  B  "  subscribers  according  to  whether 
they  are  the  calling  or  "  incoming,"  or  the  called  or 
"  outgoing  "  subscriber.  It  is  upon  the  distinction  be- 
tween these  terms  that  the  basis  of  the  "  Express  "  sys- 
tem rests,  and  a  full  comprehension  of  their  significance 
must  be  attained  in  order  to  enable  the  system  to  be  de- 
scribed understandingly. 

It  may  be  said  with  accurac}',  though  in  a  general 


Fig.  5. — The  Express  System. 
Sectional   View  op   a   Cord  Plug. 

way,  that  the  calling,  or  incoming  subscriber,  is  handled 
by  "A"  equipment,  while  the  called  or  outgoing  sub- 
scriber, is  handled  by  "B"  equipment.  One  hundred 
numbers  constitute  a  section  on  either  board,  and  each 
section  of  the  "  B'"  board  contains  the  permanent  spring 
jack  terminals  and  subscriber's  indicators  of  the  lines  of 
the  subscribers  on  that  section,  together  with  the  cords 
and  plugs  for  a  limited  number  of  local  trunks  and  their 
clearing-out  indicators  and  ringing-up  magneto  keys,  as 
shown  in  figure  4.  Each  section  of  the  "A"  board  (il- 
lustrated in  Figure  3)  contains  spring  jacks  forming  the 
terminals  for  the  set  of  local  trunks  going  to  the  "  B  " 
board  and  known  as  "  B  "  trunks,  and  also  cords  and 
plugs  leading  from  the  "B"  board  and  kuown  as  "A" 

July,  1895-] 


plugs.  This  simple  arrangement,  together  with  the  vis- 
ual indicators  and  various  ke37s  for  switching  the  opera- 
tor's instruments  into  circuit  with  calling  subscribers  or 
"  B •"  operators,  forms  practically  the  entire  equipment 
of  the  "  A"  board. 

The  "  B  "  board  -is  therefore  the  subscribers'  lines' 
board,  and  it  is,  iu  brief,  a  counterpart  of  the  ordinary 
multiple  switchboard,  with  the  exceptions  that  in  the 
11  Express  "  system  each  section  contains  only  the  sub- 
scribers' annunciators  and  spring  jacks  for  one  hundred 
subscribers,  together  with  not  exceeding  twenty  trunk 
plugs,  while  in  the  multiple  system  each  section  contains 
not  only  the  subscribers'  annunciators  and  spring  jacks 
for  that  particular  section,  but  also  spring  jacks  for  every 
subscriber  received  on  every  other  section,  often  reach  - 
ing  thousands  of  connections,  as  fully  explained  hereto- 
fore. Clearly,  then,  the  "B"  operator  in  charge  of  a 
given  section  has  in  her  care  mainly  the  subscribers'  an- 
nunciators and  jacks  of  that  particular  section,  and  is 
dependent  upon  using  trunk  lines  for  making  connection 
with  other  sections.  She  perceives  when  a  subscriber 
on  her  section  is  making  a  call,  and  with  a  single,  simple 
motion,  sends  the  call  over  to  the  "A"  board  for  another 
operator  to  take  care  of,  but  when  a  subscriber  ou  her 
sectiou  is  called  she  rings  him  up  and  sees  that  he  re- 
sponds. Almost  the  entire  work  of  the  "  B  "  operator, 
therefore,  consists  in  switching  for  the  outgoing  subscri- 
bers on  her  section,  and  she  is  therefore  considered  as 
the  operator  in  charge  of  a  section  of  outgoing  or  called 
subscribers — in  brief,  a  "  B  "  operator. 

An  understanding  of  these  divided  boards  and  of 
the  trunk  lines  may  be  attained  by  defining  "A"  opera- 
tors and  switchboards  as  affording  facilities  for  the  ma- 
nipulation of  such  temporary  extensions  of  subscribers' 
circuits  as  the  "  B  "  operators  may  make  by  pluggiug 
subscribers'  lines  over  to  the  "A"  board  through  the  ex- 
tension or  trunk  lines.  The  "A"  board  must  therefore, 
bo  considered  as  the  means  by  which  a  temporary 
"jumper,"  or  "  bridge,"  may  be  ruu  connecting  the  call- 
ing subscriber's  spring  jack  in  one  section  of  a  "  B " 
board  with  the  spring  jack  of  the  called  subscriber  loca- 
ted in  another  section  of  the  "B"  board.  If,  now,  a 
primitive  exposition  of  the  principles  of  operation  of 
the  "  Express  "  system  is  desired,  it  can  be  given  in  no 
more  simple  way  than  to  state  that  the  proper  operators 
on  the  "  B  "  board  extend  the  lines  of  the  calling  and 
called  subscribers  over  to  the  "A"  board  where  an  "A" 
operator  brings  the  lines  together,  thereby  closing  the 
circuit  and  establishing  communication. 


In  practice,however,  the  execution  of  the  apparently 
simple  act  of  connecting  two  subscribers  lines  together, 
becomes  quite  complicated  when  it  has  to  be  accom- 
plished to  the  full  satisfaction  of  the  exacting  demands 
of  metropolitan  telephone  service.  To  do  this,  the  addi- 
tional equipment  necessary  in  the  making  of  switch 
connections  within  a  single  exchange  operated  on  com- 
plete metallic  service,  consists  of  a  number  of  accessory 
devices  about  to  be  described. 

Cords  and  plugs  are  the  devices  used  for  making 
switchboard  connections  on  account  of  their  flexibility 
and  ease  of  manipulation.  They  are  double  pole 
throughout;  that  is,  each  cord  contains  two  separate 
conductors  terminating  in  the  sleeve  and  tip  of  the  plug, 
respectively.  The  plug  used  in  the  "Express"  system 
contains  a  distinctive  feature  in  the  placing  of  a  stiff 
steel  spring  axially  along  the  surface  of  the  sleeve,  there- 
by insuring  a  firm  and  reliable  mechanical  contact 
between  the  sleeve  and  the  tube  of  the  spring-jack  as 
shown  in  the  sectional  actual  size  view  of  the  plug  ex- 
hibited in  Fig.  5. 

The  spring-jack  used  in  the  "Express"  system  is  a 
very  neat  and  compact  device,  mounted  on  hard  rubber, 
and  shown  as  B  in  the  accompanying  illustration  (Fig.  6), 
of  a  decade  of  subscribers'  spring-jacks  taken  from  the 
jack  section  of  a  "B"  board.  Its  working  parts  are 
best  described  by  reference  to  Figure  7,  which  illus- 
trates the  "B"  board  diagramatically,  and  from  which 
it  will  be  seen  that  the  jack  consists  of  two  springs  a,  b, 
normally  in  firm  contact  with  the  points  c,  d.  These 
springs  a,  b,  form  the  terminals  of  the  subscriber's  line, 
and  the  fact  that  each  subscriber  has  but  a  single  spring- 
jack  and  consequently  but  a  single  line  terminal  in  the 
whole  exchange,  should  be  emphasized,  as  it  is  a  distin- 
guishing feature  in  the  "Express"  system.  The  points 
c,  d,  form  the  terminals  of  the  subscriber's  batteiw, 
and  as  the  jack-springs  a,  b,  are  normally  in  contact  with 
the  points  c,  d,  it  is  clear  that  when  the  line  is  not  in  use 
the  potential  of  the  subscriber's  battery  is  upon  it. 

The  description  of  the  subscriber's  telephone  equip- 
ment, which  is  given  elsewhere,  points  out  the  fact  that 
when  the  receiver  is  on  the  hook,  the  subscriber's  line  is 
open  so  far  as  the  subscriber's  battery  is  concerned,  with 
the  battery  upon  it,  and  also  that  the  act  of  raising  the 
receiver  from  the  hook,  closes  the  line  and  battery 
through  the  receiver  and  the  secondary  of  the  induction 
coil.  It  is  in  the  subscriber's  spring-jack  that  the  battery 
connection  with  the  subscriber's  line  is  made  by  reason 
of  the  pressure  of  the  springs  a,  b,  against  the  points 
c,  d,  but  before  the  battery  reaches  the  points  c,  d,  in 
each  subscriber's  spring-jack,  it  passes  through  the  indi- 
vidual annunciator  drop  or  subscriber's  indicator  for  that 
particular  jack.  Clearly,  then,  the  raising  of  the  sub- 
scriber's receiver  from  the  hook  closes  the  line  circuit 
through  the  telephone,  the  secondary  of  the  induction 
coil  and  the  annunciator  drop  on  the  "B"  board,  and 
clearly,  also,  will  the  insertion  of  a  plug  into  the  spring- 
jack  of  the  subscriber  indicated  upon  the  subscriber's 
drop,  restore  the  gravity  annunciator  drop  through 
the  breaking  of  the  contacts  between  the  springs  a,  b, 
and  the  points  c,  d,  respectively,  and  at  the  same  time 
remove  all  connection  between  the  subscriber's  calling 
battery  and  the  subscriber's  line. 

Trunk  lines  are  used  only  for  conversational  pur- 
poses by  subscribers,  and  are  not  called  upon  for  office 
duty  between  operators  or  otherwise.  Their  specific 
utilization  consists  in  the  making  of  temporary  exten- 
sions of  subscribers'  lines  between  "B"  boards  and  "A" 
boards.  The  trunk  lines  are  divided  into  two  classes, 
known  as  main  trunks,  or  those  extending  between 
branch  and  main  offices  and  local  trunks,  or  those  ex- 
tending between  the  "A"  and  "  B  "  boards  of  a  single 
office.  Main  and  local  trunks  are  each  in  turn  divided 
into  two  classes,  namely,  "A"  and  "B"  trunks.  "A" 
trunks  are  those  running  from  incoming  "  B  "  boards  to 
"A"  boards,  and  have  each  end  terminating  in  a  plug, 
while  "B"  trunks  are  those  appearing  on  the  "A" 
boards  as  spring-jacks  and  run  to  outgoing  "  B  "  boards 
direct,  where  they  terminate  in  the  form  of  plugs.  It  is 
through  the  use  of  local  trunks,  therefore,  that  the  lines 
of  conversing  subscribers  are  extended  from  their 
permanent  sections  on  the  "  B  "  board  to  a  given  section 
of  the  "A"  board.  "  B  "  trunks  invariably  extend  as 
outgoing  from  an  "A"  section  spring-jack  to  a  "  B  "  sec- 
tion plug  without  being  interrupted  by  any  switching  or 
other  device,  as  will  be  shown,  but  "A"  trunks  are  each 
cut  into  by  the  intermediate  cross  connecting  board,  or 
the  distributing  board  on  the  way  from  the  calling  sub- 
scriber's, or  the  incoming  "  B  "  board  to  the  "A"  board. 

Upon  ^tracing  the  route  of  exchange  switching  it 
will  be  found  that  the  incoming  "  B  "  operator,  or  the 
one  having  charge  of  the  section  upon  which  a  call 
originates,  will  plug  a  local  "  A  "  trunk  into  the  calling 


[Vol.  I,  No.  i, 

Fig.  6. — The  "Express''  System. — Some  Devices  Used. 

References.  —A ,  Trunk  Indicator  Lamp  Rack.—B,  Decade  of  Subscribers'  Spring-jacks  showing  Battery  Contact  Points  and  mode  of 

Inserting  Plugs. — C,  Decade  of  Subscribers'  Self-restoring  Drops \  with  aluminum  Shutter. — D.  Trunk  Clearing  Indicator 

Relay. — E,  Balancing  or  Retarding  Coil.— P.,  Decade  of  Ringing  Keys,  the  Reverse  Side  of  which  is  per  H. 

G,  Cover  for  Lamp  Rack  A  .—Ht  Decade  of  Listening  Keys. — /,  Compound  Relay.— f,  Plug 

Gravity  Lamp  Indicator  Switch. — K,  Conde?iser. — Z-,  Relay. 

M%  Magnetic  Trunk  Clearing  Indicator. 

July,   1895.] 


subscriber's  spring-jack.  This  "A"  trunk  does  not 
take  the  call  through  the  "  A  "  board  direct  but  con- 
stitutes the  first  division  of  the  entire  "  A  "  trunk  or 
the  division  which  extends  from  the  "  B  "  board  to  the 
intermediate  board.  From  the  intermediate  board,  the 
second  division  of  the  "  A  "  trunk  is  continued  to  such 
particular  section  of  the  '•  A  "  board  as  may  have  been 
predetermined  by  the  chief  operator,  who  regulates  the 
number  of  "  B  "  sections  each  "  A  "  operator  is  to  han- 
dle as  incoming  according  to  the  methods  shown  in  the 
detailed  description  of  the  intermediate  board.  <  It  is 
from  the  intermediate  board  therefore  that  the  call  con- 
tinues along  the  second  division  of  the  "  A  "  trunk  until 
it  reaches  its  proper  "  A  "  plug  on  the  "  A  "  board.  The 
"  A  "  operator  then  plugs  this  "  A  "  trunk  into  the  spring- 
jack  forming  the  terminal  of  the  proper  "  B "  trunk, 
which  carries  the  circuit  to  the  section  of  the  "  B  ''  board 
containing  the  called  or  outgoing  subscriber's  spring-jack 
where  the  only  remaining  opening  in  the  circuit  is 
closed  by  the  outgoing  "  B  "  operator,  all  as  fully  de- 
scribed hereafter.  Trunk  lines  have  condensers  in  circuit 
and  also  the  indicator  batteries  and  devices,  affording 
means  for  manipulating  indicator  signals  as  will  be  showu. 


It  is  well  known  among  those  who  are  familiar 
with  telephone  exchanges  that  during  certain  hours  of 
the  day  there  will  be  comparatively  little  business  to 
handle,  while  at  other  hours  each  and  every  operator 
will  be  kept  exceedingly  busy  and  the  exchange  will  be 
running  to  its  full  capacity.  It  is  this  situation  that  led 
to  the  designing  and  use  in  San  Francisco  of  a  special 
distributing  switchboard  called  the  intermediate  cross- 
connecting  board,  which  affords  the  means  by  which  the 
business  received  by  the  "  A"  board  from  the  incoming 
"  B "  board  may  be  split  up  and  evenly  apportioned 
among  the  operators  handling  the  various  sections  of 
the  "  A  "  board.  There  are  furthermore  certain  hours, 
particularly  at  night,  when  a  single  •'  A  "  operator  can 
handle  all  the  "  A "  board  switching,  in  which  event 
every  section  of  the  "  B  "  board  may  be  thrown  upon 
say  two  sections  of  the  "  A"  board  by  properly  switch- 
ing the  local  '■  A  "  trunks  thereto  at  the  intermediate 
board.  Then,  at  other  times  of  day,  the  rush  of  business 
will  be  so  great  that  it  will  be  necessary  for  each  "  A  " 
section  to  be  worked  to  its  fullest  capacity,  in  which 
event  the  "  A  "  trunks  will  be  so  commutated  at  the  inter- 
mediate board  that  each  section  of  the  "  A"  board  will 
be  called  upon  to  handle  the  incoming  switching  business 
of  say  two  or  three  sections  of  the  "  B  "  board.  There 
is,  therefore,  no  fixed  or  permanent  connection  between 
given  "  A  "  sections  and  given  "  B "  sections  of  the 
switchboard,  nor  does  a  given  "  A  "  trunk  starting  at  a 
given  "  B  "  section  have  a  fixed  or  permanent  terminal 
at  any  given  section  of  the  "  A  "  board,  but  the  "  A  " 
trunks  connecting  the  "  A  "  and  "  B  "  boards  are  changed 
during  the  day  according  to  the  volume  of  business 
transacted.  This  is  done  through  the  intermediate  board, 
which  cuts  into  the  "  A  "  trunks  only  and  is  so  designed 
that  its  upper  portion  contains  rows  of  spring-jacks 
forming  the  terminals  of  the  division  of  the  "  A  "  trunk, 
which  ends  at  the  ';  A  "  board.  Inasmuch  as  each  sect- 
ion of  the  "  A"  board  receives  the  incoming  business  of 
fifteen  "A."  trunks,  it  is  advisable  that  there  should  be  as 
many  horizontal  rows  of  spring-jacks  on  the  intermediate 
board  as  there  are  sections  on  the  l'  A  "  board,  and  also 
that  each  such  row  should  contain  the  spring-jacks 
forming  the  terminals  of  the  fifteen  "  A  "  trunks  belong- 
ing to  a  given  "  A  "  section,  as  in  this  way  a  glance  at 
the  intermediate  board  instantly  conveys  information 
as  to   the   distribution   of  incoming  work   among  the 

various  sections  of  the  "  A. "  board.  In  like  manner  the 
lower  portion  of  the  intermediate  board  contains  the 
plugs  forming  the  permanent  terminals  of  the  division 
of  the  "  A  '*  trunks  running  to  the  "  B  "  board.  These 
plugs  are  similarly  arranged  in  rows  corresponding  to  the 
"  A  "  trunk  plugs  on  the  "  B  "  board  with  the  exception, 
however,  that  each  "B"  board  contains  but  ten  "A"  trunk 
plugs,  hence  each  horizontal  row  of  plugs  in  the  intermedi- 
ate board  should  preferably  contain  ten  plugs.  It  is  found 
by  experience  that  during  the  busiest  hours,  two  sections 
of  the  "  A  "  board  will  handle  all  the  incoming  business 
of  three  sections  of  the  "  B  "  board  when  operated  to  its 
fullest  capacity,  aud  as  all  sections  are  designed  to  sat- 
isfy maximum  demands,  exchanges  are  so  laid  out  that 
there  are  two  "  A  "  sections  to  each  three  "  B  "  sections. 
The  upper  portion  of  the  intermediate  board,  therefore, 
contains  fifteen  times  as  many  spring-jacks  as  there  are 
sections  to  the  "  A  "  board,  while  the  lower  portion  con- 
tains ten  times  as  many  cords  and  plugs  as  there  are 
sections  to  the  "  B  "  board.  Frequently,  the  first  two  or 
three  "  A  "  trunks  of  each  section  of  the  "  B  "  board  will 
be  grouped  together  and  plugged  on  to  the  spring-jacks 
forming  the  terminals  of  the  "  A  "  trunks  leading  to  two 
sections  of  the  "  A  "  board;  at  other  times  three  given 
"  B"  sections  that  are  very  busy  will  be  trunked  to  two 
given  "  A  "  sections  while  the  business  of  the  remaining 
"  B  "  sections  may  be  such  that  one  "  A  "  operator  can 
handle  the  business  of  half  a  dozen  or  more  "B  "  sections, 
etc.  No  delay  in  answering  calls  or  otherwise  is  oc- 
casioned through  the  use  of  the  intermediate  board. 

The  "  Express  "  system,  as  at  present  used  in  San 
Francisco,  is  operated  through  intermediate  boards  as 
described,  and  their  use  has  always  given  perfect  sat- 
isfaction, but  it  is  now  believed  that  equal  satisfaction 
and  greater  simplicity  will  be  derived  by  dispensing 
with  their  use  and  connecting  the  "  A  "  trunks  of  given 
<;  B "  sections  to  given  "  A "  sections  permanently. 
When  this  is  done  a  red  lamp  on  the  "  B  "  board  can  be 
connected  iu  series  to  the  proper  red  lamp  on  the  '■  A  " 
board,  thus  enabling  them  to  be  lighted  simultaneously 
aud  thus  dispensing  with  the  use  of  the  trunk  line  clear- 
ing indicator  or  relay  on  the  "  B  "  boards,  as  shown. 


Listening  keys  (shown  as  H in  Figure  6)  are  used  for 
cutting  "A"  operators'  instruments  on  any  ^particular 
section  of  the  "A"  board  into  the  lines  of  such  calling 
subscribers  as  the  "  B  "  operators  may  extend  over  to 
the  "A"  board.  "A"  operators  and  boards  alone  are 
provided  with  listening  keys,  hence  only  "A"  operators 
can  converse  with  subscribers. 

Order  wire  keys  (see  F,  Figure  6)  are  also  placed  on 
''A"  boards  alone,  and  may  best  be  described  as  ex- 
change service  keys.  Their  function  is  to  enable  any 
"A"  operator  to  speak  with  the  operator  of  any  desired 
"  B  "  section,  and  they  are  used  for  such  service  exclu- 
sively. Each  order  wire  may  be  considered  as  originat- 
ing permanently  in  the  head  telephone  of  the  "  B  "  oper- 
ator for  a  given  section  of  the  "  B  "  board,  whence  it 
continues  to  the  corresponding  order  wire  key  of  each 
"A"  section.  Order  wire  keys  bearing  corresponding 
numbei's — that  is  for  corresponding  sections  of  the  "  B  " 
board — are  wired  in  multiple,  and  as  the  keys  are  nor- 
mally in  open  circuit,  and  as  each  "A"  operator  is  pro- 
vided with  an  individual  order  wire  key,  any  "A"  oper- 
ator may  call  up  any  "  B  "  operator  at  will  by  depress- 
ing the  proper  order  wire  key.  "  B  "  operators,  there- 
fore, can  be  called  only  by  "A"  operators  ;  hence  they 
cannot  call  up  any  subscriber  or  any  operator.  They 
have  no  meaus  for  listening  to  conversations  between 



[Vol.  I,  No. 

subscribers  and  can  talk  only  with  such  "A"  operators 
as  may  call  them  up  over  the  order  wire.  "A"  opera- 
tors to  the  contrary,  as  has  been  shown,  can  cut  their 
instruments  into  conversations  over  subscribers'  lines 
passing  through  their  boards,  or  into  circuit  with  any 
"  B  "  operator  at  will. 

Subscribers'  "  Express"  equipments  are  arranged  for 
full  metallic  service,  as  shown  diagramatically  in  Figure 
7,  illustrating  the  simplified  circuits  of  the  system  when 

Sl/OJCK/srxs  £!frrrxr 

Fig.  7. — The  "  Expbess  "  System. — Diagbam  of  Subscribers' 

Station,  Spbing  Jack  and  Self-bebtobing 

Annunciator  Indicator. 

the  receivers  are  off  the  hooks  and  the  instruments  are  in 
use.  The  weight  of  the  receiver  on  the  hook  H  de- 
presses it,  maintaining  an  open  circuit  between  the  hook 
point  h  and  the  springs  /  g,  at  the  same  time  grounding 
one  side  of  the  line  through  the  magneto  call-bell  at  the 
point  i.  Upon  raising  the  receiver  from  the  hook,  how- 
ever, the  ground  is  taken  from  the  circuit  and  call-bell 
by  breaking  the  contact  i,  and  the  line  circuit  is  com- 
pleted by  the  pressure  of  the  hook  point  h  against  the 
springs  /  g,  which  closses  the  local  battery  circuit  through 
the  transmitter  and  the  primary  of  the  induction  coil, 
and  also  closes  the  line  circuit  through  the  receiver  and 
the  secondary  coil.  As  described  elsewhere  this  closes  the 
subscribers'  battery  circuit  that  is  always  upon  the  sub- 
scribers' line  when  in  use,  and  thereby  transmits  the 
subscribers'  call  to  the  proper  indicator  on  the  "  B " 
board.  The  action  of  the  hook,  therefore,  closes  the 
subscribers'  line  when  in  use,  and  opens  it  when  idle 
with  the  telephone  on  the  hook. 


The  automatic  indicators,  which  form  a  character- 
istic feature  of  the  "  Express  "  system,  give  continuous 
visual  indications  from  which  the  operators  ascertain 
the  condition  of  each  and  every  circuit  at  a  glance. 
Their  scope  of  utility  is  most  comprehensive,  for  they 
not  only  relieve  the  public  from  any  responsibility  in 
calling  up  central  or  in  ringing  off,  but  they  faithfully 
subserve  every  function  hitherto  performed  by  operators 
in  restoring  indicators,  testing  for  "  busy,"  listening  for 
responses,  ascertaining  if  conversation  is  yet  in  prog- 
ress, or  in  looking  after  renegade  subscribers  who  are 
never  known  to  "ring  off."  Moreover,  through  their 
use  it  becomes  impossible  for  operators  to  make  mistakes 
in  switching  without  having  their  attention  called  to  the 
error.  Beyond  this  a  further  advantage  in  the  use  of 
visual  indicators  rests  in  the  fact  that  in  relieving  oper- 
ators of  the  labor  of  listening  to  ascertain  when  the  Hue 
is  clear,  the  indicator  system  enables  them  to  restore  the 
lines  when  clear  with  far  greater  celerity  than  can  possi- 
bly be  done  otherwise.  As  a  result  a  greater  number 
of  subscribers  can  be  handled  over  a  given  number  of 
trunks  cleared  by  visual  indicators  than  will  be  possible 
by  any  other  means. 

These  indicators  are  conveniently  arranged  on  both 
"A"  and  "  B  "  boards,  and  are  actuated  by  the  calling 

and  called  subscribers  respectively  when  they  have  com- 
pleted the  conversation  and  have  replaced  their  tele- 
phone receivers  on  the  hooks.  Inasmuch  as  the  act  of 
switching  requires  the  momentary  attention  of  three  op- 
erators, namely,  an  incoming  "  B  "  operator,  an  "A"  op- 
erator, and  an  outgoing  "  B  "  operator,  it  is  necessary 
that  each  operator  should  have  reliable  and  instant  no- 
tification of  work  to  be  done  and  concerning  the  condi- 
tion of  all  circuits  under  her  control.  Accordingly,  the 
chief  functions  of  indicators  are :  First,  to  notify  the 
proper  operator  of  the  existence  of  a  call ;  second,  to 
warn  of  improper  switching  or  the  failure  of  a  subscri- 
ber to  respond,  and  third,  to  convey  such  information 
as  is  necessary  to  enable  the  operator  to  ascertain  the 
condition  of  the  circuit  until  the  conversation  has  ceased 
and  it  is  time  to  clear  the  lines.  All  this  is  done  auto- 
matically and  by  visual  signals  without  the  slightest  ef- 
fort on  the  part  of  any  operator  in  cutting  into  lines, 
listening  for  conversations,  or  without  a  ringing-off  sig- 
nal by  the  subscriber  or  any  manual  effort  whatever  on 
the  part  of  any  one. 

The  operation  of  a  reliable  and  comprehensive  sys- 
tem of  indicators  is  best  accomplished  through  the 
placing  of  the  indicators  with  their  accompanying  battery 
and  balancing  coils  across  the  conductors  of  a  trunk  line. 
This  is  done  in  the  manner  shown  in  Figure  9,  where 
the  indicator  battery  and  retarding  or  balancing  coil  are 
placed  across  the  "A"  trunk.  The  indicator  is  connected 
to  the  tip  side  of  the  trunk,  that  is,  to  the  wire  leading 
to  the  tip  side  of  the  trunk  plug,  while  the  retarding 
coil  is  connected  to  the  opposite  or  sleeve  side  of  the 
trunk  with  the  indicator  battery  in  circuit  between  the 
indicator  and  retarding  coil,  thus  preserving  an  inductive 
balance  on  each  side  of  the  battery.  In  order  that  the 
automatic  signalling  of  a  calling  subscriber  when  he  has 
completed  a  conversation  should  not  interfere  with  the 
automatic  signals  sent  to  the  outgoing  "  B  "  board  by  the 
called  subscriber  at  the  same  time,  the  condenser  shown 
as  Cin  Figure  9,  and  which  has  a  capacity  of  one  micro- 
farad, is  inserted  in  the  indicator  side  of  the  'A"  trunk, 
which  breaks  the  metallic  conductivity  of  the  wire,  but 
not  its  telephonic  or  inductive  continuity.  In  no  other 
portion  of  the  "  Express  "  system  are  condensers  used. 
It  is  obvious,  then,  that  the  presence  of  the  condenser 

OUIVALENT     Or    I0OO.—  RCLA' 

Fig.  8. — The  "Express"  System. — Diagram  of  "B" 
Operator's  Indicators. 

in  the  "A"  trunk  will  prevent  the  indicator  battery  from 
completing  a  circuit  through  any  device  placed  beyond 
the  condenser ;  hence  the  indicator  current  on  the  "A" 
trunk  does  not  reach  the  spring-jacks  on  the  "A"  board, 
but  is  confined  to  the  "A"  trunk  and  the  line  and  circuits 
of  the  calling  subscriber.  Similarly  the  indicator  circuit 
of  the  "  B  "  trunk  is  entirely  independent  of  everything 

July,  1895.] 


Fig.  9.     Simplified  Diagram  of  the  "Express''  System. 

References — T.  L.  C.  I.o  r"R.."  Trunk  Line  Clearing  Indicator  or  Relay. — 5.  J.,  Subscriber's  Spring-jack. — 5.  /..  Subscriber's  Indicators. 

S.  I.  B.,  Subscribei-'s  Indicator  Battery. — H.  T,  Head  Telephone. — C,  Condenser.— B.  C,  Balancing  Coil. — L.  B.,  Local  Battery, 

"A"  O.  T.y  "A"  Operator's  Telephone. — G.,  Ringing  Generator. 

except  the  "B"  equipment.  la  practice  the  indicator 
battery  is  in  closed  circuit  through  the  various  instru- 
ments upon  the  subscriber's  line  during  conversational 
use,  but  as  the  current  is  exceedingly  small,  seldom  ex- 
ceeding one  milliampere,  its  presence  is  found  to  be 
entirely  neglected,  even  in  long  distance  telephoning. 

The  methods  by  which  the  indicator  lamps  on  the 
table  of  the  "A"  switchboard  are  actuated  are  clearly  set 
forth  on  Figure  10,  which  shows  the  table  complete  ex- 
cept the  order  wire  keys,  but  as  the  functions  and  con- 
nections of  these  have  been  fully  explained,  and  as  they 
cut  no  figure  in  the  operation  of  the  indicator  lamps,  the 
omission  is  of  no  consequence.  In  addition  to  the  order 
wire  keys,  the  table  of  the  "A"  board  contains  four  sets 
of  devices  each  in  a  row  which  are  named  in  order,  com- 
mencing with  the  front  of  the  board  and  individually 
described  as  follows : 

First  are  the  listening  keys,  which  rest  in  their 
normal  condition  when  standing  vertically  when  the 
operators  telephone  is  cut  out  of  circuit  and  a  secondar}' 
contact  in  circuit  with  the  white  indicator  lamp  is 

Second  are  the  white  indicator  lamps,  which  are  set 
into  the  table  in  the  manner  shown,  and  when  lighted 
designate  the  "A"  trunk  plug  upon  which  is  an  unan- 
swered subscriber's  call.  The  battery  operating  the 
white  lamp  may  be  broken  either  by  the  act  of  a  calling 
subscriber  in  placing  the  telephone  on  the  hook,  by  the 
"A"  operator  in  lifting  the  trunk  plug  containing  the 
subscriber's  call  from  the  plug  receptacle,  or  by  the  "A" 
operator  in  depressing  the  listening  key  in  order  to  cut 
her  instruments  into  circuit.  In  this  connection  it 
should  be  noted  that  the  actuation  of  indicators  whether 
of  annunciator  form  or  miniature  lamps  invariably  occurs 



[Vol.  I,  No.  i. 

Fig.  10.— The  "  Express 

'  System. — Table  of  "A"  Switchboard,  Showing  the  Circuits 
Controlling  the  Indicator  Lamps. 

through  the  performance  of  a  function  that  is  usual  in 
making  switch  connections,  such  as  the  lifting  of  a  trunk 
plug  from  its  receptacle  or  the  cutting  in  of  an  operator's 
telephone  into  a  subscriber's  circuit,  etc.  In  actual  work 
the  operation  of  the  white  lamp  is  of  a  converse  nature 
to  that  just  described  :  the  calling  subscriber  having 
lifted  the  telephone  from  the  hook,  sends  the  subscriber's 
battery  current  to  the  "  B "  board  thus  actuating  the 
subscriber's  indicator.  The  operator  in  charge  of  the 
incoming  "B"  board  plugs  the  "A"  trunk  line  into  the 
subscriber's  spring-jack  which  cuts  off  the  subscriber's 
battery  as  previously  explained,  and  at  the  same  time 
closes  the  circuit  actuating  the  indicator  on  the  "A" 
board  for  that  particular  trunk  through  the  subscriber's 
instruments.  The  indicator  circuit  being  closed  lights 
the  white  indicator  lamp  designating  a  call  as  stated,  and 
this  lamp  remains  lighted  until  the  call  receives  atten- 
tion, when  the  depressing  of  the  listening  key  opeus  the 
lamp  circuit  and  extinguishes  the  light.  Moreover, 
should  the  operator  accidentally  pull  out  a  busy  plug, 
the  returning  of  such  plug  to  its  receptacle  would  light 
the  white  lamp  designating  it,  and  so  afford  instant 
notification  of  the  error  committed. 

Then  in  the  third  row  are  the  plugs  forming  the  ter- 
minals of  the  "'A"  trunks  which  appear  behind  the 
white  indicator  lamps,  but  their  use  requires  no  further 
description  than  that  already  given. 

In  the  last  row  are  the  red  lamps  which  form  the 
ringing  off  or  the  clearing  indicators  for  the  trunk  plugs 
they  respectively  designate.  Like  the  white  lamps,  they 
are,  under  normal  conditions  and  as  described  elsewhere, 
under  the  control  of  the  calling  subscriber  so  far  as 
their  lighting  is  concerned  and  also  in  that  they  are  ex- 
tinguished when  the  operator  has  performed  her  duty. 

Under  the  table  of  the  "A"  switchboard  are  placed 
three  pieces  of  accessory  apparatus,  two  of  which,  the 
listening  key  switch  and  the  plug  receptacle  or  gravity 
switch,  are  controlled  by  the  operator,  while  the  third 
is  a  1,000-ohm  relay  energized  by  removing  the  subscri- 
ber's receiver  from  the  hook  and  demagnetized  by  re- 
placing the  receiver  upon  the  hook.  This  relay  controls 
the  lighting  of  the  indicator  lamps  on  the  table  and  the 
operator  controls  their  extinguishing  through  the  ordi- 

nary use  of  the  listening  key  and  the  trunk  plug  in 
switching,  as  shown.  The  primary  object  of  the  listen- 
ing key  is  to  cut  the  operator's  instruments  into  the  call- 
ing subscriber's  circuits,  which  can  be  done  by  drawing 
the  key  forward,  thereby  closing  the  contacts  g  h  and  ij 
respectively,  which  also  separates  the  points  e  and  /,  for 
the  battery  circuit  for  the  white  lamp.  It  is  plain,  then, 
that  if  the  white  lamp  is  lighted  the  cutting  of  the  oper- 
ator's instrument  into  the  calling  subscriber's  line,  as 
must  be  done  in  answering  a  call,  will  extinguish  the 
light.  The  trunk  plug  rests  in  and  its  weight  bears 
down  a  receptacle  forming  the  long  arm  of  a  right  angle 
lever  at  the  fulcrum  of  which  I,  is  connected  one  side  of 
the  lamp  battery.  The  short  arm  of  the  lever  has  two 
platinum  points  near  the  end,  which  with  their  respec- 
tive circuits  form  the  contacts  e  and  d.  When  the  plug 
is  idle  its  weight  closes  the  contact  e  in  circuit  with  the 
white  lamp,  but  when  the  plug  is  in  use  its  receptacle  is 
raised  by  the  spring,  closing  the  contact  d  in  the  red 
lamp  circuit.  The  red  and  white  lamps  are  alternately 
thrown  into  circuit,  but  not  necessarily  operated,  by  the 
use  or  non-use  of  the  trunk  plug.  The  armature  of  the 
relay  forms  one  lever  of  a  simple  two-point  switch,  the 
fulcrum  K  of  which  is  connected  to  the  other  side  of  the 
lamp  battery  while  the  back  contact  a  is  in  direct  con- 
nection with  one  side  of  the  red  lamp,  and  the  front  con- 
tact b  is  in  similar  connection  with  tbe  white  lamp. 

The  normal  condition  of  tbe  equipment  of  the  table 
of  the  "A"  board  is  as  shown  in  the  drawing,  and  the 
instant  the  calling  subscriber  lifts  his  receiver  from  the 
hook  the  operator  in  charge  of  the  incoming  "B"  board 
notes  the  call  and  plugs  it  on  to  the  "A"  trunk,  the  other 
end  of  which  appears  as  the  plug  shown  in  Figure  10. 
This  acton  the  part  of  the  "  B"  operator  cuts  out  the 
subscriber's  battery  and  restores  the  subscriber's  indica- 
tor on  the  "  B  "  board,  and  simultaneously  the  indicator 
battery,  being  on  the  "A"  trunk  as  explained  elsewhere, 
is  thrown  on  to  the  calling  subscriber's  line,  but  as  this 
has  been  closed  by  the  subscriber  in  taking  his  receiver 
off  the  hook,  the  indicator  circuit  is  thus  completed 
through  the  1,000-ohin  relay  shown  in  the  drawing.  The 
relay  armature  springs  forward,  closing  the  circuit  of  the 
white   lamp   through   the   contacts    b  e  f  e.     The   light 

July,  1895.] 



quickly  attracts  the  attention  of  the  "A"  operator,  who 
presses  forward  the  listening  key  indicated  by  the  burn- 
ing of  the  white  lamp,  and  asks  "  Xumber."  This  act 
opens  the  circuit  of  the  white  lamp  at  the  points  e  /, 
and  cuts  in  the  operator's  instruments  at  the  points  g  h 
and  i  j.  Having  ascertained  the  numbei  wanted,  the 
listening  ke}^  is  restored  to  its  vertical  position,  cutting 
out  the  operator's  instruments  and  again  cutting  in 
the  white  lamp.  The  operator  then  depresses  the  proper 
order  wire  key',  as  elsewhere  explained,  and  having  as- 
certained from  the  outgoing  "  B "  operator  the  num- 
ber of  the  "  B  "  trunk  to  be  used,  the  "A"  operator 
lifts  the  plug  indicated  by  the  white  lamp  and  inserts 
it  in  the  spring  jack  of  the  "  B "  trunk  designated. 
The  raising  of  the  plug  opens  contact  c,  which  extin- 
guishes the  white  light,  and  closes  contact  d,  restoring 
the  battery  circuit  to  the  wiring  of  the  red  lamp,  so  that 
when  the  calling  subscriber  hangs  his  receiver  on  the 
hook  the  opening  of  the  iudLcator  battery  circuit  influ- 
ences the  relay  and  releases  the  armature.  The  contact 
a  is  thus  broken,  the  contact  b  is  closed  and  the  red  lamp 
is  lighted,  signifying  that  the  conversation  is  ended  and 
that  the  Hues  are  ready  for  clearing.  The  "A"  operator 
thereupon  removes  the  plug  from  the  "  B  "  trunk  spring 
jack,  the  plug  drops  into  its  receptacle,  the  red  light  is 
extinguished  and  the  circuits  are  again  in  normal  condi- 
tion so  far  as  the  "A"  board  is  concei-ned. 


It  has  been  showndiow,  on  the  incoming  "  B  "  board 
where  a  subscriber's  call  originates,  the  call  is  made 
manifest  by  the  dropping  of  the  subscriber's  indicator 
shutter,  and  how  that  shutter  is  automatically  restored 
when  the  operator  plugs  the  call  over  on  the  "  A " 
trunk  to  the  "  A  "  board.  It  must  now  be  clear  how 
the  "A"  operator  receives  botli  calling  and  clearing 
signals,  and  when  it  is  stated  that  the  clearing  signals 
are  made  to  appear  on  the  incoming  "  B "  board 
simultaneously-  with  their  appearance  on  the  :i  A " 
board,  through  the  placing  thereon  of  a  relay-indicator 
wired  in  multiple  with  the  one-thousand  ohm  relay  on 
the  "  A  "  board,  it  will  be  equally  clear  how  the  clearing 
signal  on  the  incoming  "  B  "  board  is  given.  The  "  B  " 
board  relay-iudicator  is  the  practical  equivalent  of  the 
one-thousand  olim  relay  on  the  "  A  "  board  with  the  ex- 
ception that  it  controls  only  the  clearing  indicator  and 
therefore  has  but  a  single  contact  point  shown  as  g,  h,  in 
Fig.  8. 

The  action  of  the  "  B  "  operator's  indicator  on  the 
outgoing  board  will  be  understood  by  reference  to  Fig  8. 
The  ringing  key  contains  three  sets  of  contacts  by 
means  of  which  the  sides  m  n,  of  the  "  B  "  trunk  plug 
may  be  thrown  in  contact  at  once  with  the  points  i.j, 
forming  the  terminals  of  the  "  B  "  trunk,  or  with  the 
points  k,  I,  constituting  the  poles  of  the  magneto  M. 

In  its  normal  position  the  ringing  key  is  as  shown 
in  the  drawing,  when  the  trunk  line  continues  uninter- 
ruptedly to  the  trunk  plug,  but  on  throwing  the  key 
forward  the  trunk  plug  is  taken  from  the  trunk  line 
and  pressed  against  the  magneto  terminals  k,  I,  which 
sends  the  magneto  or  calling  current  on  the  line  of  the 
called  or  outgoing  subscriber.  Simultaneously  with  this 
the  riugiug  key  closes  the  circuit  between  the  points  a, 
b,  which  actuates  the  lower  magnet  B  of  the  compound 
relay  shown  in  the  drawing  and  illustrated  in  Figure  6  as 
I.  The  magnet  B  attracts  the  armature  C  from  the 
back  stop  c  to  its  core  when  the  act  of  the  operator  in 
taking  the  magneto  current  off  the  subscriber's  line 
breaks  the  circuit  of  the  magnet  B  at  the  points  a,  b,  and 
the  armature  C  falls  back  closing  the  lamp  circuit  at  the 
point  e.  This  point  is  platinum  tipped  and  constitutes 
the  means  for  the  closing  of  the  circuit  of  the  battery  A  to 

the  white  lamp  G.  The  lamp  remains  burning  until  the 
called  subscriber  takes  the  receiver  off  the  hook  which 
closes  the  circuit  of  the  indicator  battery  as  shown  else- 
where and  actuates  the  trunk  clearing  indicator  shown. 
This  is  the  indicator  illustrated  as  D  in  Fig.  6  and  pre- 
viously referred  to  as  the  practical  equivalent  of  the 
one-thousand  ohm  relay  in  use  on  the  "  A  "  board,  and 
it  will  be  noted  that  when  energised  its  single  contact 
points  g,  h,  will  be  closed  throwing  the  local  lamp 
battery  A  upon  the  upper  magnet  /  of  the  compound 
relay,  which  results  in  the  raising  of  the  lever/  liberat- 
ing the  armature  C  and  opening  the  circuit  of  the  white 
lamp  at  the  ratchet  point  e.  It  will  thus  be  seen  that 
the  "  B  "  operator  is  fully  advised  of  the  condition  of  the 
line  of  the  called  subscriber  even  though  she  has  no 
means  of  cutting  into  the  circuit  and  listening  to  con- 
versations. The  lighting  of  the  white  lamp  indicates 
the  proper  transmission  of  the  call  to  the  called  sub- 
scriber and  the  subscriber's  response  thereto  is  indicated 
by  the  extinguishing  of  the  light.  The  conversation  be- 
ing finished,  the  called  subscriber  replaces  the  receiver 

Fig.  11. — The  "Express"  System. 
Subscriber's  Set  Complete. 

on  its  hook  thus  opening  the  circuit  of  the  indicator 
battery  and  restoring  the  trunk  clearing  indicator.  The 
operator  being  thus  informed  that  the  conversation  is 
ended,  pulls  the  plug  from  its  spring-jack  which  takes 
the  indicator  battery  off  the  subscriber's  line  and  places 
the  subscriber's  battery  thereon,  thus  restoring  the  "  B  " 
board  and  the  subscriber's  line  to  their  normal  condition. 


An  interesting  feature  of  the  "  Express  "  system  lies 
in  the  use  of  storage  battery  exclusively  for  all  exchange 
purposes  and  the  advantages  accruing  from  this  proceed- 
ure  are  most  pronounced.  How  this  is  done,  will  be 
best    explained  by   describing  the   system    as    actually 


[Vol.  I,  No.  i. 

operated  by  the  Pacific  Telephone  and  Telegraph  in 
San  Francisco  to-day.  The  telephone  system  of  San 
Francisco  comprises  about  5700  subscribers,  apportioned 
between  five  exchanges,  as  follows  : 

Main  Exchange 3000  Subscribers 

East  Branch  Office 800  " 

South     "  "    800  " 

West     "  "    800  " 

Mission"  " 300  " 

Total,  5700  Subscribers 
The  subscribers  of  the  Main  Exchange  are  handled 
either  through  the  Main  office  or  through  one  of  its 
three  sub-offices,  respectively  known  as  the  "  Drumm," 
"Front  "and  "  Grant  "  sub-offices,  and  each  sub-office 
contains  only  "  B  "  equipments  that  trunk  through  to 
the  Main  office  with  the  same  facility  and  practically 
under  the  same  conditions  that  would  prevail  were  they 
located  in  the  operating  room  of  the  same  exchange. 
These  five  exchanges  and  three  sub-offices,  constituting 
eight  offices,  are  located  throughout  the  city,  at  distances 
varying  from  one  to  three  miles  from  the  main  exchange, 
and  are  all  operated  from  two  sets  of  storage  batteries  in 
the  Main  Exchange. 

Each  of  these  batteries  contains  eight  150  ampere-hour 
cells  connected  in  series,  one  of  which  known  as  the 
subscriber's  battery,  operates  the  subscribers'  lines 
and  indicators  of  every  telephone  in  the  city,  and  the 
other  battery,  known  as  the  indicator  battery,  operates 
all  indicators,  except  subscribers'  indicators,  in  the  eight 
offices  named. 

As  originally  installed,  the  subscribers'  and  indicator 
circuits  of  each  "  Express  "  section  in  San  Francisco, 
were  operated  from  open  circuit  battery,  each  such  cir- 
cuit requiring  twenty  cells,  and  each  such  section  being 
independent  of  all  others.  Although  this  arrangement 
gave  no  more  trouble  than  ordinarily  occurs  in  the  use 
of  open  circuit  battery,  it  was  not  deemed  sufficiently 
satisfactory,  and  gradually  each  section  of  the  switch- 
board was  thrown  upon  the  accumulators  until  now  the 
entire  system  has  been  so  operated  for  over  eighteen 
months.  The  battery  circuits  are  distributed  to  the 
various  branch  and  sub-offices  by  circuits  of  No.  10  B. 
&  S.  bare  copper  wire  supported  on  poles,  and  an  aston- 
ishing feature  is  that  considering  all  demands  including 
leakage,  the  output  of  the  subscriber's  battery  for  the  en- 
tire system  of  5700  subscribers  varies  between  one  and 
one-and-one-half  amperes,  never  exceeding  two  amperes, 
while  the  current  output  of  the  indicator  battery  is  but 
five  amperes  during  the  hours  of  heaviest  service,  all 
at  about  18  volts.  The  maximum  output  of  these  bat- 
teries is  therefore,  but  126  watts,  the  cost  of  which  com- 
pared with  the  cost  of  operating  the  system  by  open  cir- 
cuit batteries,  is  insignificant.  The  service  rendered  by 
the  accumulators  is  moreover  infinitely  superior  to  that 
from  other  batteries. 


Eemembering  that  the  permanent  terminals  of  all 
subscriber's  lines  are  located  as  individual  spring  jacks 
on  "  B  "  boards,  each  subscriber's  line  having  but  one 
such  spring  jack  in  the  whole  exchange,  and  that  the 
chief  functions  of  each  "A"  operator  are  :  (1)  To  ascer- 
tain from  the  calling  or  incoming  subscriber  the  number 
of  the  called  or  outgoing  subscriber  and  (2)  to  close  the 
ends  of  such  subscribers'  circuits  as  the  "  B  "  operators 
in  charge  of  the  sections  containing  the  permanent 
spring  jacks  of  the  calling  and  called  subscribers  re- 
spectively, may  extend  over  to  her  section  of  the  "A" 
board  ;  and  assuming  that  subscriber  JSTo.  409  desires  to 
converse  with  subscriber  No.  1510,  the  modus  operandi 

of  switching  in  the  exchange  will  be  as  follows,  it  being 
further  assumed  that  both  subscribers  are  located  in  the 
same  exchange. 

The  act  of  the  calling  subscriber  (No.  409)  in  taking 
the  receiver  off  the  hook  will  send  a  call  in  on  the  "  B  " 
board  which  will  be  received  on  the  400  section  and  in- 
dicated on  subscriber's  indicator  No.  409.  The  operator 
in  charge  of  the  section  says  nothing  to  any  one,  but  ex- 
tends the  line  of  the  calling  subscriber  over  to  the  "A" 
switchboard  by  inserting  the  plug  of  an  idle  "A"  trunk 
into  spring  jack  No.  409.  This  simple  act  automatically 
restores  the  subscriber's  indicator  on  the  "  B  "  board  and 
lights  a  white  indicator  lamp  on  the  "A"  board  desig- 
nating the  particular  "A"  trunk  plugged  in  and  indicat- 
ing that  an  unanswered  call  is  thereon.  The  call  being 
thus  transferred  to  the  "A"  board,  the  "  B  "  operator 
receiving  the  original  annunciation  is  relieved  from  lis- 
tening to  the  call  and  from  any  further  effort  whatever 
in  completing  the  switch,  unless,  perhaps,  the  called  sub- 
scriber happens  to  be  on  the  same  section. 

The  "A"  operator  presses  forward  the  listening  key 
which  cuts  her  instruments  into  the  "A"  trunk  designa- 
ted by  the  lighting  of  the  white  indicator  lamp  and  also 
into  circuit  with  the  calling  subscriber  whom  she  asks 
"  Number?  "  and  who  replies  "  1510." 

The  "A"  operator  raises  the  listening  key  to  a  vert- 
ical position,  thereby  cutting  her  instruments  out  of  cir- 
cuit with  the  calling  subscriber  and  then  depresses  the 
order  wire  key  connecting  her  instruments  with  the 
head  telephone  of  the  "B  "operator  in  charge  of  the 
1500  section  of  the  "  B  "  board  ;  that  is,  the  section  on 
which  is  located  the  terminal  of  the  lines  of  the  called 

The  "A"  operator  next  calls  the  number  wanted  to 
the  outgoing  "  B  "  operator  in  charge  of  the  1500  section 
of  the  "  B  "  board,  the  conversation  between  the  two 
operators  being  carried  on  over  the  order  wire  exclu- 
sively, entirely  free  from  the  subscriber's  circuits.  The 
"  B  "  operator  notes  that  "  B  "  trunk  No.  3,  for  instance, 
is  idle  and  saying  to  the  "A"  operator  "  On  3,"  places 
the  plug  forming  the  terminal  of  "  B  "  trunk  No.  3  into 
the  spring  jack,  forming  the  terminal  of  the  line  of  the 
outgoing  subscriber  (1510),  while  simultaneously  the 
"A"  operator  places  the  plug  forming  the  terminal  of 
the  "A",  trunk  designated  by  the  burning  of  the 
white  indicator  lamp  and  on  which  she  has  received 
subscriber  No.  409,  call  into  the  spring  jack  form- 
ing the  terminal  of  "  B  "-trunk  No.  3,  thus  completing 
the  circuit  from  the  calling  subscriber's  instrument  to 
the  "  B  "  operator  of  the  section  of  the  "  B  "  board  upon 
which  terminates  the  line  of  the  called  subscriber. 

This  completes  the  switch  so  far  as  the  "A" 
operator  is  concerned  as  she  is  not  required  to  supervise 
the  call  or  to  ascertain  if  the  party  called  for  answers. 
It  is  upon  the  outgoing  "B  "  operator  that  this  duty  de- 
volves and  after  having  plugged  the  "  B  "  trunk  into 
the  spring-jack  forming  the  terminal  of  line  1510  which 
completes  the  circuit  through  from  the  calling  sub- 
scriber to  the  called  subscriber,  the  "B"  operator  de- 
presses the  ringing  key  and  throws  the  magneto  or  call- 
ing current  on  to  the  called  subscriber's  line.  This  act 
also  lights  a  white  miniature  incandescent  lamp  on  the 
"  B  "  board  indicating  to  the  operator  that  the  call  has 
been  properly  transmitted.  When  the  subscriber  re- 
sponds by  raising  the  receiver  from  the  hook  the  lamp 
is  extinguished  and  the  clearing  indicator  is  thrown 
showing  that  the  line  is  in  use.  Thus  is  given  positive 
information  as  to  whether  the  subscriber  has  been  called 
and  has  or  has  not  responded  (  in  which  event  he  will 
be  rung  up  again )  or  whether  he  is  using  the  line. 
Upon  completing  the  conversation  the  called  subscriber 

July,    1895.] 



replaces  the  telephone  on  the  hook  which  restores  the 
clearing  indicator  and  informs  the  outgoing  "  B " 
operator  that  the  conversation  is  finished  and  that  the 
line  may  be  restored.  The  operator  is  thus  enabled  to 
determine  at  any  and  all  times  the  condition  of  the  line. 
The  red  lamp  indicators  on  the  "  A  "  and  incoming 
"B"  boards  will" show  for  disconnection  when  the 
calling  subscriber  has  completed  the  conversation  and 
replaced  his  telephone.  The  plugs  of  the  "  A  "  trunk  of 
both  the  "  A  "  and  "  B  "  boards  are  then  removed  from 
the  spring-jacks  by  the  respective  operators  and  are  al- 
lowed to  drop  into  their  sockets,  which  extinguishes  the 
red  lamps.  It  will  thus  be  seen  that  the  switching  of 
the  line  of  the  calling  subscriber  on  to  that  of  a  called 
subscriber  requires  the  momentary  attention  of  the  "B  " 
operator ;  the  incoming  "  B  "  operator  receiving  the 
original  call,  instantly  plugs  it  over  to  an  "  A  :'  operator 
and  gives  it  no  further  attention  whatever,  until  the 
lighting  of  a  red  indicator  lamp  gives  notification  that 
the  conversation  is  ended  and  the  plug  is  to  be  pulled 
from  its  spring-jack.  The  "  A  "  operator  takes  the  call 
and  transfers  it  to  the  outgoing  "  B  "  operator  in  charge 
of  the  section  on  which  the  called  subscriber  is  located 
which  completes  the  "  A  "  operator's  part  of  the  switching 
until  the  burning  of  the  red  lamp  notifies  her  that  the 
plug  may  be  withdrawn.  The  outgoing  "  B  "  operator 
merely  closes  the  final  gap  between  the  ends  of  the 
subscribers  lines  and  ascertains  by  visual  signals 
whether  or  not  the  called  subscriber  has  responded, 
which  together  with  removing  the  plug  at  the  close  of 
the  conversation,  completes  her  duty.  By  this  means 
the  work  of  switching  is  evenly  divided  between  "A" 
and  "  B  "  operators,  and'  the  handling  of  calls  in  even 
the  largest  exchanges  may  be  done  with  great  facility 
and  perfect  satisfaction,  with  apparatus  much  less  ex- 
pensive than  that  ordinarily  used. 


An  innovation  both  practicable  and  interesting  which 
has  been  first  applied  with  success  in  the  "Express"  sys- 
tem consists  in  the  use  of  phonographs  for  the  notification 
of  calling  subscribers  when  their  calls  cannot  be  answered 
because  of  "  busy  "  or  of  the  failure  of  the  called  sub- 
scriber t©  i-espond.  In  the  main  exchange  are  two  or- 
dinary office  phonographs,  the  tube  of  each  of  which  is 
connected  to  an  individual  solid  back  long  distance 
transmitter  by  means  of  the  soft  rubber  tubing  ordinarily 
used  in  phonograph  work,  the  tubing  being  centered  in 
a  membrane  drawn  tightly  over  the  mouth-piece  of  the 
transmitter.  One  of  these  phonographs,  known  as  the 
"Busy"  phonograph,  speaks  the  words  "  Busy,  call 
again  "  incessantly,  and  the  other,  known  as  the  "  No 
reply  "  phonograph,  says  "  Subscriber  called  for  does 
not  reply,"  in  an  equally  industrious  manner. 

The  secondaries  of  the  induction  coils  for  the  phono- 
graph transmitters  are  carried  to  the  sections  of  the 
proper  switchboards  in  multiple,  that  is,  the  secondary 
of  the  "Busy"  phonograph  appears  on  each  section  of 
the  "A"  board  in  the  form  of  a  spring  jack,  and  the 
secondary  of  the  "  No  reply  "  phonograph  appears  on 
each  section  of  the  "B"  board  also  in  the  form  of  a 
spring  jack.  To  illustrate  the  use  of  the  apparatus:  if 
subscriber  No.  409  desires  subscriber  No.  1510  and  the 
outgoing  "  B "  operator  notes  that  1510  is  busy,  she 
merely  says  to  the  "A"  operator  over  the  order  wire, 
"  busy,"  and  the  "A"  operator  simply  inserts  the  plug 
forming  the  terminal  of  the  "A"  trunk  into  the  phono- 
graph spring  jack.  Subscriber  No.  409  then  hears  the 
words  :  "  Busy,  call  again,"  from  which  he  understands 
that  No.  1510  is  engaged  in  conversation  elsewhere,  and 
that  he  is  to  call  up  the  party  again  later.     He  then 

hangs  the  receiver  on  its  hook  which  actuates  the  in- 
dicators and  the  lines  are  cleared  as  at  the  end  of  a  con- 
versation. The  other  phonograph  throws  out  the 
words:  "  Subscriber  called  for  does  not  reply,"  on  the 
calling  subscriber's  instruments  after  the  outgoing  "  B  " 
operator  finds  that  she  cannot  ring  up  the  called  sub- 
scriber and  when  she  places  the  plug  forming  the  ter- 
minal of  the  "  B  "  trunk  into  the  phonograph  jack.  The 
clearing  indicators  are  then  actuated  as  before. 

These  two  phonographs  operate  the  entire  exchange 
and  their  use  relieves  operators  from  a  material  amount 
of  labor  in  conversing  with  subscribers  who  soon  learn 
that  the  phonograph  has  an  exemplary  disposition  and 
that  "  sassing  "  it  is  productive  of  no  particular  amuse- 
ment or  gain. 

There  yet  remaius  a  feature  of  the  Express  system 
that  works  great  economy  in  the  cost  of  installing  a  sys- 
tem by  reason  of  eliminating  the  necessity  of  carrying 
subscribers'  lines,  whether  on  aerial  or  underground"  cir- 
cuits, through  to  the  exchange  individually.  This  is  ac- 
complished by  the  establishing  of  semi-exchanges, 
known  as  "  sub-offices  "  in  various  sections  of  business 
districts  and  terminating  subscribers'  lines  in  such  sub- 
offices.  Only  "  B  "  boards  are  located  at  these  points, 
and  the  "  B  "  operators  in  sub-offices  trunk  through  to 
"A"  operators  in  the  main  exchange  over  "A"  trunks 
with  the  same  facility  and  rapidity  that  they  would  do 
were  the  sub-office  "  B  "  boards  located  in  the  main  ex- 
change. Branch  offices  differ  from  sub-offices  in  that 
they  contain  "A"  boards  as  well  as  "  B  "  boards.  They 
are  therefore  complete  exchanges.  , 


The  problem  of  expediting  the  handling  of  sub- 
scribers' lines  in  exchanges  is  tantamount  to  any  pre- 
sented to  the  telephone  engineer  for  solution,  and  the 
means  by  which  is  at  once  accomplished  the  greatest  fa- 
cility and -satisfaction  yet  attained  in  switching,  is  in 
the  use  of  the  trunking  system.  This  is  noteworthy, 
as  trunking  has  generally,  from  the  earliest  days  of 
telephony,  been  looked  upon  at  best  as  a  Decessary 
evil.  The  express  system  is  essentially  a  trunking  sys- 
tem throughout,  whether  installed  in  main,  branch  or 
sub-offices,  or  whether  used  between  either  of  these 
offices,  but  it  is,  in  reality,  an  elaboration  rather  than 
a  modification  of  trunking  in  its  familiar  sense.  It 
seems  quite  improbable  that  communication  may  be  es- 
tablished between  two  subscribers  by  means  of  devices 
requiring  the  momentary  attention  and  actions  of  three 
operators,  with  more  facility  than  can  be  done  by  a  sin- 
gle operator  upon  whose  board  is  found  the  terminals  of 
the  lines  of  both  the  calling  and  called  subscribers, 
and  whose  practically  only  act  is  to  loop  the  lines  to- 
gether. In  an  abstruse  sense  this  would  be  an  impos- 
sibility, but  the  latent  factor  which  resolves  the  situa- 
tion into  an  established  fact  rests  principally  in  the 
training  that  the  telephoning  public  unconsciously  re- 
ceives from  the  use  of  an  appliance  run  on  such  strict 
business  principles  as  is  the  Express  system.  The  sub- 
scriber soon  learns  to  respond  to  the  ringing  of  the 
bell  without  a  moment's  delay,  or  otherwise  he  will 
lose  the  call,  and  having  done  so  he  is  cognizant  of 
the  fact  that  whatever  business  the  calling  subscriber 
had  to  transact  will  be  lost  unless  the  calling  sub- 
scriber rings  up  again.  In  other  words,  the  policy  of 
the  express  system  is  that  subscribers  must  attend  to 
their  own  business  and  not  rely  on  central  in  any 
manner  for  reminders  of  business  that  has  not  been  at- 
tended to. 



[Vol.  I,  No.  i. 

The  extraordinarily  favorable  results  obtained  with 
the  Express  system,  as  exhibited  in  the  accompanying 
plots  (Figures  12  and  13),  showing  the  average  time  of 
local  and  trnnked  connections  respectively  on  the 
switchboards  in  No.  1  office,  San  Francisco,  in  the  Milk- 
street  office,  Boston,  and  in  the  Cortlandt-street  office, 
New  York,  graphically  portray  the  , various  acts  that 
consume  time  in  switching.  The  plots  are  so  very 
clear  that  no  detailed  explanation  of  them  appears 
necessary  beyond  the  statement  that  the  Express  sys- 
tem is  used  in  San  Francisco,  while  the  Boston  and 
New  York  offices  are  equipped  with   modern  multiple 


Qrr/ce  -  Sjn  Fsmnc/jco 

1  r 

M/at  Sr  Orr/ce.  Sostqa 



Coktlandt Jr  Orr/er   Nfw  YoftK 


la      x>     so     *4 


Fig.  12— Plot  Showing  Avekage  Time   of   Local   Connections   on   Tele- 
phone Switchboards— San  Francisco  Using  "  Express  "  Boards, 
and  Boston  and  New  York  Using  "  Multiple  "  Boards. 

boards.  The  data  from  which  the  charts  were  made 
was  collected  by  Mr.  Theodore  Spencer,  the  well-known 
telephone  engineer  of  the  American  Bell  Telephone 
.Company,  which  places  their  accuracy  above  question. 

It  may  be  well,  however,  to  call  attention  to  a  few 
sapient  points  that  the  charts  emphasize.  As  stated, 
the  San  Francisco  office  being  equipped  on  the  Express, 
or  essentially  trunk  system  throughout,  presents  the 
same  record  in  making  local  connections  as  in  making 
trunk  connections,  but  the  time  consumed  in  the  old 
form  of  trunking  common  to  multiple  board  systems,  and 
as  shown  in  the  Boston  and  New  York  characteristics, 
foims  a  very  serious  item.  The  waiting  period  on  the 
multiple  board  also  considerably  exceeds  that  indicated 
for  San  Francisco,  which  is  largely  due  to  the  reason 
given,  that  when  a  subscriber  on  an  Express  system  hears 
a  call  he  must  make  it  his  business  to  respond.  With 
the  multiple  system,  however,  the  called  subscriber  real- 
izing that  the  calling  subscriber  does  the  ringing,  will 
take  his  time  in  responding.  In  brief,  a  large  propor- 
tion of  the  time  consumed  in  switching  in  multiple 
systems  is  due  to  the  slowness  and  indifference  of  sub- 
scribers in  executing  the  acts  that  they  are  expected  to 
and  must  perform.  The  advantage  held  by  the  Express 
system  in  this  regard  rests,  therefore,  in  the  fact  that 
the  public  has  no  duty  whatever  to  perform  except  to  re- 
move the  receiver  from  the  hook  when  called  and  to  re- 
place it  thereon  at  the  close  of  the  conversation. 

A  peculiarity  of  the  diagrams  is  in  the  different 
lengths  of  the  talking  periods,  varying  from  54  seconds 
in  San  Francisco  to  110  secouds  in  New  York,  and  in 
this  connection  a  regret  may  be  expressed  that  similar 
characteristics  are  not  at  hand  from  Chicago  in  order 
that  the  propriety  of  that  hated  charge  of  ''  windiness  " 
may  be  forever  settled  in  the  findings  of  a  strictly  scien- 
tific and  unprejudiced  investigation. 


The  expediency  of  equipping  a  telephone  exchange 
with  this  or  that  system  resolves  itself  into  the  old  ques- 

tion of  commercial  practicability — the  issue  that  so  un- 
relentingly condemns  the  fond  but  visionary  hopes  of 
many  inventors.  All  untried  schemes  must  be  consid- 
ered in  the  light  of  ventures,  but  this  article  deals  with 
systems  that  have  been  demonstrated  by  hard  practical 
use  to  be  reliable  and  of  commercial  utility.  Compari- 
sons are  not  odious  when  improved  conditions  result 
therefrom,  hence  there  is  no  objection  to  showing  as 
briefly  and  as  succinctly  as  is  possible,  the  relative  ad- 
vantages and  disadvantages  of  the  two  systems  that 
must  soon  compete  for  supremacy  in  the  equipment  of 
telephone  exchanges,  whether  large  or  small.  The  rela- 
tive merits  of"  Multiple  "  and  "  Express"  systems  are 
as  follows : 

The  "  Multiple  "  Switchboard.  Advantages — 1.  A 
single  operator  completes  the  entire  switching,  hence  the 
greatest  possible  simplicity  in  working. 

Disadvantages — 1.  Complexity  in  switchboard  wir- 
ing ;  hence 

2.  Excessive  first  cost,  and 

3.  Excessive  cost  of  maintenance. 

4.  Incurs  an  objectionable  increase  in  the  electro- 
static capacity  of  the  subscribers'  lines  because  of  the 
enormous  amount  of  switchboard  wiring. 

5.  Injury  to  a  single  section  by  fire,  water  or  other- 
wise, renders  the  entire  exchange  inoperative  until 

6.  The  great  number  of  working  contacts  creates  a 
serious  liability  of  trouble  because  of  the  occurrence  of 
open  circuits  in  the  old  style  board  and  of  short  circuits 
in  the  new  style  board. 

7.  The  necessity  of  applying  a  manual  test  for 
"  busy  "  before  a  switch  can  be  made. 

8.  Difficulty  of  locating  switchboard  troubles. 

9.  Excessive  cost  of  making  additions,  each  of  which 
requires  not  only  the  adding  of  a  new  section,  but  also 
the  making  of  additions  to  the  lines  of  each  subscriber 
entering  the  exchange. 

10.  High  rates  of  insurance  because  of  ready  sus- 
ceptibility to  damage  by  fire  and  water. 

The  "  Express  "  System.  Advantages — 1.  Low  first 
cost ;  being  not  in  excess  of  one-third  that  of  a  multiple 
board  of  equal  capacity. 

2.  A  single  terminal  for  each  subscriber,  securing 
absolute  simplicity  in  terminal  wiring  on  the  board. 

'/Crr/ec.  San  f#Jt/c/feo 

1  ! 
i  « 

Mine    Sr    Or  rice  -Bosrort 

1 1  y* 

-  6r  O/rrcc    Ncer  ton 

:  ri*  jcconos 

Fig.  13.— Plot  Showing  Average  Time  of  Trunked  Connections  in  Tel- 
ephone Switchboards— San  Francisco  Using  "  Express  "  Boards, 
and  Boston  and  New  York  Using  "  Multiple  "  Boards. 

3.  Elimination  of  the  troubles  consequent  to  a  great 
number  of  working  contacts  in  multiple  or  in  series. 

4.  Absolute  independence  of  each  section   from   all 
other  sections. 

5.  Minimum  cost  of  maintenance. 

6.  Ease  of  locating  switchboard^troubles. 

July,   1895.] 



7.  Automatic  visual  signals  relieve  operators  from 
all  testing,  listening  for  responses,  etc. 

8.  Impossibility  of  rendering  the  whole  exchange 
inoperative  because  of  injury  by  fire,  water  or  otherwise 
to  a  single  section  ;  hence 

9.  Low  rates  of  insurance  because  of  minimum  sus- 
ceptibility to  damage  by  fire  or  water. 

10.  Ease'.and  comparative  inexpensiveness  of  mak- 
ing additions,  since  the  cost  of  a  switchboard  increases 
directly  with  the  size. 

11.  It  is  an  all-trunk  sj'Stem. 

12.  Highest  rapidity  yet  attained  in  exchange 

13.  All  signals  from  subscribers  are  transmitted  au- 
tomatically, hence  with  unfailing  precision. 

14.  Enables  the  establishing  of  sub-offices,  as  de- 
scribed, thereby  reducing  the  investment  in  line  wires  or 
underground  cables  oftimes  enormously. 

Apparent  Disadvantages — 1.  The  services  of  actually 
three,  and  practically  two  operators  are  required  to  com- 
plete each  switch. 


The  "  Express  "  system  has  established  the  fact  of 
its  superiority  over  multiple  switchboards,  which  have 
hitherto  been  conceded  to  be  the  only  means  by  which 
the  business  of  large  exchanges  could  be  handled  to  an}^ 
degree  of  satisfaction.  San  Francisco,  the  home  of  the 
system,  has  tried  it  long  and  thoroughly.  Electrical  en- 
gineers whose  names  are  bywords  in  the  world  of  tele- 
phony have  visited  the  city  by  the  Golden  Gate  that 
they  might  themselves  examine  the  system  claimed  to 
be  superior  to  the  multiple  system,  j'et  which  had  ven- 
tured to  depart  from  the  lines  of  construction  univer- 
sally accepted  as  correct,  and  having  examined  it,  have 
been  satisfied,  and  they  too  confirm  its  worth.  Now 
Chicago,  true  to  the  spirit  that  has  made  its  name  a 
synonym  of  progression,  is  displacing  the  old  method 
with  the  new.  The  telephone  world  will  watch  the 
change  with  interest,  but  even  so  it  cannot  be  said  that 
the  "  Express  "  system  is  in  the  balance,  for  it  has  been 
weighed  and  not  found  wanting. 



The  courses  in  electrical  engineering  for  the  Univer- 
sity of  California  come  under  the  heading  of  the  Depart- 
ment of  Mechanical  Engineering,  of  which  F.  G.  Hesse 
is  Professor  of  Mechanical  Engineering,  Frederick  Slate, 
B.  S.,  is  Professor  of  Physics,  Clarence  L.  Cory,  M.  M.  E., 
is  Assistant  Professor  of  Mechanical  Engineering.  L.  F. 
Chesebrough  is  Instructor  in  Mechanic  Arts  and  in 
charge  of  machine  shops,  and  J.  N.  Le  Conte,  M.  M.  E., 
is  Assistant  in  Mechanics. 

The  lectures  on  electrical  engineering  are  delivered 
by  Professor  Cory,  and  will  be  upon  the  following  sub- 
jects during  the  academic  year  of  1895-96  : 

Electrical  Machinery.  Construction  of  electrical 
batteries  and  measuring  instruments,  and  their  selection 
for  special  testing.  Discussion  of  the  design  and  con- 
struction of  continuous-current  electrical  machinery; 
its  application  to  electric  lighting  and  power  distribu- 
tion.    Laboratorv  tests  and  designing. 

Electrical  "Engineering.— (a)  Alternating  Currents 
and  Alternating- Current  Machinery.  Theory,  generation 
and  applications  of  single  and  polyphase  alternating 
currents;  effects  of  self-induction  and  capacity  in  cir- 
cuits ;  discussion  of  the  construction  and  design  of  gen- 
erators, transformers  and  other  alternating-current  ap- 

(b)  Electricity  in  Engineering  and  Principles  of  Electri- 
cal Installation.  Discussion  of  the  design,  equipment  and 
management  of  electrical  stations  ;  electric  lighting,  tel- 
egraph and  telephone  circuits ;  long-distance  transmis- 
sion of  power  by  electricity  from  water  power,  and  spe- 
cial applications  of  electricity  to  industrial  purposes. 

(c)  Electrical  Laboratory  and  Designing.  Practice  in 
the  laboratory  and  draughting-room,  illustrating  the 
work  of  the  classroom. 

The  degree  of  Electrical  Engineer  was  conferred 
upon  the  following  graduates  of  the  term  just  closed  : 
H.  W.  Corbett,  Ch.  J.  Fox,  Olcott  Haskell,  R.  B.  Hoff- 
man, J.  E.  Strachan. 


Believing  that  American  practice  has  justified  the 
separation  of  the  Electrical  Engineer  from  the  Electrical 
Manufacturer,  and  that  it  has  defined  the  Engineer  to  be 
one  who  is  engaged  upon  the  solution  of  practical  prob- 
lems by  the  aid  of  obtainable  apparatus,  the  Electrical 
Engineering  courses  of  the  Leland  Stanford  Junior  Uni- 
versity, as  shown  by  the  Register  for  1894-5,  just  is- 
sued, have  been  planned  for  the  constructor  of  engineer- 
ing work  rather  than  for  the  manufacturer  of  machinery. 
While  keeping  this  aim  in  view  the  rapid  changes  in  the 
profession  have  not  been  lost  sight  of,  and  the  underly- 
ing principles  of  correct  design  are  dwelt  upon  to  such 
an  extent  as  well  fit  the  Engineer  to  arrive  at  just 
decisions  on  the  merits  of  established  or  proposed 

The  classes  in  Electrical  Engineering  are  under  the 
instructorship  of  Prof.  F.  A.  C.  Perrine,  D.  Sc,  assisted 
by  Mr.  Farmer,  and  the  Undergraduate  Courses  consist 
of  lectures  in  (1)  Constructive  Materials  and  Machinery, 
« (2)  Application  and  Design,  (3)  Central  Station  Design 
and  Management,  (4)  Engineering  Construction,  and  (5) 
Recent  Applications  of  Electricity. 

Special  Graduate  Courses  will  be  offered  in  a  series 
of  lectures  by  Prof.  Perrine  on  (6)  Dynamo  Machinery 
Design,  (7)  The  Theory  and  Practice  of  the  Design  of 
Inductive  Apparatus,  (8)  Telegraphy  and  Telephony, 
and  (9)  Special  Applications  of  Electricity. 

Entrance  examinations  for  the  next  semester  be- 
gins on  Monda}',  Sept.  2d. 

The  following  class  is  the  first  to  matriculate  the 
full  four  years  in  Electrical  Engineering  at  Stanford  : 
Arthur  Hardin  Burnett,  Tulare ;  Benson  Clare  Condit, 
Riverside ;  Robinson  Crowell,  San  Francisco ;  Paul 
Milton  Downing,  Palo  Alto  ;  Elmer  Elsworth  Farmer, 
Palo  Alto  ;  Donald  Hume  Fry,  Areata  ;  Ernest  Chcsney 
Hay  ward,  Victoria,  B.  C;  Walter  Spalding  Hyde,  San 
Francisco  ;  James  Terry  Langford,  Lodi ;  Roland  Harry 
Manahan,  Pasadena,  Maurice  William  O'Brien,  San 
Jose;  Thomas  Henry  Pomeroy,  Oswego,  Or.;  William 
Henry  Reeves  Jr.,  Seattle,  Wash.;  Edmund  Carmel 
Southwick,  Mayfield ;  Harry  Clinton  Thaxter,  Palo 
Alto;  John  West  Thompson,  Redwood  City;  George 
Lyman  Wood  worth,  Palo  Alto. 


Mr.  F.  D.  Wallaker  has  recently  been  appointed 
Western  Agent  of  the  National  School  of  Electricity, 
with  headquarters  at  Denver,  Colorado,  where,  in  a 
brief  time,  a  class  of  ninety-five  was  organized  with 
Mr.  Irving  Hale  as  Instructor  and  Mr.  Lewis  Searing 
as  Chairman.  .  It  is  announced  that  the  organization 
of  classes  in  San  Francisco  and  elsewhere  on  the  Pacific 
Coast   will   be  commenced  at  an  early  date. 



[Vol.  I,  No.  i. 

Wf\*  SEtettrital  Journal* 

An  Illustrated  Review  of  the  Industrial   Applications   of 
Electricity,   Gas  and   Power. 


F.   A.   C.    PERRINE,   D.   Sc,   and    GEO.   P.    LOW. 

Subscription     ....    One   Dollar   per   Year   in   Advance. 
Advertising   Rates   Furnished   on   Application. 

PUBLISHED    MOflTHLiV    BY    GEO.     P.     LiOW, 

303  California   Street San   Francisco. 

volume  1. 

JULY,    1895. 

NUMBER    1. 


The  Electrical  Journal  is  instituted 
in  the  belief  that  the  publication  of  a 
let  actions      strictly  first  class  paper,  devoted  to  the 
speak.  industrial  applications  of  electricity,  gas 

and  power,  will  find  a  welcome  and 
prove  a  profitable  undertaking.  It  ex- 
tends no  assurances  other  than  of  accuracy,  indepen* 
dence  and  impartiality,  and  knowing  that  the  goal  of 
success  it  hopes  to  reach  can  only  be  attained  through 
intrinsic  worth,  it  realizes  that  it  will  be  judged  by  its 
works  rather  than  by  its  promises. 

Technical  journalism  is  so  done  and  overdone  that 
the  publication  of  a  new  paper  is  regarded,  if  not  with 
suspicion,  at  least  with  wonder.  What  reason  has  this 
journal  for  existence,  and  what  can  it  have  to  say  that 
is  worth  hearing  ?  It  is  said  of  every  new  venture  of 
the  kind  that  some  one  has  discovered  or  thinks  he  has 
discovered  a  workable  field  of  patronage.  Is  it  this  and 
nothing  more  ? 

But  consider  the  promoters  in  a  more  friendly  vein 
for  a  moment,  and  it  may  be  that  they  shall  prove  them- 
selves worthy  of  confidence.  It  is  true  that  all  men  who 
are  doing  the  world's  work  are  specialists,  and  the  more 
each  man  specializes,  the  more  successful  that  mau  be- 
comes. But  few  indeed  cau  make  discoveries  or  inven- 
tions along  many  lines;  nay,  even  how  many  are  able  to 
study  and  apply  all  there  is  which  bears  upon  one  line,  or 
even  one  point  of  a  single  line.  The  dynamo  tender  needs 
the  aid  of  the  electrician,  the  electrician  of  the  physicist, 
and  he  in  turn  must  look  for  assistance  to  the  chemist, 
the  mechanical  engineer,  the  civil  engineer,  and  the  man- 

ufacturer, as  well  as  to  the  mathematician  and  the  phi- 
losopher. All  men's  work,  therefore,  bears  upon  each 
man's  specialty,  and  all  men  must  hope  to  obtain  from 
the  journalist  the  "  news  "  of  what  the  others  are  doing 
that  they  may  carry  their  owu  work  on  to  its  completion. 
Does  any  technical  journal  fulfill  this  task  for  its  branch 
completely?  We  believe  not,  and  judge  there  yet  is 
room  for  a  new  journal,  aud  that  new  men  will  have 
something  of  service  to  offer. 

The  value  of  a  new  journal  to  its  readers  will  depend 
upon  its  command  of  authors  capable  of  telling  in  an 
authorative  manner  of  what  has  been  done,  and  what  is 
doing,  and  what  is  to  be  done.  Perhaps  the  editors  majr 
add  but  little  of  value  to  the  work  of  the  writers,  but  the 
earnest  they  give  is  that  they  will  offer  the  fruits  of 
faithful  gleanings  from  wide  fields  of  experience,  investi- 
gation and  research. 

Neither  creed  or  belief  then  shall  receive  further 
discussion,  nor  shall  any  hope  be  expressed  but  that  this 
venture  will  merit  both  confidence  and  support  through 
the  attainment  of  its  aims  of  honest3r  and  breadth  and 

Two  papers  have  been  read  at  the  in- 
formal dinners  held  by  the  Pacific  Coast 

ELECTRICAL  ,  „     ,  J  .  _    ■     ; 

engineering      members  of  the  American   Institute  of 

on  the  Electrical    Engineers     during    the   past 

pacific  coast.        .  °  &  r 

winter  which  have  excited  sufficient  in- 
terest to  lead  to  the  belief  that  in  part  at 
least  they  are  worth  preserving.  The  first  paper,  pre- 
sented by  Dr.  F.  A.  C.  Perrine,  discussed  "  The  Technical 
Training  of  an  Electrical  Engineer  for  Practice  on  the 
Pacific  Coast,"  and  the  second  on  "  The  Field  of  Opera- 
tions of  an  Electrical  Engineer,"  was  delivered  by  Mr. 
E.  J.  Molera.  The  last  named  paper,  which  is  reprinted 
elsewhere  in  this  issue,  was  designed  as  a  reply  to  the 
doubts  expressed  by  a  member  at  the  previous  meeting 
as  to  the  usefulness  of  the  many  trained  engineers  now 
entering  the  electrical  profession,  and  the  writer  most 
completely  defines  the  field  of  the  engineer  which  makes 
him  truly  an  engineer  and  not  merely  an  artisan — a  man 
with  skill  to  build  and  a  foundation  to  build  upon. 

Dr.  Perrine  began  by  calling  attention  to  the  fact  that 
the  electrical  engineering  education  in  most  of  the  tech- 
nical schools  is  aimed  to  fit  a  man  to  be  primarily  a 
designer  of  electro-dynamic  machinery  or  a  manufac- 
turer, and  little  attention  is  devoted  to  fitting  men  for 
positions  when  their  principal  duties  consist  in  the  de- 
sign and  erection  of  engineering  works  or  for  acting  in 
the  capacity  of  advisers  to  choose  between  the  various 
methods  of  solving  engineering  problems.  It  is  left  to 
the  future  training  obtained  in  the  shops  of  the  manu- 
facturing companies  to  develop  these  capabilities  and 
there  the  utmost  care  is  taken  that  as  much  of  bias  for 
one  system  shall  be  given  as  is  possible.  Such  training- 
leaves  the  engineering  undertakings  on  the  Pacific  Coast 

July,   1895.] 



at  the  mercy  of  the  great  manufacturers,  and  indeed  the 
bias  given  to  engineers  trained  in  this  manner  forms  the 
principal  subject  of  adverse  comparison  of  our  electrical 
engineering  with  that  in  England  and  on  the  Continent 
recently  made  by  Mr.  H.  Ward  Leonard. 

We  have  not  here  the  manufacturer  of  general  elec- 
trical appliances,  nor  many  shops  for  repairs  or  labora- 
tories for  the  standardization  of  instruments  and  the 
successful  engineer  amongst  us  must  be  trained  to  be 
ready  with  wit  and  skill  to  correct  all  sorts  of  deficiencies 
in  the  apparatus  furnished  him  and  to  avoid  many  acci- 
dental obstacles.  In  fact,  our  needs  call  for  a  universality 
of  talents  and  training  which  is  perhaps  impossible  to 
obtain  completely  except  as  a  born  gift,  but  with  the  aim 
of  producing  the  self  dependant  man  and  with  a  knowl- 
edge of  the  material  at  hand  our  education  must  approach 
their  ideal. 

The  student  on  the  Pacific  Coast  is,  as  a  rule,  a  man 
who  depends  upon  his  own  resources  for  support,  not 
only  after  his  years  of  training,  but  often  before  and 
during  these  years,  and  it  is  rarely  that  he  has  received 
the  most  complete  preliminary  instruction.  His  tech- 
nical education  must,  therefore,  begin  with  a  most 
thorough  course  in  mathematics,  physics  and  chemistry, 
and  in  later  years  a  choice  must  be  made  between  the 
complete  study  of  electro-dynamic  machinery  and  the 
study  of  branches  more  distinctly  connected  with  engi- 
neering construction. 

With  a  view  to  the  practical  needs  of  the  Pacific 
Coast  engineer  it,  therefore,  seems  most  wise  to  educate 
the  men  to  be  as  competent  critics  as  is  possible  of  ma- 
chinery and  methods  proposed  by  the  manufacturer  and 
to  train  them  at  once  for  the  duties  of  engineer  to  plan 
and  erect  engineering  undertakings. 


It  is  not  altogether  an  uninteresting 
diversion  to  see  three  leading  electrical 
m?,™^™      papers  chafing  over  the  time-worn  moot- 
venerableness.    point  of  venerableness,  as  from  informa- 
tion at  hand  it  would  appear  unquestion- 
able that  our  esteemed   prototype,  the 
Electrical  Engineer  is  really  the  "oldest"  publication  as  it 
claims,  and  that  our  newsy  friend,  the  Electrical  Review, 
is  entitled  to  the  distinction  of  being  the  "  oldest  weekly." 
As  for  the  "  Pioneer  "  journal,  Webster  defines  the  word 
as  expressing  "  one  who  goes  before  to  remove  obstruc- 
tions or  prepare  the  way  for  another,"  or,  in  plainer 
terms,  a  pioneer  is  one  who  steps  aside  that  another  may 
pass  on.     It  is  advisable  then,  if  there  must  be  a  contro- 
versy, that  it  be  confined  to  the  journals  named,  or  the 
third  must  either  alter  its  plea  or  stand  convicted  on  its 
own  evidence. 

The  Electrical  Journal  rests  content  in  the  knowl- 
edge that  no  one  can  dispute  the  claim  that  to-day  it 
stands  as  the  "  newest "  electrical  publication  in  America, 
if  not  in  the  world,  and  here  again  the  same  authority 
sapiently  defines  the  word  "new"  as  "recent,  fresh, 

Clearly  then  the  motto  of  The  Electrical  Journal 
shall  be  :  "  The  Newest  Electrical  Publication  in  America." 

A  Manual  of  Telephony,  by  William  Henry  Preece,  F.  R. 
S.,  Engineer-in-Chief  and  Electrician,  General  Post  Office,  and 
Arthur  J.  Stubbs,  Technical  Officer,  General  Post  Office,  London, 
1893:  508  pages,  8  vo.,  cloth,  fully  illustrated.  For  sale  by  The 
Electrical  Journal.     Price,  $4.50,  post  free. 

There  is  perhaps  to-day  no  more  up-to-date  manual 
for  telephonists  than  the  work  which  forms  the  subject 
of  this  review,  yet  this  expression  of  endorsement  is  not 
unqualified  for  in  truth  no  book  which  has  yet  appeared 
contains  a  full  and  complete  exposition  of  the  workings 
of  the  modern,  well-equipped  telephone  exchange  of  to- 
day. But  this  perhaps  is  not  to  be  hoped  for  consider- 
ing the  marvellous  development  in  telephone  exchanges, 
and  considering  that  in  no  country  has  the  handling  of 
subscribers'  lines  settled  dowu  to  clear  cut,  well-defined 
practices.  Preece  and  Stubbs'  work  is  indeed,  more  than 
all  others,  a  manual  that  will  be  appreciated  by  all  tele- 
phonists, whether  in  large  or  small  exchanges,  and  ex- 
perimenters will  find  it  of  historic  and  practical  value. 
The  authors,  having  had  exceptional  facilities  for  inves- 
tigating the  commercial  side  of  telephony,  have  not 
hesitated  to  give  a  generous  share  of  their  experiences 
to  their  readers  in  the  shape  of  circuit  diagrams  gener- 
ally drawn  to  scale,  formulae,  and  such  data  and  specifi- 
cations as  will  enable  the  experimenter  to  deduce 
dimensions  for  the  construction  of  an  induction  coil 
giving  maximum  intensity  and  clearness  of  sound  in  a 
telephone,  for  instance.  Equally  well  will  it  enable  the 
line  foreman  to  effect  the  greatest  possible  neutralization  - 
of  induction  by  the  arrangement  of  wires  on  his  pole 
linos,  as  also  will  it  enable  the  engineer  to  determine  the 
capacity  of  lines  under  given  conditions  or  on  the  limiting 
distance  of  speech.  In  brief  it  forms  a  universal  hand- 
book of  telephony,  complete  to  its  date.  The  tendency 
to  favor  description  of  English  practices,  and  particu- 
larly that  of  the  British  Post  Office,  is  pardonable,  but 
the  authors  frankly  admit  their  partiality  when  in  the 
preface  they  say : 

"  Telephony,  in  the  broad  principles  of  its  practical 
application,  tends  increasingly  to  become  cosmopolitan  ; 
so  that,  although  English  practice  generally  is  more 
specially  described,  Continental  systems  are  not  excluded, 
and  the  principal  points  of  practice  in  America — the 
home  of  the  art — are  fairly  represented." 

A  conscientious  adherence  to  the  idea  which  seems 
to  have  been  held  by  the  authors  that  there  is  a  need  for 
a  publication  concerning  the  practical  applications  of  the 
art  of  telephony  has  made  the  work  what  it  professes 
and  is  commended  to  be,  '■  A  Manual  of  Telephony," 
more  full  and  complete  than  any  yet  published. 

The  Electric  Current  ;  How  Produced  and  How  Used,  by 
R.  Mullineux  Walmsley,  D.  Sc.  (Lond.),  F.  R.  S.  E.,  etc.:  754 
pages,  379  illustrations,  8  vo.,  cloth.  Published  by  Cassell  and 
Company,  Ld.,  London,  and  for  sale  by  The  Electrical  Jour- 
nal.    Price,  $3.00,  post  free. 

Here  is  found  in  a  single,  handy  volume,  a  reason- 
ably comprehensive  exposition  of  each  and  every  appli- 
cation of  the  electric  current  in  the  service  of  man, 
together  with  descriptions  of  the  various  processes  by 
which  electrical  energy  may  be  produced.  The  work  is 
divided  into  three  distinct  parts,  treating  of  the  Pro- 
duction, the  Laws  and  the  Applications  of  the  Electric 
Current,  respectively,  each  of  which  forms  a  more  than 
elementary  manual  of  information  concerning  that  por- 
tion of  the  science  to  which  it  is  devoted.  Evidently  the 
author  appreciates  the  fact  that  readers  of  electrical 
literature  have  had  a  surfeit  of  historical  matters  or 
descriptions  of  the  phenomena  of  Electrostatics,  for 
these  themes  are   dismissed  after  having  received  such 



[Vol.  I,  No.  i. 

brief  consideration  as  is  reverentially  due  them  in  a 
work  of  this  character.  In  fact  a  similar  consideration 
is  shown  all  through  the  book,  and  if  the  author  has  a 
hobby  in  the  production,  the  laws  or  the  applications 
of  the  electric  current,  he  has  most  skillfully  concealed 
it,  as  his  writings  bear  no  evidence  of  partiality  or  favor- 
itism to  any  particular  branch  or  theory.  Each  is  given 
such  consideration  as  its  importance  demands.  The 
book  cannot  be  considered  as  elementary,  for  it  treats  of 
matters  beyond  the  first  principles  of  the  science,  al- 
though first  principles  are  fully  expounded,  nor  can  it 
be  classed  in  the  catalogue  of  advanced  treatises  on 
electro-technology  :  instead  it  forms  a  happy  medium 
that  deserves  popularity,  at  least  because  it  is  a  volume 
that,  while  not  aspiring  to  encyclopaedic  proportions,  yet 
contains  in  clear,  concise  and  simple  language  an  explan- 
ation of  the  basic  principles  of  each  and  every  applica- 
tion or  relation  of  the  electric  current,  whether  informa- 
tion is  desired  concerning  chemical  reactions,  metallurgy, 
telephony,  polyphase  transmission  of  power  or  even  the 
fire-fly's  secret. 

Electricity  as  a  Fire  Hazard,  by  W.  J.  Jenks.  A  paper 
read  before  the  World's  Fire  Insurance  Congress,  Chicago,  June, 
1893.  Paper,  73  pages.  Published  by  the  General  Electric 
Company,  presumably  for  gratuitous  distribution. 

In  presenting  this  book  to  the  public  the  donors 
have  performed  a  service  meriting  the  appreciation  of 
all  who  are  interested  in  the  common  weal.  Ordinarily 
there  is  so  much  of  the  mysterious  about  electricity  in 
the  minds  of  the  public  that  any  successful  effort  in  the 
way  of  enlightenment  from  that  unfortunate  condition 
deserves  commendation.  Such  is  a  characteristic  of  Mr. 
Jenks'  valuable  paper,  which  is,  in  reality,  a  comprehen- 
sive review  of  the  technical  side  of  electro-insurance 
relations  during  the  past  sixteen  years,  freely  elaborated 
with  the  views  of  the  author.  A  reasonable  inference  is 
that  the  paper,  being  published  by  an  electric  company, 
is  designed  to  further  the  interests  of  the  corporation 
fathering  it,  but  despite  this,  the  book  is  free  from  bias, 
and  presents  the  various  hazards  of  the  applications  in  a 
clear  lucid  way  and  with  profuse  colored  drawings.  It 
is  a  book  for  fire  underwriters  as  well  as  for  electrical 
men,  and  its  publication  cannot  but  remind  insurance 
interests  that  their  own  efforts  to  restrict  the  fire  hazard 
of  electricity  are  no  more  sincere  and  earnest  than  are 
those  of  the  legitimate  electrical  fraternity. 


By  Sydney  Speout,  E.  E.,  M.  E. 


Believing  that  by  far  too  little  has  been  published  con- 
cerning the  economic  features  of  the  operation  of  plants 
for  the  generation  of  electricity,  the  writer  proposes  to 
contribute  from  time  to  time  as  the  exigencies  of  busi- 
ness will  permit  and  as  occasion  may  be  presented,  such 
data  as  may  be  obtained  by  actual  experiment  under 
actual  working  conditions,  of  plants  coming  under  his 
■observation.  There  will  be  no  effort  to  make  these  con- 
tributions consecutive  for  the  reasons  stated,  but  the 
object  will  be  to  give  facts  whenever  opportunity  is  pre- 
sented for  unearthing  them. 

The  writer,  in  investigating  a  municipal  electric 
lighting  plant  with  the  object  of  ascertaining  the  actual 
.  cost  of  producing  electric  energy  at  various  stages  of 
load,  compiled  the  accompanying  tables,  whence  were 
derived  the  rough  curves  also  accompanying.  Having 
thus  obtained  fundamental  data  it  was  thought  best  to 
go  further  into  the  matter  than  was  originally  designed, 

although  it  has  not  been  the  object  to  go  into  the  finest 
details  of  operation,  in  fact  the  circumstances  of  the  test 
would  not  permit  the  most  minute  investigation.  Never- 
theless the  results  will  be  interesting  for  comparisons 
that  I  hope  will  be  brought  out  during  the  course  of 
these  articles. 

The  lighting  plant  herein  discussed  is  equipped  with 
both  arc  and  incandescent  dynamos  which  are  about 
equally  divided  as  to  the  power  required  for  the  oper- 
ation of  each  system  ;  consequently  the  cost  of  labor  is 


$o       Uo       So 

>-ueT»*e  XV 


It        30        ■>» 

30        *1 

The  Efficiencies  of  Electric  Plants. 

divided  equally  between  the  two  systems,  or  to  put  it 
another  way,  the  cost  of  attendance  for  the  incandescent 
system  is  but  one-half  of  what  it  would  be  were  there 
only  an  incandescent  machine  in  the  station.  This  fact 
not  only  explains  why  the  item  of  labor  is  quite  small, 
but  also  reduces  proportionately  several  other  factors  of 
expense  included  in  the  final  results. 

The  equipment  consists  of  two  75  h.  p.  tubular  boilers, 
two  12x16  automatic  high  speed  simple  engines,  each 
rated  at  90  h.  p.  with  240  revolutions  per  minute  and  90 
lbs.  of  steam.  These  engines  were,  however,  run  but  to 
215  E.  P.  M.  and  the  engine  under  consideration  is  belted 
direct  to  a  60-kilowatt  alternator  supplying  commercial 
circuits,  the  plant  being  started  in  the  evening  at  dusk 
and  shut  down  at  midnight.  The  other  engine  is 
similarly  belted  to  two  60-light  arc  machines  furnishing 
city  street  lamps  on  moonlight  schedule. 

It  may  be  observed  that  doubtless  many  have  won- 
dered at  the  very  favorable  showing  in  the  way  of 
economy  that  has  been  made  by  some  small  stations  such 
as  this  one  is,  when  compared  with  the  larger  and  better 
equipped  central  stations.  The  results  here  given  for 
example  seem  quite  low,  but  when  we  look  at  the 
average  load  and  see  that  the  station  is  operating  under 
a  load  factor  of  80,  while  central  stations  are  frequently 
compelled  to  run  under  a  load  factor  as  low  as  25,  the 
reason  for  the  favorable  results  herein  shown  are  not 
difficult  to  understand. 

Eeturning  to  the  station  in  hand  it  will  be  seen  by 
reference  to  the  curve  shown  as  Fig.  4,  that  at  a  max- 
imum load  of  60-kilowatts  which  is  not  uncommon,  the 
average  load  is  48-kilowatts,  and  in  the  station  in  ques- 
tion  it  is    found  that    the    cost   of   producing   energy 

July,   1895.] 



per  50-watt  lamp  hour  at  this  stage  of  load  will  be 
80.0048.  On  the  other  hand,  in  the  case  of  the  central 
station  and  reducing  it  to  a  common  ratio,  a  maximum 
of  60  kilowatts  would  bring  the  average  down  to  but  15- 
kilowatts  which  will  show  the  cost  per  lamp  to  be  three 
and  three-tenths  cents  per  hour.  This  shows  that  a 
station  that  can  run  only  during  the  hours  of  heavy  load 
in  the  evening,  has  very  great  advantages  in  the  way  of 
economical  operation  over  a  station  that  renders  con- 
tinuous service  twenty-four  hours  a  da}',  which  is  a  point 
that  should  not  be  lost  sight  of  by  owners  of  electric 
plants,  whether  in  isolated  or  central  station  work,  in 
their  anxiety  to  deliver  to  their  tenants  or  patrons  a 
continuous  lighting  service.  It  has  often  been  wondered 
why  some  small  stations  equipped  with  more  or  less 
uneconomical  apparatus  can  manage  to  exist.  We  kuow 
that  they  do  so  and  that  some  of  them  are  in  apparently 
healthy  condition  and  offer  service  during  limited  hours 
at  prices  that  well  equipped  large  modern  central  sta- 
tions can  not  afford  to  meet,  but  when  we  consider  a 


Jy  E.  J.  Moleba,  M.  A.  I.  E.  E. 

It  is  a  law  of  Nature  that  all  developments  shall 
be  done  by  infinitesimal  steps  ;  so  that,  from  the  first 
conception  of  an  idea  to  its  practical  application  to  the 
needs  of  man,  years  of  evolution  have  to  pass  before  the 
powers  that  be  take  hold  of  it  as  an  acceptable  acquisi- 
tion to  the  valuable  fund  of  man's  possessions. 

The  electric  telegraph  as  a  rapid  transmission  of  in- 
telligence to  complement  rapid  transportation,  was  the 
first  great  application  of  electricity  to  the  wants  of  man 
which  demonstrated  the  great  possibilities  of  that  com- 
paratively new  resource  of  his  power  over  Nature. 

But  not  until  a  few  years  ago  when  the  economical 
conversion  of  mechanic  power  into  electrical  energy  was 
effected  was  it  possible  to  enter  into  the  field  of  every 
day's  necessities  by  means  of  electricity  in  competition 

b  =  — 

E.  H.  P. 


I.  H.  P. 

Lbs.  Water 
Perl.  H.  P. 

Watts  Coal  Coal 

Perl.  H.  P.    Per  I.H.  P.  Per  K.W.  II 

i  =  gx  .00288      j  : 


k  =  i  +  j 


Cost  of  Coal  Wages  Int.  and    TYital  Cost 

Per  Repairs  per  Cost  per  50 

K.  W.  Hour,  per  K.W.  Hour.  K.  W.  Hour.  Watt    Lamp 

55 . 5 

33 .  90 

39  60 

29 .  50 


3. SO 


27  52 






























9 .  30  ■ 

-  :434 


8.36  1 


The  Efficiencies  of  Electric  Plants. 

station  equipped  for  an  output  of  40,000  lights  and  which 
delivers  only  about  5000  lights  18  hours  out  of  24,  there 
is  no  longer  reason  for  doubting  the  statements  of  the 
central  station  managers.  The  station  from  which  was 
derived  the  data  given,  is  operated  with  the  highest 
economy  attainable,  not  only  because  of  the  unusual 
reductions  in  the  items  of  labor  etc.,  but  also  because  of 
the  fact  that  the  maximum  capacity  being  60  kilowatts, 
the  average  load  is  48  kilowatts,  which  is  shown  by  the 
water  and  coal  curves  to  be  the  most  economical  point 
at  which  the  steam  plant  can  be  worked. 

The  results  given  in  the  table  were  obtained  by  card- 
ing the  engines  at  different  periods  and  at  different  loads, 
and  by  actual  measurement  of  the  water  and  coal  con- 
sumed. The  cost  of  labor  etc.,  represents  the  actual  out- 
lay, and  from  the  data  thus  derived  the  remaining  re- 
sults were  calculated  and  checked  by  means  of  accepted 
engineering  formula?. 

with  older  methods.  The  dynamo  was  employed  to 
produce  light  and  other  commercial  commodities,  and  in 
connection  with  the  telephone,  which  by  a  fortunate  co- 
incidence was  perfected  at  the  same  period,  created  such 
a  confidence  to  capital  that  Electricity  was  a  magic  word 
in  the  world  of  science  as  well  as  in  the  world  of  finance. 
Then  it  was  when  from  every  profession  recruits 
were  drawn  to  develop  the  new  field  of  enterprise :  the 
telegraph  operator,  the  mechanical  engineer,  the  manu- 
facturer and  technologist,  all  gave  their  contingent  to 
the  army  which  was  to  exploit  the  new  Industrial  fields, 
and  they  accomplished  so  many  new,  rapid  and  unex- 
pected achievements  that  the  great  professors  in  Elec- 
tricity were  no  less  astonished  than  the  masses  of  the 
people.  It  was  then  that  the  new  profession  of  Electrical 
Engineering  was  created. 

*Abstract  of  a  paper  read  at  the  Informal  Dinner  of  the  Pacific  Coast 
members  of  the  American  Institute  of  Electrical  Engineers,  San  Francisco, 
April  27, 1895. 



[Vol.  I,  No.  i, 

That  imperative  call  for  talent  and  the  splendid 
success  achieved  by  some  of  the  votaries  of  the  new  art 
created  such  a  rush  to  supply  the  demand  until  now, 
the  former  is  fully  equal  to  the  latter  and  there  is 
danger  of  a  surfeit  of  supply.  The  problem  then,  to- 
day, is  how  to  prevent  such  undesirable  result,  by  find- 
ing new  fields  of  labor  for  the  new  comers  rather  than 
by  discouraging  the  candidates  of  the  new  profession. 

The  young  man  fresh  from  college  has  unfortunately 
a  great  idea  of  his  attainments  and  consequence  and 
very  little  knowledge  of  the  stern  realities  of  life. 
There  are  few  positions  good  enough  for  him,  and, 
hearing  that  there  is  always  room  at  the  top  of  the 
ladder,  endeavors  to  reach  there  with  a  jump,  forgetting 
that  those  who  were  lucky  enough  to  attain  that  emi- 
nence did  so  step  by  step,  and  many  times  after  long 
and  severe  struggles. 

The  sooner  he  has  his  conceit  knocked  out  of  him 
the  better  for  his  success.  He  must  learn  that  no 
amount  of  explanation  will  teach  a  man  to  swim,  and  in 
order  to  be  in  it  he  must  obtain  perfection  with  practice. 
He  will  find  out  how  easily  a  man  forgets  the  prescrip- 
tions of  books  and  teachers,  and  how  firmly  facts  are 
retained  when  bought  at  the  dear  price  of  experience. 
Let  him  understand  that  success  means  ability  and 
application.  That  he  must  have  some  of  the  first  and 
supplement  it  with  the  second  ;  that  he  must  acquire 
method  and  accuracy  in  order  to  obtain  thoroughness  ; 
lhat  he  must  work  details  as  carefully  as  he  does  the 
principal  parts  of  his  work.  He  must  not  disdaiu  little 
things  ;  and  not  try  to  do  everything  at  once  : 

Let  us  be  content  to  work, 
To  do  the  thing  we  can,  and  not  presume 
To  fret  because  it's  little.     'Twill  employ 
Seven  men,  they  say,  to  make  a  perfect  pin. 
Who  makes  the  head  consents  to  miss  the  point ; 
Who  makes  the  point  agrees  to  leave  the  head ; 
And  if  a  man  should  cry  "I  want  a  pin, 
And  I  must  make  it  straightaway,  head  and  point," 
His  wisdom  is  not  worth  the  pin  he  wants. 

— Mrs.  Browning. 

Having  the  above  philosophy  in  mind,  he  may  en- 
ter the  field  of  electrical  engineer  to  give  the  battle  of 
his  life.  The  avenues  are  many.  As  a  votary  of  elec- 
tricity there  is  hardly  a  man's  want  in  which  this  young- 
daughter  of  Science  cannot  be  usefully  applied,  and  iu 
which  room  for  improvement  cannot  be  devised.  But 
as  his  object  probably  will  be  of  an  immediate  necessity 
he  can  better  devote  his  attention  to  those  departments 
which  are  now  already  organized,  and  though  under  the 
same  field  are  more  or  less  distinct  and  separate. 

He  may  chose  the  department  of  electro-postal  en- 
gineer, electro-mechanical  engineer,  electro-municipal 
engineer,  electro-constructing  engineer,  electro-industrial 
engineer,  electro-consulting  engineer,  professor  of  elec- 
tricity and  inventor.  Unfortunately  the  electrical  en- 
gineer, unlike  the  lawyer  and  the  physician,  does  not 
come  in  contact  with  the  consumer  of  the  productions 
of  his  brain.  The  nature  of  the  forces  in  which  he  deals 
invites  the  man  of  capital  to  take  control  of  the  promis- 
ing discoveries  and  pass  them  through  the  modern  com- 
mercial manipulations  of  corporations  and  trusts  with 
their  shares  and  bonds,  debenture  and  otherwise,  pre- 
ferred and  common  stock  with  paper  scattered  broad- 
cast to  catch  the  guileless  investor.  The  engineer  enter- 
ing these  big  engines  of  trade  is  appreciated  in  propor- 
tion to  his  power  to  bring  profits  to  the  company  and 
dividends  to  the  stockholders.  Hence  the  efficiency  and 
real  merit  of  the  products  of  his  talent  are  often  ignored 
and  the  cheapness  and  attractiveness  of  the  goods  are 

There  was  a  time  when  the  electrical  engineer  was 
the  constructor  and  dealer  of  his  own  inventions.     The 

houses  of  Siemens,  of  Germany  and  England,  Gaspar, 
of  Belgium,  Sautter  et  Lemoinier,  Breguet  and  others  of 
France  are  conspicuous  examples.  But  to-day  the  Edi- 
son, Thomson-Houston,  Westinghouse  and  other  trusts 
and  companies  only  mean  great  aggregations  of  capital 
used  to  boom  their  interests,  using  the  names  of  those 
distinguished  inventors  as  money-making  means.  Some- 
times it  happens  that  iu  order  to  consummate  their 
financial  operations  they  keep  from  the  public  knowl- 
edge improvements  achieved  by  the  iuventors  under 
whose  name  they  operate. 

But  we  are  not  considering  here  the  evils  of  modern 
economy  but  the  field  of  the  electrical  engineer. 

If  he  should  chose  to  be  employed  as  electro-postal 
engineer  he  will  probably  engage  in  the  telegraphic  or 
telephonic  departments.  Perhaps  there  is  no  place  to- 
day more  unpopular  for  an  electrical  engineer  than  the 
telegraph  operator,  and  yet  from  that  department  some 
of  the  most  prominent  engineers  originated:  Edison, 
Gray,  Chandler,  Field  and  so  many  others.  His  oppor- 
tunities to  exercise  his  knowledge  will  be  numerous. 
The  whole  range  of  battery  work  and  different  multi- 
plex system  will  engage  his  energy,  no  matter  how  great 
it  may  be.  Should  he  be  employed  in  telephonic  work, 
before  him  he  will  see  the  problems  of  greatest  distance 
telephony,  as  well  as  trans-oceanic  transmission,  waiting 
to  be  solved,  and  in  both  departments  the  utilization  of 
earth  currents  for  means  of  transmission  of  intelligence. 
Very  little  need  be  said  of  the  field  of  operations  of 
the  electro-mechauical  engineer.  Aside  of  the  amount 
of  knowledge  he  must  use  in  the  proper  employment  of 
metal,  whether  iron  or  copper,  the  proportion  of  the  dif- 
ferent parts  either  in  dynamos  or  motors,  how  much  in- 
genuity is  needed  in  giving  a  garb  to  the  skeleton  of  the 
machine,  its  stability,  its  bearing,  etc.  One  only  needs 
to  consider  the  amount  of  ingenuity  exercised  in  such  a 
simple  machine  as  a  bicycle  wheel  to  see  the  importance 
of  details.  What  applies  to  dynamos  and  motors  ap- 
plies to  cars,  to  lamps,  to  all  other  products,  electro- 
forging,  welding,  stamping,  electrical  transmission — all 
are  in  his  field. 

I  call  an  electro-municipal  engineer  an  engineer 
which  I  consider  should  exist  in  every  city  of  import- 
ance. In  the  same  way  as  we  have  now  a  County  Sur- 
veyor, a  City  Eugineer  and  a  Superintendent  of  Streets, 
there  should  be  an  officer  who  should  represent  the  city 
in  all  matters  relating  to  electricity.  The  safety  of  build- 
ings from  fire  requires  that  the  houses  using  electric 
light  or  power  should  be  properly  wired  ;  the  same  ap- 
plies to  motor-cars.  The  tracks  of  electric  roads  when 
used,  as  is  usual  for  return  circuits,  should  be  of  suf- 
ficient size  and  metallically  bonded  in  their  whole  length. 
You  have  seen  from  the  reports  of  Messrs.  Stuart-Smith 
and  Adams  the  damages  that  can  be  done  to  the  prop- 
erty of  other  city  corporations. 

The  field  of  the  Municipal  Engineer,  aside  from  be- 
ing the  adviser  of  the  city  authorities,  has  under  his 
care  the  lighting  of  streets  and  warming  of  buildings, 
the  electrical  care  of  the  Fire  Department,  the  suburban 
communication,  the  under-ground  conduits,  the  distri- 
bution of  power  for  small  industries.  I  call  electro- 
constructing  engineer  the  constructor  of  small  electrical 
machines  and  measuring  apparatus.  The  essential  part 
of  an  engineer  is  the  accuracy  of  his  measures  ;  the  ulti- 
mate object  of  his  work  is  the  best  and  most  economical 
use  of  the  forces  at  his  command,  and  for  that  purpose 
he  must  have  the  greatest  assortment  and  most  reliable 
measuring  instruments.  ]S"o  amount  of  ingenuity  and 
labor  are  excessive  in  the  designing  and  construction  of 
such  instruments.  This  department  is  of  such  import- 
ance that  Lord  Kelvin  has  said  :     "Accurate  and  minute 






measurements  seems  to  the  non-scientific  imagination  a 
less  lofty  and  dignified  work  than  looking  for  something 
new.  But  nearly  all  the  grandest  discoveries  of  science 
have  been  but  rewards  of  accurate  measurements  and 
patient,  long-continued  labor  in  the  minute  sifting  of 
numerical  results." 

I  have  given  fhe  name  of  electro-industrial  engineer 
to  the  one  whose  energy  is  devoted  to  the  manufacture 
of  commodities  by  means  of  electricity.  I  might  have 
called  it  electro-chemical  engineer  with  equal  propriety. 

Chemistry  in  modern  times  has  worked  a  revolu- 
tion in  the  production  of  commodities.  What  formerly 
was  obtained  by  man  directly  from  the  great  laboratory 
of  nature  is  now  in  many  instances  manufactured  in  the 
laboratory  of  man  with  greater  convenience  to  himself. 
Foods  and  beverages;  paints  and  dye-stuffs;  metals; 
materials  of  construction  ;  fertilizers;  medicines;  illn- 
minants  and  articles  of  all  descriptions  are  prepared  by 
the  chemist.  It  is  a  remarkable  fact  that  nearly  every 
chemical  operation  can  be  done,  as  far  as  tried,  by  elec- 
trolytic processes,  and  in  most  cases  with  greater  ease 
and  economy.  This  field  of  operation  is  yet  in  its  in- 
fancy ;  the  precipitation  of  all  metals  from  their  solu- 
tions ;  the  manufacture  of  chemical  products,  like 
chloride  of  potash,  bleaching  liquids  and  caustic  soda; 
the  purification  of  water  ;  disinfecting  of  sewage  ;  refin- 
ing of  sugar ;  tanning  and  many  other  processes  are 
now  already  in  his  field. 

Tbe  Electro-Consulting  Eugiueer  is  the  one  who  by 
original  training  and  subsequent  experience  is  able  to 
advise  on  any  subject  in  electricity,  can  design  and 
make  plans  on  the  same  and  superintend  the  carrying- 
out  of  them.  It  is  the  goal  of  all  young  engineers,  and 
none  excepting  those  whose  reputation  rests  on  achieved 
results  should  undertake  this  most  important  branch  of 
Electrical  Engineering.  His  field  is  every  application 
of  electricity  and  has  room  to  employ  every  power  of 
his  brain  every  hour  of  his  time  "and  every  effort  of  his 

The  Professor  is  born,  not  made.  No  amount  of 
learning  will  make  a  professor  if  he  has  not  the  faculty 
of  imparting  it  to  others.  He  must  be  plain  and  direct 
in  his  statements,  patient  with  his  pupils  and  have  that 
human  magnetism  which  attracts  the  attention  of  men 
and  retains  their  respect  and  affection.  We  must  re- 
member that  the  best  teaching  is  by  example,  and  if  he 
besides  the  above  qualities  has  practically  exercised  the 
branches  he  is  to  teach,  the  field  of  his  operations  is  the 
most  important  and  the  good  he  does  to  others  of  incal- 
culable value. 

As  a  money  making  pursuit,  teaching  may  not  be 
the  most  desirable,  but  the  opportunities  for  scientific 
research  and  original  work  given  to  the  professor  in  the 
use  of  fine  instruments  and  leisure  time  are  full  of  com- 
pensation for  other  losses.  Necessity  is  the  mother  of 
invention.  Invention  is  one  of  the  most  uncertain 
means  of  satisfying  the  necessities  of  the  inventor.  By 
the  univei-sal  law  of  evolution  inventions  are  developed 
by  degrees  so  that  an  invention,  we  may  say,  floats  in 
the  air  before  crystalizing  into  substantial  form.  It  is 
no  wonder  that  when  in  the  race  for  glory  and  profit  an 
inventor  reaches  the  object  of  his  labors,  if  it  be  prom- 
ising of  adequate  reward,  many  dispute  his  claims,  and 
the  Government  protection,  which  in  many  cases  pro- 
tect only  the  powerful  and  the  wealthy,  is  put  in  opera- 
tion to  deprive  him  of  his  dues.  "Under  the  circum- 
stances a  young  engineer  should  not  employ  his  energies 
in  that  ignis  fatuus,  but,  as  many  other  things,  all  do  it, 
he  must  prepare  himself  well,  before  entering  the  grand- 
est and  most  seductive  of  all  fields  of  thought.  Even 
after  he  has  mastered  the  knowledge  of  many  facts  and 

the  laws  governing  them,  he  may  not  be  rewarded  in 
his  efforts  to  create. 

There  are  some  men  whose  minds  are  similar  to 
sponges — which  will  absorb  knowledge  as  sponges  do 
water ;  but  when  they  bring  forth  what  they  have  ab- 
sorbed it  comes  as  it  went  in,  without  change  or  addi- 
tion to  what  they  first  acquired.  On  the  other  hand, 
other  minds  seem  to  naturally  gather  facts,  divine  laws 
and  force  effects  spontaneously.  Nothing  comes  to  the 
region  of  their  knowledge  without  being  digested  and 
assimulated  to  their  minds,  there  to  be  transformed  into 
new  ideas  to  originate  ways  and  means  for  the  applica- 
cations  of  the  forces  of  nature  to  the  wants  of  man. 
These  are  the  born  inventors.  But  even  they  cannot 
accomplish  great  things  without  a  good  store  of  facts 
and  knowledge  of  1  he  laws  of  Nature. 

There  are  two  kinds  of  inventions :  Those  new 
processes  of  using  the  laws  of  nature  that  fulfill  pressing- 
necessities  of  men  and  which,  on  account  of  their 
novelty  and  their  extended  application,  revolutionize 
existing  methods,  and  those  improvements  which  with- 
out changing  the  existing  processes,  perfect  them.  The 
latter  are  the  most  numerous,  the  best  to  undertake  and 
generally  the  most  productive.  The  former  are  the 
most  difficult  and  seldom  to  be  undertaken. 

In  the  matter  of  invention  the  first  thing  that  the 
would-be  inventor  should  do  is,  to  establish  clearly  in 
his  mind  the  element  of  the  problem  before  him. 

Which  are  the  things  that  man  at  the  present 
moment  most  desires?  Are  they  at  the  present  time 
already  supplied  ?  If  so,  can  they  be  supplied  better 
and  cheaper  than  they  are  now  ?  Does  the  proposed  in- 
vention imply  a  theoretical  impossibility  according  to 
the  best  knowledge  of  science  at  present  ? 

When  he  has  chosen  the  object  of  his  investiga- 
tions, then  he  must  acquaint  himself  with  all  the  pro- 
cesses, if  there  be  any,  employed  in  accomplishing  what 
he  wants  to  improve ;  and  if  not,  everything  similar  to 
it  in  other  branches  of  science  and  arts. 

Knowing  that  what  he  proposes  to  do  would  be  an 
improvement  on  existing  methods,  that  it  does  not  con- 
tradict the  conservation  of  energy  and  in  other  respects 
is  not  a  heresy  of  science,  he  then  can  formulate  his 
plan  of  accomplishing  it,  in  a  new  and  better  way, what- 
ever problem  he  desives  to  solve. 

After  that  comes  the  experimental  trial ;  it  will 
propably  show  him  deficiency  in  knowledge  or  his  error 
in  reasoning.  It  will  instruct  him  in  the  best  and  most 
lasting  wa}r  and  teach  him  that  whenever  practice  does 
not  go  together  with  theory  the  latter  must  be  wrong. 
Electricity  and  magnetism  have  been  the  last  of 
the  forces  of  Nature  utilized  by  man  for  his  wants. 

The  reasons  are  obviouf:  The  most  precious  things 
for  the  existence  of  man  Nature  has  abundantly  supplied: 
Few  minutes  without  air  would  kill  any  mortal;  Nature 
supplies  it  to  him  in  unlimited  quantities  at  every  place 
without  the  least  effort  on  his  part.  Few  hours  with- 
out water  would  be  quite  uncomfortable  for  any  one, 
and  Nature  again  supplies  it  very  abundantly,  though 
he  has  some  time  to  store  it,  or  has  to  have  some  one 
to  bring  it  to  him  and  pay  for  it. 

He  could  not  subsist  without  food  many  days,  and 
though  he  has  to  gather  it,or  cultivate  it,  still  it  is  easily 
obtained  by  him. 

Heat  is  the  next  requirement  and  is  sufficiently 
stored  in  our  atmosphere  to  keep  him  comfortably  in 
many  parts  of  world  and  in  the  others  shelter  and  fuel 
can  also  be  acquired  without  great  difficulty. 

Light  is  not  of  such  vital  importance,  and  for  that 
reason  one  half  of  man's  life  is  kept  in  darkness. 

Man  is  a  most  wonderful  organism  and  yet  as  a  test- 
ing organism  is  most   imperfect,     As  a  dynamometer, 



[Vol.  I,  No.  i. 

thermometer,  phonometer  he  is  poorly  good.  A  photo- 
graphic plate  can  register  the  impressions  of  more  points 
of  light,  say  stars,  with  a  simple  lens,  than  man  can  per- 
ceive with  the  Lick  refractor.  As  an  electrometer, 
whether  Ampere  or  Volt-meter,  he  is  a  dead  failure. 

From  creation  the  paternal  sun  has  been  throwing 
myriads  of  waves  of  electricity  and  magnetism  and  man 
was  innocent  of  the  existence  of  eithef  of  these  forces. 
It  took  the  genius  of  the  great  scientists  of  the  beginning 
of  this  century  to  know  something  of  their  nature  and 
make  them  manifest  at  their  will.  Not  until  half  of  the 
century  had  elapsed,  was  it  found  that  they  were  correl- 
atives of  heat  and  light.  The  century  is  closing  and  we 
only  now  find  out  that  the  same  laws  of  emission,  rad- 
iation, reflection,  etc.,  that  obtain  in  heat  and  light,  apply 
equally  as  well  to  electricty  and  magnetism. 

Maxwell  pointed  out  the  propagation  of  the  electro- 
magnetic wave  through  ethereal  space:  Hertz  has  de- 
monstrated by  means  of  his  oscilator  and  reasonator  the 
existence  of  such  waves  and  has  measured  the  time  and 
size  of  their  oscillations,  and  together  with  Tesla,  Thom- 
son and  others  have  demonstrated  the  other  points  of 
resemblance  to  the  laws  of  light. 

It  is  in  this  direction  and  the  thorough  knowledge 
of  these  facts  and  theories  that  will  bring  forth  the  great- 
est number  of  inventions  in  Electro-magnetism.     • 

The  main  departments  in  which  Electricity  may  be 
used  is  as  power  to  overcome  gravity,  energy  to  produce 
heat  and  light,  and  as  means  to  promote  chemical  re- 

In  the  shape  of  evaporation  and  condensation  of  the 
vapor  of  water  and  in  the  heating  of  the  air,  we  have 
now  two  valuable  sources  of  power,  viz.:  water  and  wind 
power.  It  is  known  that  the  potentiality  of  the  atmo- 
spheric electricity  changes  with  the  distance  from  the 
earth's  surface  and  with  time.  The  earth  itself  is  a  great 
magnet,  with  magneto-electric  currents  constantly  flow- 
ing from  the  equator  to  the  poles.  The  deviation  of 
the  needle  and  the  glow  of  the  aurora  clearly  show 
it.  Even  supposing  that  its  rotation  in  the  ether  pro- 
duces no  friction  whatever,  the  great  surface  velocity 
at  the  equator,  which  is  more  than  90,000  feet  per 
minute,  would  in  presence  of  the  magnetism  of  the 
sun  produce  great  earth  currents.  Now,  do  such  cur- 
rents store  themselves,  as  light  and  heat  do  in  vegeta- 
tion and  the  coal  measures,  or,  in  some  unaccounted 
way,  dissipate  through  space? 

I  will  not  touch  the  many  unsolved  problems  of 
light  without  heat,  great  heat  without  combustion,  and 
possibly  without  light,  transmission  without  metallic 
conductors,  and  seeing  at  a  great  distance  by  electrical 
means.  I  will  come  back  to  the  point  of  beginning — 
how  the  opportunities  of  a  young  engineer  may  be  im- 

First,  by  his  being  prepared  to  meet  the  new  and  in- 
creasing demauds  of  electrical  application.  In  the  com- 
ing wedding  of  electricity  to  all  the  other  branches  of 
industries,  are  the  civil  and  mechanical  engineers  to  ac- 
quaint themselves  with  electrical  knowledge  to  build  and 
operate  the  future  electrical  railroads  ?  Is  the  metallur- 
gist to  become  an  electrician  or  the  latter  a  metallurgist? 
Is  the  chemist  to  study  the  properties  and  effects  of 
the  electric  current,  or  the  electrician  the  reactions  that 
follow  the  combination  of  the  elements  of  matter  in  cer- 
tain proportions  and  in  certain  ways? 

Electricity  is  the  younger  science,  is  the  growing 
one ;  it  should  be  enterprising  and  dispute  the  field  of 
operations  wherever  there  is  an  opportunity. 

The  electrical  engineer  should  now  take  a  stand  for 
his  rights,  should  unite  his  individual  efforts  to  those  of 
his  colleagues  and  be  willing,  even  if  he  be  at  the  top  of 

his  profession,  to  stand  in  with  his  brother  engineers. 
They  all  together  should  teach  to  the  trust,  to  the  cor- 
poration and  to  the  citizen,  that  it  is  equally  as  absurd 
to  devise  plants  for  manufacture  and  stations  and  to  run 
them  without  competent  and  well-remunerated  engin- 
eers, as  it  is  to  build  roads  without  surveys  or  build 
houses  without  architects  ;  that  it  is  equally  as  absurd 
to  leave  the  wiring  of  houses  to  the  contractor  as  it 
would  the  plumbing  to  the  plumber.  That  it  pays  to 
investigate  whether  or  not  the  cheaper  is  the  best,  and 
that  money  spent  in  paying  well  the  conscientious  en- 
gineer is  the  best  of  all  economy. 



After  the  present  month  the  interest  which  the  vet- 
erans of  incandescent  electric  lighting  have  always  felt 
in  the  Oregon  Eail  way  and  Navigation  Company's  steam- 
ship Columbia,  will  fade,  for  that  vessel  is  now  on  the 
drj'-dock  at  the  Union  Iron  Works,  in  San  Francisco,  be- 
ing entirely  reconstructed  and  its  venerable  electric  light- 
ing plant,  which  was  not  only  the  first  ever  placed  on 
any  vessel  in  the  world,  but  was  also  the  first  plant  in- 
stalled for  commercial  purposes  and  placed  in  the  hands 
of  outside  parties  for  operation  \>j  the  original  Edison 
Electric  Light  Company,  has  been  torn  out  and  will  be 
replaced  by  modern  apparatus.  The  history  of  this 
most  interesting  installation  has  been  described  hereto- 
fore,* but  now  that  the  equipment  has  ceased  its  practi- 
cal usefulness  it  is  meet  that  the  event  should  be  re- 

The  credit  for  conceiving  the  installation  of  incan- 
descent lamps  on  shipboard  appears  to  be  due  to  Mr. 
Henry  Villard,  then  President  of  the  O.  B.  &  N.  Co.  and 
the  Northern  Pacific  Bailway  Co.,  a  Director  in  the  Ed- 
ison Electric  Light  Co.  and  an  intimate  friend  of  Mr. 
Edison.  This  was  in  1879,  when  the  Columbia  was  be- 
ing built  at  the  Cramps'  Shipyard,  in  Chester,  Pa.,  and 
orders  were  given  that  the  vessel  should  be  equipped 
with  incandescent  lights.  At  the  suggestion  of  Mr.  Edi- 
son Mr.  J.  C.  Henderson,  then  advising  engineer  of  the 
0.  E.  &  N.  Co.  and  now  prominent  on  the  engineering- 
staff  of  the  General  Electric  Company,  was  placed  in 
charge  of  the  installation,  and  that  he  did  his  work 
well,  even  though  in  a  manner  that  now  bespeaks  the 
crudity  of  the  state  of  the  art  of  incandescent  installa- 
tion at  that  time,  is  evinced  in  the  fact  that  the  plant 
has  a  record  of  service  for  a  period  of  nearly  a  quarter 
of  a  million  hours  with  no  repairs  to  the  machines,  it  is 
said,  except  the  rewinding  of  one  field  coil,  and  a  few 
minor  repairs  to  the  bearings,  etc.  So  far  as  can  be  as- 
certained the  Columbia  never  lost  an  armature,  and  the 
commutators  have  received  only  such  attention  and  re- 
newals as  has  been  necessary  from  normal  and  proper- 

The  Columbia's  plant  consisted  of  four  Edison  long 
field  core  dynamos  of  the  original  type  now  known  as 
the  "  Z  "  pattern.  The  capacity  of  each  of  these  ma- 
chines was  60  16-c.  p.  lamps,  but  as  only  three  of  them 
were  used  for  lighting  service,  the  tnird  being  utilized  as 
an  exciter  for  the  remaining  three,  the  total  output  of 
the  plant  was  180  lights.  The  vessel  was  wired  for  115 
lamps,  placed  in  the  cabins  and  staterooms,  but  regard- 
less  of  this  fact  when  the  vessel  was  at  sea  the  four  dy- 

*  Electrical  Engineer  (N.  Y.),  Vol.  XV,  No.  252,  March  1,  1894." 

July,  1895.] 



namos  were  operated  continuously  from  dark  until  10:30 
o'clock  each  night  during  the  fifteen  years  the  plant  has 
been  in  operation.  The  plant  was  installed  in  the  early 
part  of  1880,  and  on  the  2d  of  May  in  that  year  the  dy- 
namos were  first  started. 

In  the  light  of  present  practices  and  beliefs  it  seems 
impossible  that  the-  wiring  of  this  pioneer  equipment 
should  have  been  in  use  for  fifteen  years  on  shipboard 
exposed  to  dampness  and  other  possibilities  of  injury 

Relics  of  the  First  Marine  Incandescent  Installation. 

without  having  caused  serious  trouble,  but  despite  this 
the  No.  11  cotton-covered  paraffined  wire,  which  was 
used  for  the  mains,  and  the  No.  32  cotton-covered  par- 
affined magnet  wires  used  for  the  branches,  all  being 
stapled  to  the  wood  work  and  painted  over,  remained  in 
serviceable  condition  to  the  last.  It  is  stated,  however, 
that  originally  the  plant  was  installed  without  fusible 
cutouts,  and  that  the  necessity  for  cutting  off  the  cur- 
rent by  some  means  upon  the  occurrence  of  any  abnor- 
mal condition  in  the  circuit  such  as  would  be  occasioned 
by  short  circuit,  leakage,  etc.,  was  impressed  by  earlier 
experiences  with  this  plant,  and  that  before  leaving  for 
her  trip  around  Gape  Horn,  the  Columbia's  lighting 
plant  was  provided  with  safety  fuses  in  the  mains  near 
the  dynamos  and  in  each  lamp  socket  or  at  each  lamp. 
All  mains  and  lamp  circuits  were  bunched  together,  and 
the  main  bus  wires  from  the  dynamos  to  the  switch- 
board, or  more  properly  speaking,  to  the  fuseboard,  were 
of  bare  copper  wire  stranded  and  inclosed  in  a  soft  rub- 
ber tubing,  each  bus  having  a  strand  for  each  circuit 
controlled  from  the  fuseboard.  The  dynamos  were 
driven  from  a  countershaft  driven  in  turn  by  a  pair  of 
high-pressure  vertical  engines.  The  countershaft,  which 
was  directly  over  the  dynamos,  was  run  along  the  aft- 
ward  wall  of  the  main  engine-room,  and  the  arrange- 
ment of  belting  between  the  engines  and  the  dynamos 
through  the  countershaft  was  at  a  very  high  angle,  in 
order  to  economize  freight  space.  A  further  peculiarity 
rested  in  the  fact  that  the  armature  of  the  exciter  was 
driven  at  half  the  speed  of  the  armature  of  the  lighting 

The  difficulties  attending  the  first  installation  of  incan- 
descent lighting  could  be  made  very  clear  by  an  ex- 
amination of  the  Columbia's  plant.  The  first  lot  of 
lamps  installed  were  of  the  paper  carbon  variety,  which 
were  so  delicate  that  it  was  soon  found  that  the  jar  of  the 
ship's  engines  broke  the  filaments  at  an  alarming  rate,  to 
overcome  which,  the  lamps  were  fitted  into  small  turned 
wood  bases  and  suspended  by  strips  of  felt  ribbon. 
Later  wood  receptacles  were  used  that  were  placed  flat 
against  the  surfaces  of  the  ceilings  but  seperated  there- 
from by  light  thick  felting  to  minimize  the  jar.  The 
sockets  wherever  used  were  of  complicated  type  mounted 
entirely  in  wood,  but  the  staterooms  were  lighted  by 
means  of  lamps  mounted  on  receptacles  or  the  small 
wood  bases  described  and  completely  enclosed  in  ground 
glass  globes  so  as  to  be  beyond  the  reach  of  passengers. 
These  lights  could  be  controlled  only  by  a  wooden  switch 
located  outside  of  the  stateroom  and  turned  on  and  off  by 
a  key  in  the  hands  of  the  steward.  It  was  necessary, 
therefore,  to  ring  a  call  bell  and  await  the  response  of  a 
steward  before  the  lamp  could  be  lighted  or  extinguished, 
and  often  then  it  would  be  necessary  to  resort  to  the  use 
of  the  oil  lamp,  because  of  the  fact  that  the  regulation  of 
dynamos  was  such  that  they  could  not  control  the  poten- 
tial under  material  changes  in  load.  Parts  of  the  light- 
ing apparatus  here  described  are  shown  in  the  accom- 
panying illustration. 

The  incandescent  electric  lighting  plant  on  the  Colum- 
bia proved  a  source  of  wonderment,  not  only  on  the 
Pacific  Coast,  but  at  every  port  at  which  the  vessel 
stopped  01a  her  voyage  around  the  Horn.  Through  Mr. 
Villard's  association  with  Mr.  Edison's  and  the  O.  R.  & 
N.  Co.'s  interests,  it  was  arranged  that  the  vessel  should 
stop  at  every  principal  port  and  give  exhibitions  of  the 
apparatus.  The  engineers  of  the  Columbia  who  have 
been  with  the  vessel  from  the  time  it  was  built,  state 
that  the  lamps  of  the  paper  carbon  variety  did  not  out- 
last much  of  the  trip  to  the  Pacific  Coast,  and  that  the 
replacing  of  burned  out  lamps  became  monotinously 
frequent.  Upon  arriving  on  the  Coast,  however,  a  new 
lot  of  lamps  was  received  from  the  East,  in  which  bam- 
boo filaments  were  used ;  these  gave  much  better  satis- 
faction and  many  of  them,  it  is  stated,  have  a  record  of 
5000  houi-s,  while  some  have  burned  9000  hours,  and  a 
very  few  lamps  that  were  seldom  used  were  still 
connected  on  the  circuits  when  the  plant  was  dis- 

In  addition  to  the  incandescent  plant,  the  Columbia 
was  provided  with  a  2000  c.  p.  power  search  light  oper- 
ated by  a  small  Siemens'  vertical  type  dynamo  with  von 
Hefner  Alteneck  drum  armature.  The  vessel,  when 
refitted,  will  be  provided  with  a  400-light  Siemens'- 
Halske  generator,  direct  connected  to  a  triple  expansion 
marine  type  Union  Iron  Works  engine. 


Poets  and  philosophers  are  fond  of  marveling  at  the  wonders 
of  the  human  heart,  but  they  usually  confine  themselves  to  homi- 
lies on  its  ceaseless  activity,  and  some  of  the  things  that  are 
most  wonderful  of  all  escape  their  attention  entirely.  One  of  the 
most  remarkable  things  about  the  heart  is  the  amount  of  work  it 
does.  Considering  the  organ  as  a  pump,  the  task  of  which  is 
to  deliver  a  known  quantity  of  blood  against  a  known  "head," 
it  is  easy  to  show  that  in  twenty-four  hours  a  man's  heart  does 
about  124  foot-tons  of  work.  "  In  other  words,"  says  a  contem- 
porary, "  if  the  whole  force  expended  by  the  heart  in  twenty -four 
hours  were  gathered  into  one  huge  stroke,  such  a  power  would  lift 
124  tons  one  foot  from  the  ground.  A  similar  calculation  has 
been  made  respecting  the  amount  of  work  expended  by  the  mus- 
cles involved  in  breathing.  In  twenty-four  hours  these  muscles 
do  about  21  foot-tons  of  work. 


[Vol.  I,  No.  i. 

Recent   Installations. 


By  W.  W.  Hanscom,  M.  E.,  E.  E. 

The  electrical  equipment  of  the  new  United  States 
cruiser  "  Olympia"  recently  finished  by  the  Union  Iron 
Works  of  San  Francisco,  represents  a  very  complete 
and  modern  marine  plant  in  every  way,  and  the  extent 
to  which  electricitjr  enters  into  the  handling  of  vessels  of 
the  new  navy  could  not  be  more  fully  expressed  than  by 
giving  a  description  of  the  installation  and  its  various 
functions.  To  facilitate  description  therefore,  the  various 
parts  of  the  plant  are  considered  under  the  following 

The  Generating  Sets,  consisting  of  combined  engine 
and  dynamo,  directly  connected  and  mounted  on  a  sin- 
gle bed  plate  as  shown  in  the  accompanying  illustration, 

continuous  hours  heat  49°  F.  above  the  surrounding 
atmosphere.  The  commutators  are  large  in  diameter 
and  present  a  large  bearing  surface  for  the  brushes  and 
are  cross  connected  at  90°  requiring  but  one  set  of 
negativesand  positive  brushes. 

One  of  the  most  interesting  features  of  the  installa- 
tion is  the  switchboard,  which  is  of  slate  and  designed 
for  eighteen  circuits  operated  by  four  dynamos.  The 
bus  bars  and  switches  are  arranged  to  permit  either 
dynamo  to  be  used  separately  on  arc,  incandescent  or 
motor  circuits,  or  for  all  dynamos  to  be  operated  in 
parallel  on  all  circuits  also  in  parallel.  Instrument 
boards,  placed  on  each  side  of  the  main  switchboard 
carry  independent  Weston  voltmeters  and  amperemeters 
for  each  dynamo  and  search  light  and  also  the  ground 
detector.  A  valuable  feature  of  the  switches  is  the  fact 
that  the  switch  blades  are  removable  when  not  in  use, 
which  reduces  the  possibili  ty  of  careless  switching. 

The  wiring  is  installed  under  the  two  wire  system, 
each  pair  of  conductors  being  carried  in  wooden  mould- 

Electricity  on  the  Cruiser  Olympia. 

are  four  in  number,  each  having  an  output  of  sixteen 
kilowatts'and  forming  at  once  a  complete  and  indepen- 
dent set. 

The  Engines  are  of  the  Union  Iron  Works  stand- 
ard, compound  condensing  inverted  cylinder  vertical 
type  developing  at  four  hundred  revolutions,  twenty-six 
indicated  horse  power.  An  auotmatic  governor  of  the 
Ide  type  controls  the  admission  of  steam  into  the  high 
pressure  cylinder  by  acting  directly  on  its  valve  and  so 
perfect  is  its  action  that  the  variation  in  speed  from  no 
load  to  full  load  and  reverse  is  only  three  revolutions 
or  f  of  1  per  cent. 

General  Electric  Compound  Wound  direct  current 
four  pole  marine  type  generators  of  eighty  volts  and 
two  hundred  amperes  are  used  each  machine  being  di- 
rectly connected  to  its  engine.  The  windings  are  so 
proportioned  that  the  voltage  varies  but  \\  volts  from 
the  normal  between  no  load  and  full  load.  The  arma- 
tures are  gramme  rings  with  windings  of  ample  capacity 
to  carry  an  over  load  of  50  per  cent  to  75  per  cent  with- 
out injury  and  when  operated  under   full  load  for  four 

ing  with  all  joints  iu  mains  and  for  branches  made  in 
water  tight  bronze  junction  boxes;  the  wires  entering 
through  packing  or  stuffing  tubes  made  tight  by  soft 
rubber  glands.  Where  led  through  bulkheads,  the  wires 
pass  through  water  tight  stuffing  tubes  made  so  in  the 
same  manner.  The  circuits  are  divided  into  lighting 
and  battle  mains,  the  former  for  general  illumination 
and  the  latter  for  use  in  time  of  action.  No  single  wire 
larger  than  16  B.  W.  G.  is  used,  larger  sizes  being 
stranded  to  give  the  required  area.  The  insulation  of 
the  wires  is  as  follows:  1st  A  layer  of  pure  Para  rubber 
2nd  A  layer  of  vulcanized  rubber  containing  about  50 
percent  sulphur  and  lastly  a  layer  of  woven  or  braided 
cotton,  saturated  with  a  flame  and  moisture-proof  com- 
pound. The  average  resistance  of  each  outlet  to  ground 
including  wires,  junction  boxes  and  switches  and 
dynamos,  after  a  year's  installation  and  use  was  sixty 
million  ohms. 

The  fixtures  are  all  designed  with  special  reference 
to  their  respective  uses  and  are  finished  in  dark  bronze 
or  oxidized  silver  according  to   location.      Ceiling  rings, 

July,   1895.] 



steam  tight  globes,  desk  lights  and  bulkhead  fixtures  for 
officers'  aud  crew's  quarters,  living  spaces,  engine  rooms, 
passages,  etc.  together  with  coal  bunker  lights,  mag- 
azine lanterns  and  brackets,  besides  water  tight  switches 
aud  receptacles  and  plain  receptacles,  are  designed  with 
a  view  to  continuous  service. 

Motors  are  used  for  ventlation  and  ammunition 
hoisting,  the  ventilating  motors,  three  in  number  being 
arranged  as  follows:  One.  a  2  h.  p,  motor  is  located  in 
the  dynamo  room  and  keeps  it  supplied  with  cool  air 
drawn  from  above  the  decks.  The  other  two  of  |  horse 
power  each,  are  portables,  being  arranged  to  be  carried 
about  and  used  for  ventilating  coal  bunkers,  double  bot- 
toms, etc.  Each  motor  is  fastened  to  the  side  of  and 
directly  connected  to  the  fan  of  its  respective  blower. 
Three  eight  horse  power  shunt  wound  water  proof 
motors  are  located  in  the  passing  rooms  and  used  for 
hoisting  ammunition  to  the  gun  deck  for  the  5-iuch  broad- 
side guns,  while  two  five  horse  power  series  wound 
motors  with  reversing  rheostats  are  located  in  the  turrets 
and  keep  the  eight  inch  guns  supplied  with  ammunition 

The  signaling  equipment  known  as  the  Electric 
Night  Sigualiug  apparatus  consists  of  a  series  of  double 
lanterns,  the  upper  halves  red  and  the  lower  halves 
white,  fastened  one  above  the  other  on  a  stay  of  the 
main  mast;  a  32  c.  p.  lamp  in  each  half  is  connected  to 
a  key  board  located  on  the  after  bridge.  Numerous 
combinations  can  be  made  by  revolving  a  handle  over  an 
index  plate  on  top  of  the  staud.  A  truck  light,  similar 
in  design  to  the  signal  lantern  is  located  on  top  of  each 
mast  and  connected  to  aud  operated  by  switches  on  the 
forward  bridge. 

Four  Mangin  projectors,  30  inches  in  diameter,  are 
located  on  the  fore  and  main  tops  aod  on  the  broadsides. 
These  lamps  require  one  hundred  amperes  each  at 
forty-five  to  forty-eigh't  volts,  the  reduction  from  eighty 
at  the  dynamos  being  accomplished  by  means  of  a  dead 
resistance  in  series  with  the  lamps.  Each  projector  is 
furnished  with  two  lenses,  the  inner  one  forming  a 
hinged  door  in  front  of  the  projector,  and  the  outer  one, 
operated  from  the  back,  slides  in  front  of  the  inner  one 
changing  the  rays  from  a  parallel  beam  of  great  intensity 
to  a  diverged  or  fan-shaped  one  of  more  area  but  less 
intensity.  The  lamps,  which  are  arranged  for  either 
hand  or  automatic  feed,  are  so  proportioned  as  to  keep 
the  arc  always  in  the  focus  of  the  mirror  in  back.  A 
damper  allows  of  shuttiug  off  of  the  light  from  the  mir- 
ror, thus  permitting  intermittent  flashes  of  light  to  be 
used  for  signaling.  The  two  broadside  projectors  are, 
by  means  of  motors  and  gearing  in  their  bases,  controlled 
electrically  by  a  controlling  device  in  a  further  part  of 
the  ship  and  can  be  revolved,  elevated  or  depressed  at 
will.     The  candle  power  of  the  beam  is  rated  at  100,000. 

The  alarm  system  consists  of  hinged  floats  containing 
mercurial  contacts,  located  in  each  water  tight  compart- 
ment and  so  arranged  as  to  close  a  circuit  when  water 
has  found  its  way  to  and  capjized  them.  The  closing  of 
the  circuit  operates  an  annunciator  on  the  main  deck, 
notifying  the  officers  of  the  location  of  the  trouble. 
Thermostats  in  each  coal  bunker  are  arranged  to  give 
a  similiar  alarm  upon  the  temerature  in  any  of  them 
rising  above  200°  F.  Electro-mechanical  gongs  located 
in  numerous  parts  of  the  ship  and  operated  by  contact- 
makers  similar  to  a  fire  alarm  box,  are  used  for  calling 
the  crew  to' quarters  in  case  of  fire  or  other  reasons. 

Interior  communication  is  effected  through  the  use  of 
the  push  button  and  annunciator  systems  and  telephones. 
Calls  can  be  made  from  one-hundred  seventy  different 
points  all  over  the  ship  and  the  telephones  offer  a  ready 
means  of  communication  between  the  Captain  and  Chart 
House,  and   the   turrets  and  passing  rooms  and  central 

station.  The  transmitters  are  regular  granular  Hun- 
nings  type  and  are  connected  in  series  with  the  battery, 
the  receivers  being  used  without  induction  coils.  An  ' 
idea  of  the  completeness  of  the  various  systems  of  in- 
terior communication  may  be  had  from  the  fact  that  it 
required  over  70,000  feet  of  insulated  copper  wire  or 
nearly  13^  miles,  to  make  the  wiring  connections. 


The  electric  power  station  and  car  barn  of  the 
Seattle  (Wash.)  Cousolidated  Street  Railway  Company 
was  destroyed  by  fire  early  on  the  morning  of  June 
20th,  causing  a  loss,  roughly  estimated,  at  $100,000. 
The  building  was  a  substantial  brick  structure,  60  feet 
by  260  feet  in  area,  occupying  the  entire  side  of  the 
block  on  the  north  side  of  Pine  street,  between  Fifth 
and  Sixth  streets,  and  was  so  constructed  on  a  hillside 
that  the  main  floor,  constituting  the  car  house  and  re- 
pair shop,  was  on  a  level  with  Fifth  street,  while  the 
basement   floor,  on  which    was  located    the    boiler  and 

engine  and  dynamo  room,  was  on  a  level  with  Sixth 
street.  The  photograph  from  which  the  accompanying 
half-tone  was  made  shows  the  northwest  corner  of  the 
building,  containing  the  boiler  room  on  the  lower  floor 
and  the  repair  shop  on  the  upper  floor. 

The  plant  equipment  consisted  of  the  necessary 
boilers  and  two  Corliss  engines,  each  rated  at  225  horse- 
power, either  or  both  of  which  operated  a  counter-shaft, 
driving  the  six  Thomson-Houston  type  D62  railway 
generators  which  the  station  contained.  The  building 
is  reported  to  be  completely  gutted  and  in  addition  to 
the  building  and  plant  the  company  lost  twenty-five  cars 
that  were  in  the  building  at  the  time  of  the  fire.  An 
insurance  of  $40,000  was  carried. 

The  building  represented  in  the  foreground  of  the 
illustration  is  the  burned  station  of  the  ;i  Seattle  Consoli- 
dated," while  that  in  the  background  is  the  lighting 
station  of  the  Home  Electric  Company,  now  consoli- 
dated with  the  Union  Electric  Company  of  Seattle. 


Every  employee  of  the  Board  of  Fire  Underwriters 
of  the  Pacific  except  one  —  Mr.  E.  F.  Mohrhardt,  Sec- 
retary of  the  board,  has  received  his  demit  to  take  effect 
June  30th,  and  only  the  barren  organization  will  here- 
after remain  until  such  time  as  it  may  be  deemed  advis- 
able to  adjourn  sine  die,  or  to  reorganize. 

Underwriters'  electrical  inspection  in  the  nine 
States  and  Territories  of  the  Pacific  Coast  is,  therefore, 
a  thing  of  the  past,  but  it  is  being  carried  on  in  San 
Francisco  through  the  Underwriters'  Inspection  Bureau. 



[Vol.  I,  No.  i. 

Qlec-bro'fnsurance . 



The  Underwriters'  Electrical  Bureau  of  Chicago, 
acting  for  the  Underwriters'  National  Electric  Associa- 
tion, has  just  issued  Electrical  Fire  Hazard  Pamphlet 
No.  3,  discussing  the  hazards  of  operating  lamps  and 
motors  by  current  supplied  from  electric  railways  using 
the  grounded  trolley  system  and  which  is  supplemented 
by  letters  from  many  of  the  principal  independent  elec- 
trical engineers  of  the  country  substantiating  Rule  41  of 
the  National  Code,  which  reads: 

Lighting  and  Power  fkom  Railway  Wires. — Must  not  be 
permitted,  under  any  pretense,  in  the  same  circuit  with  trolley 
wires  with  a  ground  return . 

The  pamphlet  points  out  that  this  rule  was  framed 
by  the  Electrical  Committee  of  the  Underwriters'  Na- 
tional Electric  Association,  and  represents  the  unanimous 
opinion  of  the  electrical  inspectors  of  the  United  States,  and  that 
its  enforcement  is  necessary  for  the  general  good  as  is 
demonstrated  by  the  numerous  fires  that  have  occurred 
because  of  its  violation,  as  shown  in  the  various  elec- 
trical fire  reports  issued  by  the  Bureau. 

The  reasons  why  this  system  of  electrical  distribu- 
tion is  far  inferior  and  more  hazardous  than  systems 
ordinarily  used  are  stated  as  follows :  One  side  of  the 
circuit  is  normally  grounded,  which  means  that  but  one 
accidental  electrical  connection  between  any  part  of  the 
wiring  and  a  conducting  substance  of  any  nature  in 
electrical  connection  with  the  earth,  is  necessary  in  order 
to  establish  current  flow  and  a  resulting  "  burn  out"  or 

In  a  complete  metallic  circuit,  two  such  connections 
are  necessary  before  current  flow  can  be  established,  and, 
therefore,  the  grounded  system  is  considerably  more  than 
twice  as  hazardous  as  the  metallic.  The  wires  of  a  trolley 
road  being  run  overhead  are  susceptible  to  lightning  dis- 
charges, and  a  line  being  run  into  a  building  to  a  motor 
and  then  into  the  earth,  affords  an  easy,  convenient  and 
oftentimes  preferable  path  for  the  discharge  to  travel, 
setting  fire  to  the  property  on  the  way.  The  voltage  or 
':  pressure  "  used  on  trolley  systems  is  sufficiently  high 
(500  volts)  to  be  classed  as  a  "  high  potential  "  under 
the  rules,  and  the  energy  used  on  the  circuit  is  sufficient 
to  necessitate  the  generation  of  current  quantities  fre- 
quently great  enough  to  produce  very  severe  heating 
effects,  thus  entailing  the  disadvantages  of  the  series  arc 
system  in  the  comparatively  high  voltage  used,  coupled 
with  the.  disadvantage  Of  the  low  potential  system,  which 
uses  large  currents,  and  this  results  in  bringing  about 
enormous  heating  effects  at  the  point  where  the  break 
occurs.  This  is  a  very  hard  form  of  energy  to  properly 
control  even  under  favorable  circumstances  and  when 
traveling  over  the  uncertain  path  offered  by  a  grounded 
trolley  system,  it  cannot  be  considered  desirable  or  safe 
for  introduction  inside  of  buildings.  Lightning  arresters, 
extra  insulated  wire  run  on  large  size  glass  insulators, 
special  fuses,  double  mounting  of  the  motor,  grounding 
outside  the  building,  a  sign  reading  "  danger,"  a  voltage 
reducer  and  numberless  other  proposed  safeguards,  are 
advantageous,  and  each  does  its  little  to  decrease  the 
probability  of  trouble,  but  they  cannot  make  a  grounded 
circuit  the  equivalent  of  a  metallic  circuit  from  any  point 
of  view. 

The  electrical  engineers  who  contribute  letters  con- 
demning the  practice  in  question  are  Messrs.  Pierce  & 
Richardson,  J.  P.  Barrett,  Wm.  A.  Anthony,  Stone  & 
Webster,  W.  M.  Stine,  Wm.  L.  Puffer,  E.  P.  Roberts  and 
L.  K.  Comstock. 

A  new  process  for  the  extraction  of  gold  at  a  very 
small  expense  is  soon  to  be  started  at  the  Gold  &  Globe 
Mill  of  the  Cripple  Creek  (Colo.)  Gold  Milling  Company. 
The  method  to  be  used  is  known  as  the  "Electro-Chlori- 
nation  Process,"  and  although  certain  parts  of  it  are 
held  secret,  it  is  known  that  the  idea  is  based  on  the 
passing  of  a  heavy  current  at  low  potential  through 
crushed  ore  immersed  in  a  solution  of  sodium  chloride. 
The  sodium  and  chlorine  are  separated  under  the  action 
of  the  current,  the  chlorine  uniting  with  the  gold,  form- 
ing a  chloride  of  gold  which  is  deposited  on  a  sheet  of 
lead  or  other  suitable  cathode. 

The  deposition  vat  will  consist  of  a  large  tank,  the 
bottom  of  which  is  to  be  lined  with  blocks  of  carbon  to 
a  thickness  of  about  three  inches.  Above  these  carbon 
blocks,  which  form  anodes,  will  be  spread  the  ore 
crushed  to  about  a  sixty  mesh,  upon  which  is  poured 
the  solution  of  sodium  chloride,  and  on  the  surface  of 
the  liquid  is  supported  the  cathode.  The  dynamo  used 
will  have  an  output  of  6,000  amperes  at  20  volts,  and  it 
is  claimed  that  on  ton  lot  experiments,  94  per  cent,  ex- 
tractions have  been  made  in  45  minutes.  The  secret 
part  of  the  process  consists  in  the  use  of  an  ingredient 
which,  when  added  to  the  sodium  chloride  solution  pre- 
vents the  liberated  sodium  from  re-uniting  with  the 

All  experiments  have  hitherto  been  carried  on  in 
Philadelphia,  and  having  proven  successful,  a  full 
equipment  has  been  manufactured  and  the  machinery  is 
now  in  process  of  erection  at  Cripple  Creek. 


The  consolidation  of  practically  all  of  the  street 
railway  interests  of  San  Francisco  and  the  conclusion  of 
the  Market  Street  Railway  Company  thus  formed  to 
equip  all  lines  so  far  as  practicable  with  electric  traction 
naturally  led  to  the  organization  of  an  electro-technical 
department  in  the  charge  of  men  of  undoubted  experi- 
ence and  ability  in  electric  railway  construction.  Of  all 
the  apparently  "  little  "  details  of  equipment  that  have 
come  under  the  consideration  of  this  department  none 
have  been  given  greater  care  and  attention  than  that 
bestowed  upon  the  all-important  matter  of  rail-bonding. 

Fig.  1. — The  Chicago  Rail  Bond. 

In  the  earlier  construction  of  electric  railways  the  engi- 
neer made  all  his  estimates  and  calculations  with  the 
utmost  accuracy  and  scientific  precision  for  the  overhead 
half  of  the  circuit,  and  spared  neither  money,  time,  labor 
nor  copper  to  bring  that  half  up  to  the  highest  standard 
of  perfection ;  but  the  practical  results  which  he  aimed 
to  attain,  namely,  a  low  percentage  of  loss  or  drop  upon 
the  line,  and  economical  consumption  of  coal  at  the 
power  house  was  seldom,  if  ever,  realized,  because  he 
neglected  to  complete  the  metallic  circuit  by  properly 
bonding  the  rails  together  at  the  joints.  The  energy 
losses  occurring  through  defective  bonding  soon  were 
realized  to  form  an  abnormally  high  factor  in  the  total 

July,  1895.] 



losses  in  the  operation  of  electric  railways,  to  obviate 
which  has  been  the  study  of  the  ablest  electric  railway 

After  mature  consideration  of  all  systems  of  rail- 
bondiDg  yet  devised,  the  Market  Street  hailway  Com- 
pany adopted  the  form  shown  diagramatically  in  the 
accompanying  sketches  and  which  is  known  as  the 
"  Chicago  "  rail  bond.  In  this  the  rail  bond  proper,  C, 
is  a  copper  rod  or  wire  having  tubular  or  thimble-shaped 
terminals  which  are  bent  at  right  angles  to  the  bond, 
and  with  its  two  tubular  terminals  is  composed  of  one 
solid  piece  of  rolled  copper.  The  tubular  or  thimble- 
shaped  terminals,  A,  are  inserted  into  holes  through  the 
web  of  the  rail,  a,  and  the  slitted  end  of  the  terminal,  A. 
is  spread  or  clinched  over  on  the  rail  with  a  hammer  and 


71 B     C 

Fig.  2. — Chicago  Rail  Bond. 

punch  ;  this  holds  it  from  drawing  back  out  of  the  hole. 
The  drift  pin,  B,  which  is  larger  than  the  opening  in  the 
tubular  or  thimble-shaped  terminal,  A,  is  then  driven 
into  said  terminal,  thus  expanding  it  and  wedging  it  into 
solid  contact  with  the  surface  of  said  hole  through  the 
web  of  the  rail,  «,  making  an  absolutely  solid  joint  from 
which  every  particle  of  air  and  moisture  is  excluded  and 
which  experience  has  thus  far  shown  to  be  proof  against 
corrosion  or  electrolysis.  The  "  Chicago  "  rail  bond  has 
therefore  been  adopted  as  standard  by  the  Market  Street 
Railway  Company  and  is  used  exclusively  in  its  lines  in 
San  Francisco. 


An  invention  that  undoubtedly  will  be  developed  into 
great  utility  aud  that  among  many  other  applications, 
would  seem  to  hasten  the  adoption  of  small  arc  lamps 
for  interior  or  even  desk  use,  is  decribed  in  the  London 
Journal  in  an  article  on  "  Holophane  Globes,"  which  is 
the  name  applied  to  glas-s  globes  that  are  cut  on  scientific 
principles  for  the  proper  dissemination  of  light.  It  is 
stated  that  holophane  globes,  when  inclosing  any  light 
of  high  caudle  power,  such  as  the  Welsbach  incandescent 
gas,. or  the  electric  lamp,  give  the  appearance  of  a  vase 
filled  with  light,  brilliant,  yet  soft  while  the  actual 
burner  or  filament  cannot  be  discerned. 

The  principle  of  the  holophane  globe  is  readily  ex- 
plained. The  interior  surface  of  the  globe  is  formed  into 
vertical  grooves,  which  are  so  shaped  as  to  spread  out 
horizontally  the  rays  proceeding  from  every  part  of  the 
light  source.  The  mouldings  on  the  outer  surface  of  the 
globe  are  horizontal,  and  have  the  effect  of  distributing 
the  emergent  rays  in  the  vertical  sense;  and  inasmuch  as 
the  light  may  be  required  in  some  instances  to  be  cast 
downward  and  in  others  to  be  equally  dispersed,  the 
angles  of  the  outside  grooves  are  modified  accordingly. 
This  is  a  very  different  thing  from  the  unscientific  cutting 
seen  in  ornamental  cut  glass  globes  which  do  nothing 
for  the  diffusion  of  the  light. 

As  for  the  loss  entailed  by  the  reflection  and  refrac- 
tion of  holophane  globes,  it  is  certified  by  M.  de  Nash- 
ville to  amount  in  the  case  of  an  arc  light  to  from  nine 
to  thirteen  per  cent  and  as  this  observer  remarks,  there 
is  no  other  kind  of  globe  in  existence  capable  of  realizing 
such  diffusion  of  light  aud  presenting  such  uniformity 
of  effect.  As  the  loss  of  light  by  transmission  through 
clear  glass  is  from  eight  to  ten  per  cent,  the  claim  that 
holophone  globes  do  their  special  work  for  about  four 
per  cent  of  loss,  is  well  established. 

It  is  pointed  out  in  the  Eugineering  Magazine  that 
the  invention  of  these  globes  may  come  in  with  acetylene 
lighting  now  in  its  very  beginnings. 

THE    LdY   FRE55. 




A  new  kind  of  "hustler"  has  arisen,  and  within  the  past 
three  or  four  months  he  has  been  rapidly  multiplying  and  filling 
the  earth.  He  is  the  promoter  of  new  electrical  enterprises,  and 
especially  the  promoter  of  schemes  for  the  long-distance  trans- 
mission of  electric  power.  The  air  of  the  whole  Pacific  Coast 
has  all  at  once  become  filled  with  talk  about  setting  up  water 
wheels  in  lonely  mountain  places  and  making  them  give  light 
and  cheaply  turn  other  wheels  in  towns  miles  away.  From 
Shasta  to  San  Diego  men  are  organizing,  or  trying  to  organize, 
local  or  San  Francisco  companies  to  utilize  in  this  way  the  water 
power  in  particular  localities.  A  few  of  these  power-transmission 
enterprises  have  been  successfully  organized  by  business  men  of 
capital  and  the  work  of  establishing  them  has  been  actually  be- 
gun. The  rest  are  yet  in  the  air,  and  many  of  them  will  remain 
there  for  a  long  time. 

But  the  interesting  fact  is  that  the  State  is  full  of  "inquiry  " 
in  this  direction,  and  consulting  electrical  engineers  and  agents 
of  manufacturers  are  kept  busy  answering  questions  in  person 
and  by  lettei  and  making  preliminary  estimates  of  cost.  Their 
business  field  is  now  very  active  and  competition  is  keen  and  in- 
creasing. Big  and  little  companies  have  agents  here  who  are  af- 
ter every  rumor  of  a  new  railway,  light,  power  or  other  plant, 
and  they  keep  to  themselves  every  pointer  they  get  to  avoid  send- 
ing a  lot  of  competitors  after  their  customers.  Local  manufact- 
uring establishments  are  rapidly  going  into  the  manufacture  of 
electrical  machinery. 

While  the  actual  business  done  is  mainly  with  new  railway 
and  lighting  plants  and  new  buildings,  the  activity  over  power 
transmission  is  the  most  interesting,  if  not  the  most  important 
thing  to  the  general  public.  The  transmission  of  electric  power 
has  just  entered  upon  its  second  stage.  For  years  it  has  remained 
in  the  stage  of  theory  and  experiment. 

Great  public  interest  has  always  been  taken  in  the  prophesies 
of  electrical  engineers  that  the  vast  amount  of  power  running 
waste  in  hills  and  mountains  everywhere  would  be  cheaply  util- 
ized by  transforming  it  into  electrical  energy  and  taking  it  long 
distances  to  where  it  would  be  practicable  to  use  it.  In  this  State 
it  has  long  been  a  popular  and  somewhat  inspiring  idea  that  the 
power  in  the  streams  and  reservoirs  of  the  bierras  would  light 
the  towns  of  the  valleys  and  foothills,  and  so  cheapen  power  in 
them  that  industries  would  be  stimulated.  The  success  of  the 
experiments  at  Portland,  Kedlands,  the  Bodie  mines  and  a  few 
other  places,  where  from  twelve  to  twenty-five  miles  have  been 
covered,  has  warranted  the  various  new  enterprises  which  con- 
template providing  power  and  light  to  towns  in  the  Sacramento 
and  San  Joaquin  valleys  and  in  the  foothills.  So  they  have  sud- 
denly sprung  up  in  numbers  and  the  stage  of  practical  business 
has  just  been  fairly  entered. 

Sacramento  is  to  be  the  first  town  to  get  river  power  from  a. 
distance  on  a  large  scale.  The  big  plant  near  Folsoni  is  to  be 
read v  for  operation  in  four  or  five  weeks,  and  then  5,000  horse- 
power will  be  kept  pumping  into  Sacramento  over  twenty  miles 
away  to  run  the  trolley  lines  and  give  light  and  power.  The  new 
company  is  invading  the  field  of  the  gas  company  in  the  light 
business,  and  lively  competition  is  promised. 

The  South  Yuba  Water  Company  is  getting  ready  to  do  big 
and  interesting  things  in  Placer  County.  It  controls  an  immense 
water  system  in  Placer  and  Nevada  counties,  and  has  practically 
unlimited  power  at  its  command,  and  it  can  be  utilized  cheaply 
at  high  heads  The  company  expects  to  have  in  operation  by 
August  1st  a  plant  that  will  light  Newcastle,  Penryn  and  Loomis. 
It  will  begin  with  150  horse-power  and  $25,000  plant,  with  water 
used  at  460  feet  pressure.  The  company  is  said  to  plan  invading 
Sacramento,  twenty-two  miles  from   Rocklin,  with    light  and 



[Vol.  I,  No.  i. 

power,  and  a  scheme  to  operate  an  electric  road  from  Marysville 
to  Newcastle,  along  the  foothills,  is  being  much  talked  about. 

Another  enterprise  that  has  passed  the  stage  of  talk  is  one  to 
supply  power  to  the  big  groups  of  mines  about  the  region  of  Grass 
\  alley  and  Nevada  City.  This  company,  which  is  composed  of 
miners,  proposes  to  sell  power  to  mines  for  miles  around  at  $75 
per  horse-power  per  year.  Heretofore  the  power  used  at  the 
mines  has  been  mainly  water  power,  sold  by  water  companies  at 
from  $125  to  $150  per  horse-power. 

It  is  in  the  mining  regions  that  the  use  of  electric  power  will 
naturally  be  most  rapidly  developed,  and  many  mining  compa- 
nies are  "now  figuring  on'establishing  plants  for  their  individual 

One  of  the  most  interesting  schemes  that  have  been 
launched  is  that  of  the  San  Joaquin  Power  Company,  which 
is  perfecting  plans  to  bring  light  and  power  into  Fresno  from  one 
of  the  forks  of  the  >an  Joaquin  River,  forty-three  miles  northeast 
of  Fresno.  This  company  is  composed  of  Fresno  capitalists.  A 
San  Francisco  company  has  arranged  to  supply  electricity  to  Ba- 
kersfield  from  a  plant  in  Kern  River  Canyon,  several  miles  from 
the  city. 

These  are  the  only  new  enterprises  in  this  line  which  are  re- 
garded as  having  passed  the  stage  of  talk.  Several  are  in  the  air 
of  Southern  California,  and  a  half-dozen  schemes  to  electrify 
Stockton  from  the  Sierras  have  come  to  the  front  since  the  rail- 
road-boom began. — San  Francisco  Call,  June  1,  1895. 

The  widespread  interest  that  is  being  taken  in  plans  for  the 
electric  transmission  of  power  gives  promise  that  the  great  need 
of  Calif ornian  manufacture  is  likely  to  be  met  within  a  few  years. 
Capitalists  and  promoters  are  actively  inquiring  into  the  cost  of 
plants,  and  the  water  powers  are  being  grabbed  or  bought  up  as 
rapidly  as  they  Can  be  found.  The  great  need  of  Californian  man- 
ufacturers is  cheap  power.  With  the  nearest  abundant  supplj' 
of  coal  600  miles  away  and  with  much  of  the  fuel  shipped  from 
Kngland  and  Australia,  it  is  impossible  to  compete  in  those 
lines  of  manufacture  in  which  power  is  one  of  the  largest  parts 
of  the  cost. 

But  California  has  abundance  of  water  power  within  her  bor- 
ders. The  rivers  and  streams  that  take  their  rise  in  the  Sierra 
Nevadas  could  furnish  energy  enough  to  run  all  the  engines  in 
the  United  States  if  only  it  could  be  harnessed  and  brought  where 
it  can  be  used.  There  is  now  no  difficulty  in  harnessing  the 
power  of  mountain  streams,  as  electric  transmission  has  reached 
a  stage  of  progress  in  which  power  can  be  carried  many  miles 
with  slight  loss.  The  time  is  not  far  in  the  future,  if  it  has  not 
already  come,  when  San  Francisco  will  have  the  benefit  of  the 
power  that  has  been  going  to  waste  in  the  mountains.  The  en- 
ergy cannot  be  brought  from  the  Sierras  yet,  on  a  commercial 
basis  at  least,  but  there  is  good  authority  for  the  statement  that 
thousands  of  horse-power  may  be  brought  from  Clear  Lake  and 
delivered  to  San  Francisco  manufacturers  at  a  rate  that  will 
drive  steam  and  coal  from  most  of  our  industries. 

The  day  is  undoubtedly  coming  when  the  Sierra  water  pow- 
ers can  be  brought  to  San  Francisco,  and  when  that  day  comes 
the  city  will  have  an  unlimited  supply  of  energy  at  its  command. 
The  rapid  slopes  of  the  streams  that  make  a  descent  of  three  or 
four  thousand  feet  in  a  short  distance  offer  a  chance  to  use  the 
same  water  over  and  over.  The  capitalists  have  awakened  to  the 
opportunity.  California  should  lead,  rather  than  follow,  in  elec- 
trical transmission  of  power.  There  is  both  the  supply  of  power 
and  the  absence  of  competition  from  the  fuel  supplies  that  worry 
the  electrical  companies  elsewhere. — San  Francisco  Examiner. 
June  3,  1895. 

A  dispatch  from  Fresno  says  that  the  owners  of  the  new  wa- 
ter and  electric  plant  being  put  in  on  the  San  Joaquin  River  have 
offered  to  furnish  power  for  machine  shops  of  the  Valley  Railroad, 
if  built  in  Fresno,  at  one-half  the  cost  of  steam  power. 

It  seems  to  be  an  irresistible  conclusion  that  the  greater  part 
of  the  power  which  can  be  made  available  for  industrial  purposes 
in  California  must  come  directly  from  the  forces  of  nature.  \\  e 
have  no  cheap  coal  in  California,  'or,  at  least,  none  has  been 
found  as  yet,  unless  we  except  the  Livermore  lignite,  which  has 
not  been  fully  developed,  and  imported  coal  for  manufacturing 
purposes  is  almost  an  impossibility,  not  on  account  of  the  forty 
cents  a  ton  duty,  but  because  of  the  cost  of  transportation.  But 
in  the  mountains  of  California,  from  one  end  of  the  State  to  the 
other,  there  are  rivers,  streams  and  creeks  which  may  be  made  a 
source  of  supply  for  power  almost  infinite.  To  convert  the  dy- 
namic force  of  running  water  into  electrical  energy  is  one  of  the 
simplest  of  modern  scientific  problems,  and  the  only  practical 
difficulty  is  the  economical  transmission  of  the  electric  force  over 
long  distances. — San  Francisco  Chronicle,  May  17,  1S95. 

The  scheme  for  transmitting  powder  from  the  north  fork  of 
the  San  Joaquin  River  to  Fresno  has  been  in  contemplation, 
in  one  form  or  another,  for  a  long  time,  but  the  work  went 
forward  so  quietly  that  the  public  did  not  learn  that  any   act- 

ual steps  had  been  taken  until  operations  had  begun.  Work 
has  now  been  going  on  for  some  weeks  on  the  canal  by  which 
water  will  be  led  from  the  north  fork  to  the  reservoir,  a  dis- 
tance of  six  miles,  following  the  line  of  canal. 
It  is  not  too  much  to  say  that  a  new  era  has  dawned  for 
Fresno  and  the  surrounding  country.  The  drawback  heretofore 
has  been  that  fuel  was  so  expensive  that  manufacturing  was  at  a 
disadvantage,  especially  where  much  power  was  used.  This  is 
now  to  be  reversed.  Power  will  be  cheap,  permanent  and  conve- 
nient, and  coal  will  be  known  in  Fresno  no  more,  except,  per- 
haps, in  a  few  cases  where  electricity  cannot  be  made  to  answer 
the  purpose,  which  will  mark  the  dawn  of  a  day  such  as  the  .San 
Joaquin  Vallev  has  never  seen. — Fresno  (Cal.)  Republican,  May 
12,  1895.  

JfetOs  of  the  Jffonth. 


Riverside,  Cal. — H.  H.  Streeter  has  been  granted  a  tele- 
phone franchise. 

Napa,  Cal. — L.  Grothwell,  of  San  Francisco,  has  applied  for 
a  franchise  for  the  erection  of  telephone  and  telegraph  lines  from 
Napa  to  Calistoga. 

Great  Falls,  Mont. — Rapid  progress  is  being  made  in  the 
construction  of  the  new  telephone  line  from  Great  Falls  to  Lew- 
istown,  a  distance  of  fifty-three  miles. 

Sacramento,  Cal. — The  Board  of  Supervisors  have  posted 
notice  of  sale  on  June  24th  of  a  franchise  for  the  construction, 
operation  and  maintenance  of  a  telephone  and  telegraph  system 
in  Sacramento  County.  Evidences  of  having  secured  at  least  400 
bona  fide  telephone  subscribers  must  be  presented. 


Portland,  Or  — A  school  for  electricity  has  been  established 
under  the  direction  of  Professor  Loverage. 

Sacramento,  Cal  — The  Electro-Chemical  Amalgamating  Co. 
has  been  incorporated.     Calvin  Brown  is  one  of  the  Directors. 

Los  Angeles,  Cal. — The  Dheuy  Oil  Company  does  its  oil 
pumping  by  electricity,  using  the  Commercial  Electric  Compa- 
ny's motors. 

Sprague,  Wash. — Lightning  entered  the  station  of  the  Sprague 
Electric  Light  Works  on  May  18th,  doing  damage  that  necessi- 
tated a  week's  shut  down. 

Oregon  City,  Or. — F.  E.  Ball  of  the  Electrical  Reduction 
Works  has  gone  to  Southern  Oregon  to  exploit  his  electrical 
method  of  reducing  refractory  ores.  His  assistant,  E.  F.  Ken- 
nedy, accompanies  him. 

San  Jose,  Cal. — The  Electrical  Improvement  Company  has 
paid  Giovanni  Giraudi  $2,000  as  judgment  and  $774  as  interest 
and  costs  for  the  loss  of  his  right  hand  by  an  injury  received  from 
contact  with  an  electric  light  wire  on  the  roof  of  a  house  at  night 
in  a  storm. 

La  Center,  Wash. — A  Clark  County  lumberman  has  erected  a 
plant  consisting  of  an  electric  motor  driving  a  drag  saw.  With 
this  equipment  it  requires  but  three  minutes  for  the  saw  to  cut 
through  a  five  foot  log,  and  the  saw  cuts  on  an  average  100  cords 
of  wood  a  day. 

San  Francisco,  Cal  — Neil  Cameron,  a  lineman  of  the  Fire 
Alarm  system,  has  brought  suit  against  the  W.  U.  T.  Co.  and  the 
city  to  recover  $20,000  damages  for  personal  injuries,  alleged  to 
have  been  caused  by  the  falling  of  a  telegraph  pole  upon  which 
he  was  working. 

Sax  Francisco. — The  Municipal  Signal  Company,  of  Boston, 
has  served  notice  on  the  Board  of  Supervisors  that  the  citv  will 
be  held  responsible  for  its  use  of  the  police  signal  system  in  ser- 
vice, alleged  to  be  an  infringement  of  patents  owned  by  the 
company  named. 

Berkeley,  Cal. — Suit  has  been  entered  by  C.  W.  McLaugh- 
lin against  the  Western  Union  Telegraph  Company  for  damages 
in  the  sum  of  $5,250,  for  failure  to  deliver  a  message  owing  to  a 
mistake  made  by  an  employee  in  making  the  name  "  Dietz  "  ap- 
pear as  "  Dieth." 

Tacoma,  Wash. — Electricians  Bochelet  and  Fraser  have 
entered  into  a  contract  with  the  Northern  Pacific  R«ilway  Com- 
pany to  recover  a  safe  that  was  lost  in  the  bay  during  a  recent 
landslide  and  which  cannot  be  found.  The  electricians  propose 
to  locate  the  safe  by  electro-magnetic  means. 

Portland,  Or. — The  General  Electric  Company  has  brought 
suit  against  the  receiver  of  the  Oregon  Railway  and  Navigation 
Company  to  recover  damages  in  the  sum  of  $63,916.43  for  the  loss 

July,  I895.J 



of  electrical  machinery  by  tire  on  September  23d  last,  such  ma- 
chinery being  consigned  to  the  Portland  General  Electric  Com- 

San  Francisco. — Suit  has  been  entered  by  C.  C  Terrill  and 
the  German  Savings  and  Loan  Society  against  Fabian  and  Mar- 
garetha  Joost,  to  foreclose  two  mortgages  aggregating  $141,000, 
which  sum  represents  money  borrowed  to  assist  the  San  Fran- 
cisco and  San  Mateo  Electric  Railway  out  of  its  financial  difficul- 
ties some  time  ago. 



Perkis,  Cal. — It  is  possible  that  the  San  Antonio  Light   and 

;er  Company  will  extend  its  10,000-volt  circuit  to  this  city. 

Visai.ia,  Cal. — Satisfactory  progress  is  being  made  in  the  ne- 
gotiations for  the  transmission  of  electric  power  from  the  Kaweah 
River  to  this  city. 

Phoenix,  Ariz. — The  great  Walnut  Grove  dam  may  be  re- 
built, and  if  so  an  electric  power  plant  of  considerable  magnitude 
will  be  installed. 

San  Diego,  Cal. —  An  electrical  engineer  is  figuring  on  a  plant 
to  supply  this  city  with  electric  power  from  a  waterfall  on  the 
flume  line  of  the  San  Diego  Flume  Company. 

Silyertox,  Col. — The  150  h.  p.  general  electric  generator  and 
Pelton  wheel  installed  in  the  Silver  Lake  mines  last  August  by 
E.  G.  Stoyber,  has  been  supplemented  by  a  duplicate  equipment. 

Sax  Jose  de  Costa  Rica, — Considerable  electric  work  is  be- 
ing installed  in  this  vicinity,  one  of  the  latest  orders  being  for  a 
150  h.  p.  General  Electric  generator  with  Pelton  wheels,  for  this 

Fall  River  Mills,  Cal. — A  company  represented  by  a  Mr. 
Gale  expects  to  put  in  an  electric  plant  at  the  falls  and  irrigate 
the  plains  between  Fall  City  and  Burgettville,  an  area  of  15,000 

•  Salmon  City,  Idaho. — The  Gold  Dredging  Company  has  in- 
stalle  1  a  150  h.  p.  Pelton  water  wheel  and  a  100-kilowatt  General 
Electric  generator.  These  are  direct  connected  and  used  in  gen- 
eral mining  work. 

Spokane,  Wash. — A  warranty  deed  has  been  filed  conveying 
from  the  Spokane  Falls  Water  Power  Company  to  the  Northwest 
Milling  and  Power  Company  all  its  title  to  the  water  power  of 
the  Spokane  Falls  in  consideration  of  $400,000. 

Provo,  TjTAn. — A  large  party  of  engineers  and  laborers,  in 
charge  of  F.  J.  Kramer,  have  commenced  work  on  the  Provo 
power  transmission  plant  in  Provo  Canyon.  This  enterprise  is 
under  the  financial  management  of  L.  L.  Nunn,  of  Telluride. 

San  Jose,  Cal. — Charles  Franklin,  of  San  Francisco,  owner 
of  a  valuable  water  right  in  the  Sauta  Cruz  Mountains,  twelve 
miles  from  this  city,  is  considering  electrical  transmission  there- 
from to  San  Jose.  The  stream  is  said  to  be  capable  (if  generating 
10,000  h.  p. 

Quezaltenaxgo,  Guatemala. — The  Pacifit-  Mail  steamship 
Colima,  recently  wrecked  off  the  west  coast  of  Mexico,  contained 
a  shipment  of  Pelton  water  wheels  that  were  to  have  displaced 
the  turbines  in  use  in  the  central  station  in  this  city.  The  order 
has  been  duplicated. 

Hidalgo,  Mexico. — The  Cia.  Anonima  de  Transmission  Elec- 
trica  de  Potencia  has  installed  a  2,000  h.  p.  mining  transmission 
plant,  consisting  of  five  3-phase  General  Electric  generators  direct 
coupled  to  Pelton  water  wheels  running  under  an  800-foot  head. 
The  transmission  is  of  10,500  volts. 

Salt  Lake  City,  Utah. — Indications  point  to  a  very  spirited 
rivalry  between  the  two  Big  Cottonwood  enterprises.  Each  ex- 
pects to  place  3,000  h.  p.  of  electric  power  upon  the  Salt  Lake  City 
market  before  the  year  is  ended.  These  companies  are  the  Utah 
Power  Company  and  the  Big  Cottonwood  Power  Company. 


Napa,  Cal. — A  company  is  being  organized  for  building  an 
electric  road  to  Calistoga. 

Ontario,  Cal. — The  power  house  for  the  new  ntario  street 
railway  is  about  completed. 

Redlands,  Cal. — An  electric  railway  to  Hemet  via  Moreno 
and  San  Jacinto  is  being  considered. 

San  Francisco,  Cal. — The  Board  of  Supeivisors  is  consider- 
ing plans  and  models  of  car  guards  or  fenders. 

Visalia,  Cal. — The  talk  of  building  an  electric  road  from 
Merced  into  the  Yosemite  Valley  is  being  revived. 

Petaluma,  Cal. — The  construction  of  an  electric  railroad  be- 
tween this  city  and  Santa  Rosa  is  believed  to  be  a  certainty. 

Santa  Maria,  Cal. — Messrs.  W.  T.  Lucas  et  al.  have  ap- 
plied to  the  County  Supervisors  for  an  electric  railway  franchise. 

Portland,  Or. — The  City  and  Suburban  Railway  Company 
is  operating  a  large  trolley  street-sprinkler  with  great  satisfac- 

Pasadena,  Cal — The  new  line  of  the  Pasadena  and  Los 
Angeles  Electric  Railway  Co.  was  formally  opened  for  business 
on  May  6th. 

San  Rafael,  Cal. — The  newspapers  favor  the  construction  of 
an  electric  road  to  run  from  San  Rafael  to  Ross  Valley  and  Point 
San  Pedro. 

Napa,  Cal. — It  is  stated  that  Eastern  parties  are  about  to 
apply  lor  an  electric  railway  franchise  extending  from  Napa  into 
Lake  County. 

Haywards,  Cal. — Messrs.  Chisholm  &  Petermann  have  been 
granted  a  franchise  for  an  electric  road  from  Haywards  to  Mount 
Eden  and  Alvarado. 

Sacramento,  Cal. — The  Central  Electric  Railway  Company 
is  erecting  a  toboggan  slide  in  East  Park  to  cost  $1,000.  It  will 
be  run  by  electricity. 

Lompoc,  Cal. — Dr.  Lucas  etal.  has  applied  for  a  50-year  fran- 
chise for  an  electric  road  to  run  from  Wigington,  through  Santa 
Maria  to  the  ocean. 

Berkeley,  Cal. — The  horse-car  track  on  University  avenue, 
between  East  and  West  Berkeley,  is  being  bonded,  and  cars  have 
been  ordered  preparatory  to  changing  to  an   electric  equipment. 

Los  Angeles,  Cal. — The  boilers  and  the  foundations  for  the 
engines  and  generators  of  the  Los  Angeles  Traction  Co.  are 
being  erected  and  are  expected  to  be  in  operation  by  the  1st 
of  July. 

Pasadena,  Cal. — Work  is  progressing  steadily  on  the  new 
electric  railway  forming  the  extension  of  Professor  Lowe's  moun- 
tain railway,  and  it  is  expected  that  the  line  will  be  completed  to 
Crystal  Springs  by  July  1st. 

Stockton,  Cal. — H.  T.  Compton,  Consulting  Engineer  of 
the  Lodi  Electric  Railway,  states  that  the  preliminary  survey 
has  been  finished  from  this  city  to  Lodi.  Plans  will  be  ready  for 
the  contractors  in  a  few  days. 

Santa  Cruz,  Cal. — A  colored  porter  employed  about  the  car- 
house  disregarded  warnings  and  "  fooled  "  with  the  equipment 
of  a  car  which  started  the  car  on  a  run  away  up  the  street,  smash- 
ing the  car  and  tearing  out  the  side  of  a  house. 

Santa  Rosa.  Cal. — Leading  business  men  are  considering  the 
feasibility  of  connecting  the  valleys  of  Napa  and  Sonoma  counties 
with  an  electric  belt  railway,  having  its  terminus  at  tidewater, 
there  to  connect  by  fast  ferry  service  with  San  Francisco. 

San  Francisco. — The  Market-street  Railway  Company  is  im- 
proving the  Bryant-street  power  house  by  the  addition  of  four 
1,200  h.  p.  tripie  expansion  engines,  and  direct  connected  Sie- 
mens-Halske  generators  with  necessary  boilers,  etc.  The  engines 
are  *iOW  being  constructed  by  the  Union  Iron  Works,  and  when 
completed  the  plant  will  supply  power  for  the  operation  of  the 
Mission,  Folsom,  Bryant,  Sixteenth,  Kentucky, Third  and  Kearny 
streets  systems. 

Marysville,  Cal. — Work  has  been  commenced  on  the  electric- 
road  to  be  built  from  Marysville  eastward  through  the  foothills 
of  Yuba  and  Madera  counties  and  southeast  to  Auburn.  It  will 
cover  nearly  fifty  miles  of  track,  and  when  complete  it  will  be 
the  longest  line  of  electric  road  west  of  Chicago.  The  purpose  is 
to  afford  the  orchardists  and  farmers  in  the  foothills  easier  facili- 
ties for  getting  their  produce  to  market  and  at  a  lower  cost. 
Passengers  will  be  carried,  as  well  as  freight,  and  power  will  be 
supplied  by  the  South  Yuba  Water  Co . 

Portland,  Or. — A  part}'  of  Scotch  capitalists  accompanied  by 
their  own  engineer,  proposes  to  purchase  the  street  railway  sys- 
tem of  Salem  and  to  bond  it  for  $200,000.  It  is  also  announced 
that  this  party  is  negotiating  the  consolidation  of  the  entire  street 
railway  service  of  Portland  excepting  the  cable  road  to  Portland 
Heights.  This  consolidation  involves  an  investment  of  $3,000- 
000  and  will  take  in  115  miles  of  street  railway  tracks  owned  by 
the  East  Side  Company,  running  from  Portland  to  Oregon  City 
with  lateral  lines  at  several  points,  the  Portland  Consolidated 
Street  Railway  company  and  the  City  and  Suburban  Street  Rail- 
way company  with  lines  traversing  the  city  in  all  directions. 

San  Francisco. — The  electric  trolley  road  now  being  built  on 
Fillmore  street  will  encounter  a  grade  of  25.5  per  cent,  between 
Green  and  Vallejo  streets,  and  a  grade  of  24  per  cent,  between 
Yallejo  and  Broadway,  to  overcome  which  the  Market-street 
Railway  Company  proposes  to  place  an  underground  cable  under 
each  track  ;  this  cable  running  over  sheaves  at  the  top  and  bot- 
tom of  the  hill.  The  cable  will  be  run  around  the  sheaves  after 
the  manner  of  an  ordinary  cable  road,  and  will  be  operated  by  an 
electric  motor  geared  to  the  sheave  at  the  top  of  the  hill.  No  or- 
dinary form  of  grip  will  be  provided  on  the  cars,  but  instead  a 
special  grip  will  be  hooked  on  to  the  car,  securing  it  rigidly  to 
the  cable. 



[Vol.  I,  No.  i. 

Riverside,  Cal. — Professor  Baldwin,  Iresident  of  the  San 
Antonio  Light  and  Power  Company,  of  Pomona,  in  a  recent  lec- 
ture, named  Mill  Creek,  Lytle  Creek  and  the  Santa  Ana  and  San 
Jacinto  rivers  as  among  the  best  streams  to  be  relied  upon  to 
furnish  power  the  year  round  in  this  portion  of  Southern  Califor- 
nia. Electric  power  could  b^  delivered  in  Riverside  from  the  San 
Jacinto  at  a  cost  of  $125,000  for  300  h.  p.,  and  he  advised  the  City 
Trustees  to  change  their  call  from  $40,000,  to  be  voted  for  a  mu- 
nicipal lighting  plant,  to  $125,000. 

New  Westminster,  B.  C. — F.  S.  Barnard,  M.  P.,  manager  of 
the  Consolidated  Railway  and  Light  Company,  proposes  to  de- 
velop the  water  power  of  Seymour  Creek  at  a  cost  of  $200,000,  in 
the  event  of  a  bonus  of  $50,000  from  the  city  and  the  acceptance 
of  a  proposal  to  light  the  city  at  25  per  cent,  less  than  the  present 
cost,  the  bonus  named  to  be  used  in  the  construction  of  a  railroad 
from  Sapperton  to  Stevenson.  The  project  contemplates  the  de- 
livery of  1,000  h.  p. 

Sacramento,  Cal.— The  contract  between  the  Central  Elec- 
tric R  ilway  Company  and  the  Capital  Gas  Company,  by  which 
the  latter  furnishes  electric  power  for  street  railway  purposes,  ex- 
pires on  June  30th,  by  which  time  the  electric  transmission  from 
Folsom  must-be  in  operation.  Superintendent  T.  A.  W.  Shock, 
of  the  Sacramento  Power  and  Light  Company,  states  that  the 
Folsom  transmission  will  be  started  by  June  24th,  when  the  first 
equipment  of  1,000  h.  p.  will  be  in  operation.  Of  this  300  h.  p. 
will  be  required  by  the  railway  and  the  balance  will  be  for  sale. 
In  all  280  men  are  now  employed  on  the  work.  A  movement  is 
on  foot  to  celebrate  the  completion  of  the  Folsom  transmission 
by  an  electric  carnival,  to  be  held  during  the  State  Fair. 

Grass  Valley,  Cal. — Contracts  have  been  awarded  by  the 
Nevada  County  Electric  Power  Company  to  the  Stanley  Electric 
Manufacturing  Company,  through  Martin  &  Lindner,  for  two  300- 
kilowatt  Stanle)'  two-phase  generators,  and  to  the  Pelton  Water 
Wheel  Company  for  two  Pelton  wheels  to  drive  the  same.  The 
plant  will  be  located  on  the  South  Yuba  River,  where  2,500  h.  p. 
can  be  developed  with  comparative  ease,  driving  the  wheels  un- 
der a  head  of  250  feet.  The  transmission  circuit  will  run  direct 
to  Nevada  City,  whence  a  loop  circuit  will  be  continued  for  a 
distance  of  nine  miles  from  the  power-house,  embracing  Grass 
Valley  and  seven  groups  of  mines.  The  contracts  just  awarded 
are  for  the  initial  installation. 

Fresno,  Cal. — A  gang  of  men  is  at  work  on  the  canal  to  fur- 
nish water  from  the  North  Fork  of  the  San  Joaquin  River  to  the 
power  house  for  the  Fresno  transmission.  An  impounding  reser- 
voir, to  contain  3.500,000  cubic  feet  of  water,  and  which  amount 
can  easily  be  doubled,  will  be  readily  constructed  by  throwing  up 
a  low  embankment.  The  pipe  line  to  the  power  house  will  be 
4,000  feet  long,  delivering  water  at  a  head  ■  f  1,410  feet.  Pelton 
wheels,  each  having  a  capacity  of  400  h.  p.,  are  to  be  used,  and  it 
is  proposed  that  the  generators  will  deliver  current  at  550  volts, 
which  will  be  raised  to  11,000  volts  for  transmission  and  delivered 
in  Fresno,  a  distrnce  of  33  miles,  at  a  loss  of  10  per  cent.  The  in- 
itial plant  will  have  a  capacity  of  1,000  h.  p.  The  corporation  is 
backed  with  Chicago  capital. 


Tintic,  Utah.— The  new  electric  light  plant  has  been  started. 
Lewiston,  Idaho. — W.A.Smith  has  applied  for  an   electric- 
light  franchise. 

Arcata,  Cal. — The  new  arc  and  incandescent  plant  will  soon 
be  in  operation. 

Chico,  Cal. — Bids  for  an  electric  light  franchise  will  shortly 
be  advertised  for. 

Vernon,  B.  C. — The  question  of  a  municipal  electric  lighting 
plant  is  again  agitated. 

Colton,  Cal. — The  question  of  a  municipal  electric  lighting 
plant  is  being  agitated. 

Hailey,  Idaho.— The  electric  light  plant  has  been  leased  to 
John  Hart  for  one  year. 

Kamloops,  B.  C— An  electric  lighting  plant  is  to  be   placed 
in  the  Slocan  Star  mine. 

Astoria,  Or.— The  river  steamer  Telephone  is  having  an  elec- 
tric light  plant  installed. 

Alameda.  Cal.— The  city  has  concluded  to  furnish  incandes- 
cent service  at  meter  rates. 

Butte,  Mont.— The  electric  light  company  is  constructing  a 
40-  by  120-foot  addition  to  its  plant. 

Bodie,Cal.— Part  of  the  Three  Mile  Post  mine  on  the  Haw- 
thorne Road  is  lighted  by  electricity. 

Ventura,  Cal.— The  Board  of  Trustees  has  approved  of  speci- 
fications for  an  electric  lighting  plant. 

Missoula,    Mont.— The    electric    light    companv   will   soon 
begin  work  on  a  new  power  dam  to  cost  $100,000. 

Sonoka,  Cal. — An  electric  lighting  plant  is  to  be  placed  in 
the  Miller  &  Holmes  mine  at  Quartz  Mountain. 

Chico,  Cal. — The  public  are  demanding  the  installation  of 
an  electric  lighting  plant  by  the  local  gas  company. 

New  Westminster,  B.  C— A  proposition  is  on  foot  for  the 
sale  of  the  municipal  lighting  plant  and  water  works. 

Boulder,  Montana. — Frank  Bernatz  is  considering  a  plan  for 
the  erection  of  water  works  and  an  electric  lighting  plant. 

Victoria,  B  C— The  municipal  lighting  plant  has  been  in- 
creased by  the  addition  of  two  60-light  Wood  arc  dynamos. 

Florence,  Col.— The  new  cyanide  mill  of  the  Metallic  Ex- 
traction Company  has  installed  an  8>a-kilow-att  incandescent 

Spokane,  Wash.— The  new  Court  House  is  to  have  an  elec- 
tric lighting  plant.  Address  A.  L.  Thorp,  Chairman,  Spokane, 

Pasadena,  Cal.— The  Pasadena  Electric  Light  &  Power  Co.  is 
installing  a  new  250-horse-power  engine,  and  a  1200-light 

Victoria,  B.  C.--M.  Hutchinson  has  been  elected  general 
superintendent  and  chief  engineer  of  the  Municipal  Electric 
Light  Works. 

Salt  Lake  City,  Utah.— The  Citizens  Electric  Co.  has  pur- 
chased a  site  for  its  powder  house,  and  is  rapidly  pushing  work  on 
its  new  plant. 

Oroville,  Cal. — A  franchise  for  an  electric  lighting  plant  in 
the  towns  of  Gridlev  and  Biggs  has  been  sold  to  T.  C.  Blair  and 
L.  H.  Williams. 

San  Bernardino,  Cal.— An  electric  lighting  plant  and  a 
20  h.  p.  electric  motor,  is  to  be  placed  in  the  Southern  Califor- 
nia State  Asylum. 

Seattle,  Wash.— The  Seattle  Electric  &  Gas  Fixture  Co.  have 
obtained  the  contract  for  the  electric  lighting  plant  of  the  new 
State  University. 

Helena,  Mont. — H  C.  Sterling  has  been  appointed  Superin- 
tendent of  the  Helena  Power  and  Light  Company,  vice  J.  A. 
Tupper,  resigned. 

Helena,  Mont.— The  Capital  Lighting  Company  having  se- 
cured the  citv  contract,  will  send  Manager  J.  A.  Tupper  East  for 
additional  equipment  shortly. 

Riverside,  Cal.— The  special  election  recently  called,  voted 
to  incur  an  indebtedness  of  $40,000  for  the  construction  of  a 
municipal  electric  lighting  plant. 

Cripple  Creek,  Col.— The  Gold  and  Silver  Extraction  Com- 
pany of  America  (Limited)  has  placed  a  6-kilowatt  Edison  dvna- 
mo  and  incandescent  plant  in  its  new  cyanide  mill. 

San  Mateo,  Cal.— The  San  Mateo  Electric  Light  Company, 
recently  incorporated  by  F.  M.  and  F.  A.  Greenwood  et  al.,  has 
applied  for  a  franchise  to  erect  pole  lines  for  lighting  the  city. 

Mill  Valley,  Cal.— The  San  Rafael  Gas  and  Electric  Light 
Company  is  stringing  wires  between  San  Rafael  and  Mill  Valley, 
and  will  furnish  incandescent  service  in  Mill  Vallev  earlv  in 

San  Francisco,  Cal.— It  is  announced  by  J.  B.  Crockett, 
President  of  the  San  Francisco  Gas  Light  Co.,  that  that  company 
is  to  erect  an  electric  light  and  power  plant,  costing  about 

San  Jose.  Cal. — The  San  Jose  Lighting  Companv  has  been 
incorporated  with  a  capital  stock  of  $250,000.  The  Directors  are 
C.  F.  Wilcox,  R.  L.  Slack,  J.  R.  Patton,  Wiliiam  Sumner  and  J. 
J.  Southheimer. 

Auburn,  Cal.— The  Republican  states  that  the  South  Yuba  Co. 
will  have  its  lighting  service  in  operation  in  Newcastle,  Penryn, 
Loomis  and  Rocklin  by  July  1st.  It  is  to  be  a  water  power  plant 
under  a  head  of  483  feet. 

Boise  City,  Idaho  —The  people  of  the  New  Plymouth  colony, 
Payette  Valley,  propose  to  construct  a  canal  three  miles  long  and 
build  an  electric  plant  for  lighting  the  village.  Wm.  E.  Smvthe 
is  the  father  of  the  colony. 

Los  Angeles,  Cal.— Bids  were  received  until  June  20th  for 
the  furnishing  of  materials  and  labor  for  the  erection  of  an 
electric  _  lighting  plant,  to  cost  less  than  $10,000,  at  the  Pa- 
cific National  Home  for  I  >.  V.  S. 

Salt  Lake  City,  Utah.— An  ordinance  has  been  passed  fixing 
the  maximum  height  of  the  electric  light  poles  at  thirty  feet,  the 
lowest  at  twenty-three  feet  on  paved  streets,  the  maximum 
height  at  twenty-seven  feet  on  unpaved  streets. 

Oakland,  Cal.— The  contract  for  lighting  the  city  by  gas 
and  electricity  for  the  fiscal  year  ending  June  30, 1896.  has  been 
awarded  the  Oakland  Gas  Light  and  Heat  Companv,  which  vol- 
untarily made  a  reduction  of  $5,000  in  the  contract  price. 


Vol.  I. 

AUGUST,    1895 

No.   2. 

£>tQQfi  Qradhnts  on  Qlectric  ^oads. 

By  Lieut.  W.  Stuart-Smith,  U.  S.  N. 

Some  years  after  the  completion  of  the  Richmond 
Electric  Road,  and  when  facts  had  demonstrated  that 
electric  traction  was  an  assured  success,  Mr.  Frank  J. 
Sprague  gave  an  account  of  some  of  his  experiences 
showing  the  difficulties  to  be  overcome.  Among  other 
things  to  be  surmounted  was  a  grade  of  10  per  cent., 
and  so  great  did  the  undertaking  seem  that  Mr.  Sprague 
and  his  engineers  were  fearful   of  possible    failure   until 

Mr.  Sprague  remarked  to  Mr.  S.  Dana  Greene  that 
some  instruments  were  needed,  and  these  were  presently 
brought — four  strong  mules.  With  stronger  motor  equip- 
ments the  "  instruments  "  became  unnecessary,  and  as 
improvements  were  made  steeper  grades  were  overcome 
until  hills  nearly  ceased  to  be  a  terror  to  street  railway 
engineers.  At  present,  with  the  powerful  equipments 
provided,  grades  having  nearly  the  greatest  theoretical 

Fig.  5.— The  Fillmore  Street  Grade  in  San  Francisco— 25M  Per  Cent. 

the  trial  car  actually  began  to  mount  upward.  Just  be- 
fore reaching  the  foot  of  the  grade  there  was  a  general 
expression  of  fear  as  to  the  result  of  the  attempt,  the 
only  confident  member  of  the  party  being  a  machinist, 
who  was  willing  to  risk  his  hard-earned  dollars  that  the 
car  would  go  up.  As  the  grade  was  reached  and  the  car 
started  smoothly  upward  the  hearts  within  it  beat  joy- 
fully, but  soon  unpleasant  sounds  and  bad  smells  came 
from  beneath  the  car  and  the  joy  was  not  unalloyed. 
The  top  was  reached  and  the  fact  demonstrated  that  a 
self-propelled  car  would  go  up  a  10  per  cent,  grade ;  also 
that  the  5  h.  p.  equipments  with  which  the  car  was  pro- 
vided were  far  too  small. 

Copyrighted  1895,  by  Geo.  P 

possible  rise  up  which  self-propelled  vehicles  can  go  are 
undertaken.  In  many  places,  however,  notably  in  San 
Francisco,  the  grades  are  so  great  as  to  be  beyond  the 
power  of  any  car  depending  upon  the  friction  between 
wheels  and  track  to  surmount.  As  such  grades  are  gen- 
erally short — one  to  three  blocks — a  simple  and  success- 
ful method  by  which  self-propelled  cars  could  mount 
them  would  permit  the  extending  of  electric  traction  to 
all  parts  of  the  city,  and  a  description  of  some  of  the 
plans  in  operation  and  proposed  may  not  be  uninter- 

One  of  the   first   attempts  to   overcome   excessive 
grades  was  made  in  1887  by  Mr.  Leo  Daft,  in  Pittsburg, 

Low.    All  Rights  Reserved. 



[Vol.  I,  No.  2. 

Pa.  The  grade  was  about  16  per  cent.,  and  with  the 
equipments  then  in  use  could  not  be  overcome  by  direct 
traction.  The  old  style  Daft  locomotive  was  used  to  haul 
trailers.  The  heavy  motor  was  carried  inside  the  loco- 
motive and  geared  to  the  axle  by  a  sprocket  chain.  A 
small  shaft  carried  in  a  pivoted  framework  was  also 
driven  by  a  chain.  This  shaft  carried  a  sprocket  wheel, 
the  projections  of  which  entered  holes  in  an  iron  plate 
which  was  laid  between  the  rails  on  the  grade.  When 
running  on  the  level  the  movement  of  a  lever  raised  the 
sprocket  wheel  clear  of  the  road  and  on  the  grade  being 
reached  it  was  lowered,  and,  gearing  with  the  perforated 

subway  which  extends  the  length  of  the  grade.  Near 
one  of  the  main  rails  is  a  conduit  slot,  D.  At  the  top 
and  bottom  of  the  grade  are  sheaves,  around  which 
passes  a  rope,  the  ends  of  which  are  made  fast  to  a  car 
carrying  slabs  of  lead,  O.  O  ,  the  total  weight  of  which 
is  seven  tons.  Buffers  (E.  E.)  having  air  cushions  are 
provided  at  the  top  and  bottom  to  arrest  the  motion  of 
the  counterweight  car.  Figs.  2,  3  and  4  show  plan  and 
elevation  of  the  coupling  by  means  of  which  the  car  is 
connected  to  the  rope.  Its  position  on  the  rope  is  shown 
at  H,  Fig.  1.  The  link  M,  secured  to  the  rope  as  shown, 
carries  the  pivoted  piece  K,  the  head   H,  of  which  pro- 

Fig.  1.— Steep  Gradients  on  Electric  Roads.     The  Seattle  Counter  Weight. 

plate,  assisted  the  car  up  the  hill.  It  was  used  for  a  few 
months  only.  Various  other  methods  of  assisting  a  car 
up  grades  by  the  use  of  rack  and  pinion  have  been  pro- 
posed, but  for  ordinary  street  service  none  of  them  have 
come  into  permanent  use. 

On  the  line  of  the  San  Francisco  and  San  Mateo 
road,  in  San  Francisco,  there  is  a  grade  of  nearly  18  per 
cent,  on  Harrison  street,  between  Second  and  Third, 
down  which  cars  go  on  the  uptown  line.  No  attempt  is 
made  to  climb  this  grade,  it  being  overcome  in  two  stages 
on  another  street.  When  the  road  was  first  built  it  was 
considered  dangerous  to  descend  this  grade  without  some 
retarding  force  other  than  that  carried  by  the  car,  and  a 

jects  above  the  slot,  as  in  Fig.  3.  The  drawbar  I  is  per- 
manently carried  by  the  car,  and  when  desired  it  is 
coupled  to  H  by  means  of  the  loose  pin  J. 

The  operation  is  as  follows :  The  road  is  single 
track  and  is  used  by  cars  going  in  both  directions.  Sup- 
pose the  counterweight  is  at  the  foot  of  the  grade  and  a 
car  is  starting  to  go  down.  The  drawbar  is  coupled 
to  the  brake  and  the  descending  car  pulls  the  coun- 
terweight to  the  top,  where  it  passes  over  a  slight  re- 
verse grade  to  prevent  its  running  back.  The  next  car 
coming  up  grade  finds  the  coupling  at  the  foot,  and  after 
making  connection  uses  its  motors  to  pull  the  weighted 
car  over  the  slight  reverse  grade  when  the  descending 

Fig.  2. — Steep  Gradients  on  Electric  Roads. 

weight  was  lowered  from  the  bridge  at  the  Second  street 
cut.  As  the  car  descended  it  raised  this  counter- 
weight to  the  top  by  means  of  a  rope,  and  the  work  thus 
done  made  it  impossible  for  the  car  to  run  away.  After 
the  car  reached  the  foot  of  the  grade  the  counterweight 
was  lowered  to  the  bottom  by  means  of  a  drum,  and  was 
ready  to  assist  the  next  car.  The  arrangement  was  a 
bother,  and  after  the  motormen  became  more  skilled  in 
handling  the  car  it  was  discarded  and  the  descent  made 
on  wheel  brakes  alone,  with  the  assistance  of  plenty  of 

An  arrangement  patented  by  a  Mr.  Kuhlmann  has 
been  in  successful  operation  for  the  past  three  years  on  a 
single  track  road  in  Seattle,  Wash.  The  operation  is 
made  clear  by  the  accompanying  illustrations.  In  Fig. 
1,  A  is  the  main  car  track  and  B  an  auxiliary  track  in  a 

Fit!  3 





Fig.  3  and  4. — Steep  Gradients  on  Electric  Roads. 

weight  assists  the  car  in  mounting.  This  grade  is  but 
16  per  cent.,  and  under  such  conditions  as  exist  in  San 
Francisco,  and  with  modern  equipments,  would  no 
doubt  be  taken  without  any  outside  assistance,  but  the 
cars  in  Seattle  are  equipped  with  the  old  style  of  F  15 
double  reduction  motors  which  are  not  powerful  enough 
for  that  grade,  and  moreover  the  track  in  winter  is 
very  slippery  with  ice  and  snow.  The  same  arrange- 
ment was  installed  in  Portland,  Or.,  and  Providence, 
Pv.  I.,  but  the  write.-  does  not  know  whether  they  are 
now  in  use. 

San  Francisco  is  pre-eminently  a  city  of  heavy 
grades,  the  overcoming  of  which  was  the  incentive 
which  led  to  the  development  of  the  cable  system  for 
street-cars.     Up  to  a  year  ago  there  were  but  two  elec- 

August,  1895.] 



trie  roads  in  the  city,  the  San  Francisco  and  San  Ma- 
teo and  the  Metropolitan.  When  the  Market-street 
Company  obtained  possession  of  nearly  all  the  street- 
car lines  in  the  city  it  turned  its  attention  to  electricity 
as  a  motive  power  and  the  success  of  the  first  road,  the 
Mission-street  line,  was  so  marked  that  the  work  of  elec- 
trically equipping  other  roads  was  rapidly  pushed  until 
at  this  present  writing  the  Company  has   many   miles 

Fig.  6. —  Steep  Gradients  on  Electric  Roads. 

in  operation  and  many  more  under  construction.  The 
first  roads  equipped  were  those  having  grades  that  could 
be  easily  surmounted,  but  when  the  cross-town  line  on 
Fillmore  street  was  undertaken  very  heavy  grades 
were  encountered  between  Green  street  and  Broadway. 
From  Green  to  Vallejo  street  the  grade  is  25  J  per 
cent.,  and  from  Vallejo  street  to  Broadway  it  is  24  per 
cent.  These  were  too  heavy  for  direct  traction,  and 
plans  were  devised  in  the  office  of  the  Company's  en- 
gineers which,  will  undoubtedly  solve  the  problem 
of  overcoming  steep  grades  and  permit  the  elec- 
trical equipping  of  all  the  cable  lines.  The  views  giveu 
show  the  condition  of  things  at  this  writing. 

The  view  (shown  in  Fig.  5)  looking  up  grade  is  from 
Vallejo  street  toward  Broadway,  and  shows  an  ordinary 
cable  construction,  the  only  difference  being  a  guide  4" 
xl",  which  extends  the  length  of  the  conduit  at  about 
half  the  depth  of  the  conduit  as  in  Figure  9.  An  end- 
less rope  will  be  used  which  passes  around  sheaves  in  pits 
at  the  top  and  bottom  of  the  grade,  the  sheave  at  the 
bottom  being  carried  in  a  cradle,  by  means  of  which 
stretch  of  the  rope  can  be  taken  up.  In  the  upper  pits 
— a  photograph  of  which  showing  the  main  pedestal  is 
giveu  in  Fig.  6 — are  two  sheaves,  the  forward  one  being 
an  idler  and  the  after  one  the  main  sheave.  The  cable 
coming  from  the  conduit  on  one  side  passes  around  the 
main  sheave,  then  forward  around  the  idler,  back  to  the 
main  sheave,  around  which  it  makes  a  second  turn,  and 
thence  to  the  other  conduit.  This  gives  so  much  hold 
as  to  prevent  any  possibility  of  slipping  of  the  rope. 
The  main  sheave  is  provided  with  a  brake,  the  lever  of 
which  is  located  so  that  a  man  can  see  the  cars  on  grade 
and  at  once  apply  the  brake  in  case  the  draw  pennant 
connecting  either  car  to  the  rope  should  give  way  and 
leave  the  other  car  free  to  run  down  hill. 

At  two  points  on  the  rope  are  clamped  travelers 
which  ride  on  the  guides  and  prevent  the  rope  being 
pulled  upward  into  the  slot.  The  position  of  these  is 
such  that  when  one  is  at  the  top  of  the  grade  on  one 
track  the  other  is  at  the  bottom  on  the  other  track.  The 
sketch  presented  in  Fig.  8  shows  the  construction  clear- 
ly, and  it  will  be  seen  that  it  is  impossible  for  them  to  get 
off  the  guidebar.  They  project  a  short  distance  above 
the  slot  and  are  provided  with  holes  to  which  draw  pen- 
ants  about  ten  feet  long  are  shackled.  Two  short  pen- 
ants  are  secured  to  the  car,  one  to  the  car  body  and  one 
to  the  track,  the  duplicate  arrangement  being  for  safety 
only.  The  penants  on  car  and  cable  carry  halves  of  a 
coupling  which  are  secured  together  by  a  pin  which 
locks  with  a  half  turn.  The  coupling  and  uncoupling 
will  be  done  by  men  stationed  at  the  ends  of  the  grade. 
Double  crossovers  are  provided  at  both  top  and  bottom 
of  the  grade,  so  that  cars  can  pass  from  one  track  to 
the  other.     The  necessity  for  this  will  readily  be  seen. 

In  Seattle,  on  the  Union  Trunk  Line,  a  cable  and 
electric  line  used  the  same  track  on  a  steep  grade,  and 
though  the  electric  car  could  go  up  the  grade  alone,  it 
was  considei-ed  not  altogether  safe,  especially  in  winter, 
and  an  attempt  was  made  to  obtain  assistance  by  coupl- 
ing to  the  cable  dummy.  The  electric  car  was  too 
heavy  and  the  motors  were  used  to  take  the  strain,  and 
trouble  was  at  once  experienced.  The  old  style  Edison 
controller  was  used,  and  it  was  impossible  to  obtain 
even  an  approximate  agreement  between  the  speed  of 
the  cable  and  that  at  which  the  electric  car  tended  to 
run.  The  cable  speed  was  so  slow  that  the  armature 
speed  was  forced  down  to  a  point  where  the  current 
taken  was  more  than  it  could  stand,  and  after  several 
severe  burnouts  the  plan  was  abandoned. 

Fig.  7. — Steet  Gradients  on  Electric  Roads. 

It  is  desired,  if  possible,  in  this  Fillmore  street  in- 
stallation, to  make  use  of  no  other  power  than  that 
which  can  be  obtained  from  the  car  motors,  the  rope 
ordinarily  being  dead,  and  the  first  trials  are  to  be  made 
with  this  end  in  view,  the  operation  being  as  follows : 
Suppose  a  car  approaches  the  top  of  the  grade  and 
wishes  to  go  down.  It  finds  the  traveler  on  that  side 
and  couples  to  it  by  means  of  the  penants.  At  the 
same  time  a  car  at  the  bottom  on  the  other  track  couples 



[Vol.  I,  No.  2. 

to  the  traveler  found  there.  Both  cars  will  use  their 
motors,  the  ascending  one  doing  its  best  to  climb  the 
grade,  and  the  descending  one  pulling  on  the  cable, 
thereby  assisting  the  one  climbing  up.  The  motor 
equipments  on  each  car  have  a  nominal  rating  of  50  h. 
p.,  with  a  capacity  of  100  per  cent,  advance  on  this  rat- 
ing for  short  periods.  Thus,  the  descending  car  is  ca- 
pable of  exerting  100  h.  p.  on  the  rope,  and  as  the  two 
cars  are  balanced  against  each  other,  this  power  is  avail- 
able for  overcoming  the  friction  of  the  rope,  sheaves, 
etc.,  and  caring  for  a  possible  difference  between  the 
loads  of  the  ascending  and  descending  cars. 

The  engineers  in  charge  of  the  work  have  so  much 
doubt  of  the  success  of  this  plan  of  working,  that  the 
upper  pit  and  the  entire  length  of  the  conduit  is  to  be 
left  open  until  after  a  trial,  in  order  that  changes  may 
be  made  in  case  of  necessity.  The  change  would  be  the 
installing  of  a  stationary  motor  in  the  upper  pit  and 

hauled  in  cradles,  one  of  which  is  attached  to  each  end 
of  a  cable  operated  by  a  50  h.  p.  Sprague  motor.  At  the 
top  of  the  main  grade  there  is  a  short  reverse  grade, 
down  which  the  cradle  descends  into  the  water  to  re- 
ceive or  discharge  a  boat.  The  motor  is  geared  to  a 
large  drum  by  several  reductions,  the  loss  in  which  is 
necessarily  considerable.  When  the  motor  starts  and 
the  cradles  at  both  ends  of  the  rope  are  being  hauled 
out  of  the  water  and  up  the  inclines  the  motor  de- 
velops about  50  h.  p.,  but  as  soon  as  the  one  at  the  top 
passes  over  the  crest  and  the  weight  of  the  cradles  and 
boats  are  balanced  against  each  other  the  power  falls  to 
about  5  h.  p.,  this  being  all  that  is  required  to  haul 
1,800  feet  of  rope  and  overcome  loss  in  gearing,  etc. 

Reverting  to  the  street  railways,  the  power  that 
may  be  required  for  moving  the  cars  in  an  extreme  case 
is  easily  shown.  Suppose  the  car  going  down  grade  is 
empty  and  the  one  coming  up  is  carrying  100  passengers, 


*°P—&f   Siof —      -L     ■- 



■J— -  - 


Fig.  8. — Steep  Gradients  on  Electric  Roads. 

using  it  to  drive  the  main  sheave,  and  with  it  the  rope, 
but  in  the  opinion  of  the  writer  the  plan  as  above  out- 
lined will  be  found  to  give  perfect  success. 

The  cars  are  not  in  a  position  to  make  use  of  the 
entire  weight  for  traction  purposes,  but  the  component 
of  the  weight  normal  to  the  rail  will  probably  be  suffi- 
cient to  prevent  skidding  of  the  wheels,  in  which  case 
the  entire  power  of  the  motors  will  be  available,  and  the 
writer  believes  that  in  case  it  should  be  found  impossi- 
ble to  use  the  motors  of  the  ascending  car,  owing  to  dif- 
ficulty in  obtaining  a  balance  between  the  electrical 
conditions  of  the  two  car  equipments,  the  power  of  the 
descending  car  will  be  ample  for  hauling  the  other  up 
grade.  This  confidence  is  based  on  the  experience  of 
the  Kyoto  Canal  Company,  Kyoto,  Japan,  the  working 
of  which  the  writer  had  under  observation  for  two 

The  Kyoto  Canal  connects  with  Lake  Biwa,  and 
upon  reaching  the  suburbs  of  Kyoto,  it  finds  itself  far 
above  the  level  of  the  section  running  through  the  city. 
This  difference  of  level  is  overcome  by  an  incline  rail- 
way   1,800  feet  long,   up  and  down  which  boats   are 

having  an  average  weight  of  120  pounds,  or  a  total  load 
of  12,000  pounds.  If  the  speed  is  eight  miles  per  hour 
the  vertical  rise  on  a  25  per  cent,  grade  will  be  176  feet 
per  minute,  which  for  the  load  of  12,000  pounds  will  re- 
quire 64  horse  power.  This  added  to  the  5  h.  p.  re- 
quired to  haul  rope,  etc.,  will  make  69  h.  p.  required  in 
an  extreme  case  As  there  is  available  100  h.  p.  on  the 
descending  car  alone,  it  is  evident  that  the  power  is 

Moreover,  with  the  series-parallel  controller  and  the 
much  greater  range  of  working  than  was  possible  in  the 
above  mentioned  Seattle  failure,  there  should  be  no  dif- 
ficulty in  the  ascending  car  using  its  motors.  When  the 
cars  are  coupled  to  the  rope  and  the  grade  taken,  for 
similar  positions  of  the  controller  on  the  two  cars  the 
speeds  will  tend  to  be  very  different,  and  as  they  must 
have  the  same  speed,  owing  to  their  connection  with  the 
rope,  trouble  may  be  experienced,  but  as  the  rope  is  not 
fixed  in  its  speed,  being  controlled  by  the  cars  them- 
selves, after  some  hunting  the  motors  should  settle  down 
to  a  common  speed.  The  wide  range  of  working  possi- 
ble with  the  series-parallel  controller  will  assist  in  this, 

August,  1895.] 



and  after  the  motormen    have  had  some    experience,  a 
balance  should  be  quickly  attained. 

Considerable  curiosity  has  been  expressed  as  to  the 
use  of  the  double  cross-over  at  top  and  bottom  of  the  grade 
(Fig.  10).  The  raison  d'etre  is  plain.  The  car  coming 
up  on  the  proper  track  will  leave  its  traveler  on  the 
wrong  side  for  the  next  car  going  down,  and  hence  this 
car  must  cross  over  in  order  to  couple  to  it,  and  simi- 
larly, the  ascending  car  must  cross  over  at  the  bottom 
in  order  to  get  the  lower  traveler.  At  top  and  bottom 
they   must    again  cross    to  their   proper  track.      Thus 

<Tlic   v._  :■••'.* 

Fig.  9. — Steep  Gradients  ox  Electric  Roads. 

every    other  car   going  in    either  direction   must   cross 

Another  plan  for  climbing  grades  is  the  electric 
tractor,  invented  by  a  Mr.  Van  Zile.  It  is  built  on  the 
principle  of  automatically  controlling  the  traction  be- 
tween a  middle  rail  called  the  traction  rail  and  two 
drivers,  which  are  toggled  together  at  an  angle  in  such 
a  manner  as  to  grip  the  traction  rail  between  them. 
The  amount  of  pressure  is  directly  controlled  by  the 
tractive  force  required.  As  a  middle  rail  somewhat 
raised  above  the  street  surface  is  required,  this  plan  is 
hardly  likely  to  be  applied  to  street  car  service. 

On  Monday,  Aug.  5th,  the  plan  above  described  was 
tested  and  found  to  work  so  successfully,  as  to  be  really 
monotonous.  An  old-time  bobtail  car  was  first  lowered 
down,  secured  to  the  rope  and  used  as-a  drag  to  assist 
in  lowering  the  first  heavy  electric  car.  Two  electric 
cars  were  then  secured  to  the  rope  and  tests  made  with 
the  cars  loaded  in  various  ways.  The  car  coming  up 
grade  with  a  considerable  load  made  no  use  of  its 
motors  and  was  readily  pulled  up  by  the  empty  de- 
scending car  with  controller  on  second  notch,  showing, 
as  the  writer  expected,  that  the  power  of  one  car  is  far 
more  than  necessary  for  hauling  the  ascending  car  under 
any  possible  condition  of  load,  and  settling  once  for  all 
the  question  as  to  whether  it  would  be  necessary  to  in- 
stall a  stationary  motor  in  the  pit.  Previous  to  the 
tests,  the  writer  was  informed  that  the  consulting  elec- 
trician of  the  company,  Mr.  S.  L.  Foster,  doubted  the 
success  of  the  plan,  but  during  the  tests  he  said  there 
was  at  no  time  any  doubt  in  his  mind,  as  from  the  begin- 
ning he  was  confident  of  success.  There  were  many 
doubting  Thomases,  but  he  was  not  one  of  them. 

The  system  was  under  hard  test  daily  until  Saturday, 
July  10,  when  the  regular  service  on  the  Fillmore  street 
line  was  extended  to  the  bay,  covering  the  grades  here 

described  and  the  scheme  is  now  working  to  perfect  sa- 

The  Market  Street  Company  is  to  be  congratu- 
lated upon  having  found  a  simple  and  successful  solu- 
tion to  a  difficult  problem. 


San  Francisco  Council,  ISTo.  1,  of  the  National  Con- 
vention of  Stationary  Engineers,  has  engaged  the  serv- 
ices of  Mr.  M.  A.  de  Lew,  E.  E.,  M.  E.,  LL.  B.,  to  del- 
iver three  lectures  on  electricity.  The  first  was  given 
on  Thursday,  Aug.  1st.  His  subject  was  "  Statical  Elec- 
tricity." In  the  course  of  his  remarks  he  spoke  of  some 
of  the  popular  delusions.  He  contended  that  Dr.  Ben- 
jamin Franklin  was  not  the  first  to  discover  atmospheric 
electricity.  He  gave  the  discovery  to  the  people  who 
named  the  Pyramids,  stating  that  they  noticed  a  blueish 
flame  at  the  tops — hence  the  name,  which  means  fire- 
mounds.  His  next  allusion  was  to  Flavius  Joseph, 
known  as  Josephus,  the  commentator  on  the  Old  Testa- 
ment, who  says  tha*-  the  priests  of  the  Tribe  of  Levi  put 
pillars  around  the  Temple  of  Solomon  to  protect  it  from 
'•heavenly  fire."  Even  supposing  that  the  story  as 
above  told  by  Josephus  was  without  foundation,  it  does 
not  remove  the  fact  that  Josephus  himself  perfectly  un- 
derstood the  principle  upon  which  to  protect  buildings. 
What  he  termed  as  something  in  proof  of  the  foregoing 
statement  was  in  "  Gibbons'  Rome."  During  the  reign 
of  Julian  the  Apostate  he  ordered  the  Temple  of  Solo- 
mon to  be  rebuilt  (which  was  destroyed).  The  work 
was  somewhat  under  way  when  it  was  struck  by  light- 
ning, as  in  the  course  of  reconstruction  they  failed  to  take 
the  precaution  that  was  taken  while  it  was  first  being 
built.     Socrates   agrees  with   the  foregoing  statement. 

Fig.  10. — Steep  Gradients  on  Electric  Roads. 

The  lecturer  also  questioned  the  old  theories  of  posi- 
tive and  negative  conditions  in  relation  to  electrical 
changes,  which  was  accompanied  by  numerous  illustra- 
tions, concluding  that  positive  was  the  presence  and 
negative  the  absence  of  electricity,  indorsing  Dr.  Frank- 
lin's theory  on  that  point. 

Mr.  de  Lew  did  not  seem  to  think  that  electricity 
was  a  name  in  the  least  applicable  ;  on  the  contrary  he 
thought  the  name  Lord  Lytton  gave  it,  "  voil,"  as  in 
every  way  superior.  After  the  foregoing  statements  the 
lecturer  concluded  with  several  illustrations  regarding 
lightning  and  artificial  statical  (so-called)  electricity. 
The  audience  evinced  warm  appreciation  of  the  interest- 
ing lecture  given. 



[Vol.  I,  No.  2. 


It  is  not  well  known  that  the  General  Electric  Com- 
pany has  exploited  a  synchronous  system  of  electric 
power  transmission,  but  the  interesting  plant  installed 
by  that  concern  for  the  Walla  Walla  (Wash.)  Gas  and 
Electric  Company,  in  the  spring  "of  1893,  demonstrates 
this  fact.  The  features  of  the  installation  are  so  dis- 
tinctive and  the  plant  being  placed  at  a  time  when  the 
company  named  was  believed  to  be  strenuously  endeav- 
oring to  devise  a  system  of  power  transmission  that 
would,  at  least,  be  abreast  of  other  manufacturers,  lead 
to   the  conclusion    that  the  plant  in  question  formed  a 

diameter,  supplied  with  double  nozzles  and  run  at  100 
revolutions  per  minute.  The  capacity  of  the  wheels  are 
175  horse-power  each,  which  is  transmitted  to  the  main 
countershaft  by  means  of  two  endless  compound  rope 
drives,  all  as  shown  in  the  accompanying  outline  cut  of 
the  plant  (Fig.  1 .)  The  dynamos  are  belt  driven 
from  the  countershaft,  and  the  plant  was  laid  out  for 
double  its  present  capacity.  The  synchronous  motor  at 
the  city  station  operates  power  and  lighting  generators. 
The  generating  station  contains  one  100-kilowatt 
single  phase  2000-volt  Thomson-Houston  generator,  hav- 
ing a  frequency  of  8000  and  being  composite  wound, 
together  with  one  15-kilowatt  500-volt  exciter,  which 
from    the    manner   of  its   use,  also  becomes  a   starting 

stepping  stone  in  the  development  of  the  art.  At  that 
time  single  phase  transmission  was  in  successful  opera- 
tion at  Telluride,  Col.,  using  the  synchronous  system  of 
the  Westinghouse  Electric  and  Manufacturing  Company, 
and  a  similar  plant  was  about  to  be  installed  by  the 
Standard  Consolidated  Mining  Company  of  Bodie,  Cal., 
but  polyphase  transmission  was  practically  unknown  iu 
commercial  circles.  The  Walla  Walla  Gas  and  Electric 
Company  felt  it  to  be  imperative  that  the  water  power 
of  Mill  Creek  should  be  utilized  to  operate  its  electric 
light  and  power  plant,  and  the  installation  described 
was  placed.  That  it  operates  satisfactorily  is  unques- 
tionable, but  it  is  improbable  that  similar  conditions 
would  now  be  satisfied  by  the  installation  of  a  plant  of 
its  character. 

The  generating  station,  which  is  situated  on  Mill 
Creek,  a  distance  of  four  miles  from  the  city  receiving 
station,  is  operated  by  water  power,  the  water  being 
brought  in  a  wood  stave  pipe,  48  inches  iu  diameter,  and 
having  a  total  length  of  6000  feet.  The  effective  head 
is  66  feet  and  the  wood  pipe  terminates  in  a  sheet  iron 
Y  pipe,  supplying  two  Pelton  wheels  that  are  6^  feet  in 

1 — Plan  of  Generating  Station,  Walla  Walla 

generator.  These  machines  are  shown  iu  Fig.  2  as  A 
and  B  respectively.  The  line  consists  of  a  single  circuit 
of  No.  o.,  B.  &  S.  wire,  leading  direct  from  the  generating 
station  to  the  city  plant  of  the  company,  a  distance  of 
about  four  miles.  This  receiving  plant  contains  one 
100-kilowatt  2000-volt  synchronous  motor,  designated 
as  C,  one  7J  horse-power  direct  current  bi-polar  starting 
motor,  shown  as  1),  and  a  small  1^  kilowatt  110-volt  ex- 
citer, E,  used  for  the  fields  of  the  synchronous  motor, 
and  for  operating  the  station  lights.  The  starting  motor, 
D,  drives  a  countershafting,  to  which  is  also  belted  the 
small  exciter,  E,  and  the  synchronous  motor  C.  The 
line  terminates  at  each  end  at  the  levers  of  double  pole, 
double-throw  switches,  so  coupled  that  at  the  generating 
station  the  line  may  be  thrown  either  upon  the  5u0-volt 
exciter  or  the  2000-volt  alternator,  and  so  that  at  the  re- 
ceiving station  the  line  may  be  thrown  upon  the  bi- 
polar starting  motor,  or  upon  the  2000-volt  synchronous 
motor.  The  switchboards  at  the  two  stations  contain  all 
the  forms  of  instruments  usual  for  the  purposes  of  the 
currents  handled,  the  entire  equipment  being  complete 
in  every  detail. 

The  method  of  putting  the  plant  in  operation  is  as 
follows  :  The  generating  plant  is  brought  up  to  speed 
and  the  rheostat  in  the  fields  of  the  500-volt  exciter  is 
cut  out  for  maximum  voltage.  The  fields  of  the  gener- 
ator are  excited  therefrom,  no  attention  whatever  being 

August,  1895.] 



paid  to  the  voltage  of  the  alternator.  The  douhle  pole, 
double-throw  switch  is  then  brought  down  upon  the 
jaws  forming  the  terminals  of  the  500-volt  exciter,  which 
throws  its  potential  upon  the  line.  The  attendant  at  the 
generating  station  has,  in  the  meantime,  telephoned  to 
the  attendant  at  the  recaiving  station  that  he  has  started 
up,  whereupon  the  latter  throws  the  line  current  upon 
the  small  startiug  motor  by  bringing  down  the  switch 
up-m  its  terminals,  as  shown  iu  the  diagram.  The 
starting  motor  then  brings  the  synchronous  motor  and 
its  exciter  up  to  sp33d  through  countershafting.  The 
arm  iture  of  the  alternator  runs  idle  in  dead  fields,  but 
the  exciter  is  brought  up  to  voltage  an  I  connected  with 
its  pilot  lamp  to  avoid  error.  When  the  synchronous 
motor  has  been  brought  up  to  proper  speed,  the  station 
attendant  telephones  to  the  power  plant  to  stand  by  the 
main  switch,  whereupon  the  motor  attendant  opens  up 
the  main  switch  and  quickly  throws  in  the  station  trans- 
former operating  the  pilot  lamp  and  volt  meter  on 
to  the  line  through  a  primary  switch,  and  then  waits  for 

field  circuit  of  the  alternator  with  tho  other  hand.  The 
motor  at  once  comes  in  step,  the  starting  motor  is  then 
shut  down  by  throwing  the  clutch  on  its  countershaft 
pulley,  and  the  plant  does  its  work  with  perfect  satis- 

The  method  of  starting  was  designed  by  Mr.  W.  A. 
Burkholder,  then  District  Engineer  for  the  Pacific  North- 
west district  of  the  General  Electric  Company,  and  who 
is  now  General  Superiutendent  of  the  Portland  (Ore.) 
General  Electric  Company.  Provided  the  speed  of  the 
synchronous  motor  is  higher  than  that  of  the  generator, 
the  motor  will  invariably  synchronize  with  the  gener- 
ator, and  has  never  given  any  trouble  whatever. 


"Kindly  accept  my  congratulations  upon  the  hand- 
some and  meaty  paper  you  have  started,  and  let  me 
offer  my  best  wishes  in  your  enterprise." — D.   C.  Jack- 

SCPies  r,eLo 

Fig.  2. — Circuit  Diagram  of  the  Walla  Walla  Transmission. 

the  appearance  of  the  2000-volt  alternating  current  be- 
fore closing  the  main  switch  that  throws  the  line  to  the 
synchronous  motor. 

In  the  meantime,  the  attendant  at  the  generating 
station,  who,  in  compliance  with  instructions  from  the 
motor  station  attendant,  has  been  standing  by  the  main 
switch,  quickly  throws  the  main  switch  from  the  500-volt 
contact  to  the  2000-volt  contact  as  soon  as  he  sees  the 
needle  of  the  current  indicator  drop  back  to  zero,  which 
obviously  is  positive  information  to  him  that  the  attend- 
ant at  the  receiving  station  has  cut  the  starting  motor 
off  the  line.  Thereupon  the  attendant  at  the  motor 
station,  who  has  been  watching  the  pilot  lamp  operated 
from  the  station  transformer,  throws  the  line  upon  the 
synchronous  motor  with  one  hand  as  soon  as  the  lamp 
comes  up  to  candle  power,  and  immediately  closes  the 

son,  Professor  of  Electrical  Engineering,  University  of 
Wisconsin,  Madison.  Wis. 

The  advent  of  a  serial  devoted  to  electrical  matters 
and  interests  is  not  an  unexpected  circumstance  in  San 
Francisco.  Trade,  scissors  and  paste  have  their  neces- 
sary place  in  the  make-up  of  serial  literature  on  this 
coast,  removed  as  it  is  some  thousands  of  miles  from 
other  fields  of  like  activity,  but  there  should  be  other 
components  in  respectable  make-up,  and  these  are  con- 
spicuous in  the  present  issue  of  The  Electrical  Jour- 

We  welcome  our  contemporary  as  an  example  of 
"  honest  goods  "  provided  out  of  investment  and  work, 
and  trust  that  the  standard  here  set  up  will  be  main- 
tained.— Industry,  San  Francisco. 



[Vol.  I,  No.  2. 


The  recent  meeting  of  the  American  Institute  of 
Electrical  Engineers  at  Niagara  Falls  was  a  most  impor- 
tant one  mainly  because  of  the  attendant  circum- 
stances, the  far-reachiug  effects  and  the  part  they  will 
play  in  the  history  and  development  of  the  applications 
of  electricity.  The  wonderful  work  accomplished  by 
the  Cataract  Construction  Company  of  course  o'ershad- 
owed  all  else  in  point  of  interest,  and  when,  in  the  course 
of  that  afternoon,  that  portion  of  the  programme  was 
reached  stating  that  "  At  2  o'clock  take  carriages  for 
Power  House  of  the  Niagara  Falls  Power  Co.,  the  Pitts- 
burg Keduction  Co.,  etc.,"  everybody  was  on  the  tip-toe 
of  expectancy,  for  we  were  to  see  for  the  first  time  the 
big  5000  horse  power  dynamos.  This  was  to  be  the 
opening  day  at  the  Power  House  and  the  first  public  ex- 
hibition which  had  been  given.  Promptly  at  2  o'clock 
all  were  ready,  and  after  a  short  drive  we  all  reached 
the  Power  House.  It  is  not  an  imposing  looking  struct- 
ure, but  it  gives  the  impression  of  solidity,  and  has  a 
built- to-last  kind  of  air.  The  Institute  button  admitted 
all  the  members  and  guests,  and  when  we  stepped  inside 
there  it  was — 5000  horse  power,  revolving  at  a  high  speed, 
and  yet  so  quietly  and  evenly  that  there  was  not  a  tre- 
mor. No.  1  was  the  dynamo  which  was  running,  though 
No.  2  was  all  set  up.  The  switch-board  instruments 
read  2400  K.  W.  on  one  side  of  the  two-phase  circuits. 
The  power  was  being  absorbed  by  a  water  rheostat,  con- 
nected directly  to  the  armature  circuit  without  the  in- 
tervention of  transformers.  The  coils  were  of  No.  2 
iron  wire,  immersed  in  two  large  wooden  tanks  sunk  be- 
low the  level  of  the  canal.  Water  was  brought,  uuder  a 
head  of  five  feet,  through  two  pipes,  one  three  and  the 
other  four  inches  in  diameter.  The  supply  of  water  was 
evidently  no  more  than  enough  to  keep  the  coils  cool, 
for  it  was  bubbling  and  boiling  at  a  tremendous  rate. 
The  tanks  were  considerably  below  the  floor  level,  and 
the  coils  were  thrown  in  by  switches,  putting  on  a  greater 
or  less  load  as  occasion  might  require.  They  had  had  a 
load  of  5500  horse  power,  but  at  this  rate  the  thrust  of 
the  vertical  shaft  was  upwards,  and  the  collars  on  the 
thrust-bearing  had  not  yet  worn  down  enough  to  carry 
it  continuously,  so  they  limbered  up  by  degrees. 

A  piece  of  machinery  which  seemed  to  attract  quite 
as  much  attention  as  the  dynamo  itself  was  the  governor. 
It  was  made  by  Faesch  &  Piccard,  and  certainly  per- 
formed its  work  well.  It  was  driven  by  gearing  from 
the  main  shaft,  and  operated  to  raise  or  lower  the  ring- 
shaped  gates  which  governed  the  amount  of  discharge, 
thus  throttling  the  water.  When  the  dynamo  was  at 
its  normal  speed  of  250  revolutions  per  minute,  the 
whole  load  of  5000  horse  power  could  be  thrown  off  in- 
stantly by  opening  the  field-switch,  and  the  speed  would 
only  increase  seven  revolutions,  a  variation  of  less  than 
3  per  cent.  This  was  well  within  the  guarantee,  and 
may  be  considered  quite  a  remarkable  performance.  The 
turbine  wheel  itself  was  very  ingeniously  arranged  to 
meet  the  severe  conditions.  With  a  head  140  feet  high 
and  the  amount  of  water  required  to  develop  5000  horse 
power,  the  pressure  on  an  ordinary  step-bearing  would 
have  been  something  enormous,  and  would  have  been  a 
very  serious  problem.  But  it  was  entirely  provided  for 
by  forming  the  turbines  of  two  wheels,  one  above  the 
other,  the  water  entering  between  them,  and  by  forming 
the  disk  of  the  upper  wheel  solid,  so  that  the  weight  of 
the  shaft  and  revolving  parts  of  the  dynamo  were  en- 
tirely supported  by  the  upward  thrust  of  the  column  of 

A  trap  door  was  provided  in  the  floor  directly   over 

*  Exclusive  Correspondence  of  The  Electrical  Journal. 

the  wheels,  and,  on  prying  this  up,  the  roaring,  foaming 
mass  of  white  water  could  be  seen  tumbling  about  be- 
low. There  was  a  terrific  downward  rush  of  air,  which 
made  the  door  very  hard  to  open.  Down  here  in  the 
wheel  pits  one  could  not  hear  himself  speak,  let  him 
shout  as  loud  as  he  pleased,  so  all  the  conversation  I 
carried  on  with  the  workmen  was  done  by  writing  ques- 
tions on  a  piece  of  paper,  to  which  they  answered  by 
nodding  or  shaking  the  head.  Everything  seemed  weird 
in  this  rock-walled  pit  so  far  below  the  surface.  Electric 
lights  are  provided,  but  the  flaming  torches  cast  a  lurid 
glare  over  the  men,  who  wore  rubber  coats,  boots  and 
hats.  The  water  was  continually  dropping  down  as  it 
came  seeping  through  the  walls,  and  in  some  places  it 
was  quite  deep  on  the  plaakfioor.  I  had  on  my  mackin- 
tosh, and  had  borrowed  a  cap  from  one  of  the  men,  and, 
with  collar  and  trousers  turned  up,  enjoyed  it  hugely. 
All  machinery  is  fascinating,  but  this  is  the  most  fascin- 
ating place  I  had  ever  been  in,  and  I  walked  around 
shouting  to  the  men  at  the  top  of  my  voice.  But  no- 
body knew  it,  for  that  fearful  screeching  sound  drowned 
out  everything  else.  It  was  unlike  anything  I  had  ever 
heard  before.  It  was  too  high  to  be  a  musical  note,  and 
can  only  be  described  as  a  screech  or  howl.  And  there 
was  no  let  up  to  it.  There  were  several  explanations 
offered  by  those  who  heard  it,  and  here  are  two,  which 
may  be  taken  for  what  they  are  worth.  The  first  was 
that  the  holes  cut  in  the  hollow  sections  of  the  shaft  for 
balancing  purposes  made  of  it  a  flute,  and  so  produced 
the  sound.  The  second,  and  to  me  the  more  rational  ex- 
planation, was  that  as  the  guide  wheel  had  36  buckeis 
and  the  turbine  wheel  32,  there  would  be  produced  at 
each  revolution  over  1100  vibrations,  which  at  four  turns 
per  second  might  produce  the  required  pitch.  At  any 
rate,  the  noise  down  below  was  horrible,  while  up  on  top 
scarcely  a  sound  could  be  heard. 

The  shaft  which  transmits  the  power  to  the  dynamo 
above  is  of  steel,  hollow,  and  38  inches  in  diameter,  ex- 
cept at  the  bearings,  where  it  is  reduced  to  11  inches, 
and  is  solid.  A  thrust  bearing  is  provided  at  the  top,  to 
take  the  difference  between  the  weight  of  the  revolving 
parts  and  the  upward  thrust  of  the  water.  The  latter  is 
calculated  to  amount  to  between  149,000  and  155,000 
pounds,  and  depends  on  the  quantity  of  water  the  tur- 
bine is  using.  The  weight  of  the  revolving  parts  is 
152,000  pounds,  so  that  the  thrust-bearing  has  only  about 
3000  pounds  to  provide  for. 

The  top  of  the  wheel-pit  is  arched  over  with  solid 
masonry,  on  which  the  foundations  of  the  dynamo  rest. 
The  armature  is  stationary,  and  is  supported  by  a  cylin- 
drical casting  through  which  the  shaft  passes,  guided  by 
two  bearings.  The  armature  core  is  built  up  of  sheet 
steel  stampings,  there  being  eleven  segments  to  the  circle, 
and  each  placed  so  as  to  break  joints.  The  core  is  held 
together  by  66  nickel  steel  bolts,  and  the  conductors  are 
imbedded  in  187  slots  around  the  periphery.  The  exter- 
nal revolving  field  is  made  up  of  a  ring-yoke  with  inter- 
nally projecting  pole-pieces.  The  ring  is  of  nickel  steel, 
nearly  twelve  feet  in  diameter,  and  was  forged  from  a 
single  ingot  weighing  120,000  pounds.  It  is  supported 
by  an  umbrella-shaped  casting  called  the  driver,  which 
is  keyed  to  the  tapered  top  of  the  shaft,  and  has  the 
ring  bolted  to  its  periphery.  The  driver  is  provided 
with  openings  at  the  top,  and  so  arranged  with  ventilat- 
ing scoop-shaped  funnels  that  a  powerful  upward  draft 
will  be  created  through  the  machine.  This  is  necessary, 
as  heat  must  be  dissipated  at  the  rate  of  100  horse 
power.  At  250  revolutions  the  peripheral  speed  of  the 
ring  is  9300  feet  per  minute,  and  the  tensile  stretch  5052 
pounds  per  square  inch.  The  designers  calculate  that 
it  will  be  impossible  for  the  wheels  to  exceed  a  speed  cf 

August,  1 895. J 



400  revolutions  to  the  minute,  wlieu  the  stress  would  be 
13,000  pounds  per  square  inch.  But  as  the  elastic  limit 
of  the  steel  used  in  the  ring  is  48,000  pounds  per  square 
inch,  there  is  still  a  large  factor  of  safety.  It  may  be 
interesting  to  state  that  at  800  revolutions  per  minute 
the  ring  would  burst,  but  the  circumferential  velocity 
would  then  be  something  like  six  miles  per  minute. 

From  the  dynamo  four  cables  lead  to  the  big  switches 
operated  by  compressed  air,  and  convey  the  two-phase 
currents  to  the  bus  bars,  whence  it  can  be  distributed  to 
the  users.  The  switches  open  all  four  wires  at  once,  and 
are  provided  with  non-arcing  contacts,  so  that  when  the 
circuit  is  opened  with  the  full  load  of  5,000  horse-power 
on  the  spark  is  no  greater  than  with  25  amperes  of  di- 
rect current  at  110  volts.  Special  volt  meters,  ampere 
meters  and  watt  meters  were  designed  for  this  plant 
and  designated  as  the  Niagara  type.  The  whole  electri- 
cal plant  may  be  looked  upon  as  a  magnificent  piece  of 
execution,  and  as  embodying  the  highest  skill  on  the 
part  of  the  designers.  The  conditions  imposed  were 
most  trying,  but  each  difficulty  was  met  and  the  plant 
stands  to-day  as  a  model  in  every  way.  There  may  be 
a  difference  of  opinion  as  to  the  present  value  of  this 
immense  work,  as  to  its  safety  as  an  investment,  but 
there  can  be  nothing  but  praise  for  the  engineers  who 
designed  it  and  for  those  who  carried  out  the  designs. 
We  were  all  greatly  pleased  that  we  should  have  an  op- 
portunity to  see  the  plant,  and  it  was  quite  late  in  the 
afternoon  when  we  took  the  carriages  for  the  Pittsburg 
Reduction  Company's  works.  There  we  examined  the 
big  rotary  transformers  which  deliver  direct  current  at 
a  pressure  of  160  volts,  each  machine  giving  2,500  am- 
peres. There  are  at  present  four  in  place,  but  the  ulti- 
mate capacity  of  the  building  is  eight.  The  2,200-volt 
current  is  transformed  in  two  static  transformers,  one  on 
each  phase,  to  a  pressure  of  115  volts  and  delivered  at 
once  to  the  motor  end  of  the  rotaries.  The  direct  cur- 
rent bus  bars  are  flat  copper  bars,  3  inches  high  and  half 
an  inch  thick,  and  we  had  the  pleasure  of  seeing  them 
disappear  through  bushings  in  the  wall.  We  were  not 
admitted  to  the  furnace  room,  aud  as  the  current  had 
not  been  turned  on  yet  there  was  nothing  more  to  be 
seen.  W.  E.,  Jr. 

Trenton,  N.  J. 


That  the  applications  of  electricity  are  readily  able 
to  surmount  every  difficulty  that  appears  in  the  execu- 
tion of  practically  every  enterprise  of  whatever  magnit- 
ude is  shown  by  the  interesting  illustration  of  the  lift 
bridge  recently  erected  over  the  Chicago  river  by  the 
Metropolitan  West  Side  Elevated  Railroad  Company — 
the  new  electric  elevated  road  of  Chicago.  In  this  in- 
stance the  line  current,  or  rather  third  rail  current,  not 
only  operates  the  trains  but  is  utalized  for  operating  the 
left  bridge  and  the  constant  use  that  it  is  put  to  from 
the  continual  passing  of  craft  on  the  Chicago  river  has 
demonstaated  its  worth  most  thoroughly. 


In  San  Rafael,  recently,  some  ladies  who  had  been 
appoin  ted  managers  of  a  lawn  party  to  be  given  by  the 
church,  were  dismayed  on  learning  that  the  money  set 
apart  for  buying  candles,  was  not  nearly  sufficient  to 
enable  the  grounds  and  building  to  be  properly  lighted, 
and  why  the  ladies  appealed  to  the  San  Rafael"  Gas  and 
Electric  Light  Company  to  help  them  out  of  their  di- 
lemma is  not  clear,  but  they  did  so,  the  place  was  beau- 
tifully lighted,  and  a  surplus  remained  in  the  "  candle  " 


"  Let  me  congratulate  you — or  rather  the  elec- 
trical interests." — F.  Benedict  Herzog,  Ph.  D.,  New 

Mr.  Low's  new  paper,  The  Electrical  Journal,  has 
appeared.  It  is  attractive  in  appearance  and  contains 
much  of  interest  to  electrical  men.  —Pacific  Electrician, 
San  Francisco. 

"I  *  *  shall  hope  to  see  in  your  publication 
from  time  to  time,  articles  of  value  on  the  subject  [of 
electricity  as  a  fire  hazard.]  I  am  sure  Mr.  Low  can 
contribute  materially  to  the  literature  of  this  branch  of 
insurance  work." — W.  J.  Jenks,  New  York. 

William  Henry  Preece,  F.  R.  S.,  Engineer-in-chief, 
General  Post-office,  London,  writes  in  receipt  of  the  in- 
itial number  of  The  Electrical  Journal  :  "  I  haveread 
your  article  on  the  '  Express  '  system  with  much  inter- 
est," and  "  I  quite  long  to  come   over  and  see   it  work." 

A  Lift  Bridge  on  the  Chicago  Electric  Elevated. 

We  welcome  to  our  exchange  table  The  Electri- 
cal Journal,  a  paper  which  will  be  published  monthly 
at  San  Francisco.  The  editors  are  F.  A.  C.  Perrine  and 
George  P.  Low,  which  fact  in  itself  is  enough  to  insure  a 
publication  of  the  very  highest  class, — Street  Railway 
Review,  Chicago. 

The  Electrical  Journal,  edited  by  F.  A.  C. 
Perrine  and  Geo.  P.  Low,  and  published  at  San  Fran- 
cisco, appeared  for  the  first  time  July  1st.  It  is  claimed 
to  be  the  newest  electrical  publication  in  America, 
which  is  certainly  well  founded.  The  publication  is 
neat  and  attractive  in  appearance  and  its  reading  pages 
contain  much  that  is  of  interest.  The  editors  are  both 
well-known  to  the  electrical  fraternity. — Electrical  In- 
dustries, Chicago. 

The  first  number  of  The  Electrical  Journal  of 
San  Francisco  is  out.  This  is  Geo.  P.  Low's  paper,  and 
its  pending  appearance  was  mentioned  in  the  Western 
Electrician,  several  weeks  ago.  It  is  a  monthly,  of  hand- 
some appearance,  and  from  the  quality  of  the  first  issue 
gives  promise  of  being  an  important  factor  in  the  elec- 
trical advancement  of  the  Pacific  Coast  region.  The 
editors,  Mr.  Low  and  Dr.  Perrine,  are  to  be  congratu- 
lated.— Western  Electrician,  Chicago. 



[Vol.  I,  No.  2. 

Wl\*  SEtettritat  Journal* 

An  Illustrated  Review  op  the  Industrial  Applications  of 
Electricity,   Gas  and   Power. 


F.   A.   C.    PERRINE,   D.   Sc,   and    GEO.   P.    LOW. 

Subscription     .....    One   Dollar  per  Year  in  Advance. 
Advertising   Rates  Furnished   on  Application. 

PUBMSJ4ED    ]W01>lTHIiV    BY    GEO.     P.    liOW, 

303  California  Street San  Francisco. 


[Entered  as  Second-Class  Matter  at  the  San  Francisco  Post  Office.] 


AUGUST,    1895. 

NUMBER    2. 


Beginning  with  the  September  issue  and  for  reasons 
which  will  appear  therein,  the  title  of  this  publication 
will  be  The  Journal  of  Electricity. 

(GEO.  P.  LOW. 


It  may  be  that  the  commercial  sue- 
power  transmis-    cegg  of  the  er  transmission  plants 

SIONSOFTHE  ,     .         . ,      ■,  .  „     ,      ;  _,   ,  _Tf 

future  now  "einS  installed  at  Folsom,  Niagara 

and  other  places,  will  create  such  a 
prestige  for  alternating  current  machinery  in  the  minds 
of  inventors  that  we  will  never  again  see  a  great  direct 
current  undertaking  for  the  purpose  of  long-distance 
transmission.  However,  it  is  wise  to  bear  in  mind  that 
the  development  of  alternate  current  power  transmission 
in  this  country  is  carried  forward  by  the  weight  of  the 
authority  of  two  great  manufacturing  companies  ;  that 
there  are  problems  still  awaiting  practical  solution 
which  may  be  prejudicial  to  the  economy  of  these  plants  ; 
that  successful  long-distance  direct  current  transmis- 
sions at  high  voltage  are  at  present  installed  in  Europe 
and  California  ;  that  five  hundred  volt  transmissions  of 
ten  or  twelve  miles  are  a  commercial  success  in  this 
country  in  connection  with  many  electric  railroads ;  and 
that  recent  improvements  in  the  design  of  direct  current 
machinery  point  to  the  possibility  of  the  generation  of 
higher  voltage  than  has  heretofore  been  attempted  in 
large  units. 

Constant  current  generators  as  large  as  100  K.  W., 
producing  a  current  of  ten  amperes,  have  been  in  suc- 
cessful operation  for  the  past  two  or  three  years,  but  it 
is  undoubtedly  hazardous  engineering  to  furnish  four  or 
five  hundred  horse-power  to  be  distributed  small  motors 
by  the  means  of  such  machine.  Neither  does  the  motor- 
transformer  operate  at  an  advantage  on  a  circuit  in 
which  the  maximum  current  is  ten  amperes  and  the 
voltage  is  kept  within  the  extreme  limit  of  20,000  volts. 
On  the  other  hand  eight  to  ten  thousand  volts  seems  to 
be  the  limit  where  the  current  rises  to  forty  or  fifty  am- 
peres, even  when  generators  in  series  are  employed. 
While  transmission  by  the  means  of  a  direct  current  is 
placed  by  these   difficulties,  which   seem   to   limit   the 

power  transmitted  over  a  single  line  to  250  or  300  K.  W., 
alternating  current  transmission  has  already  seen  the 
operation  of  3,750  K.  W.  units,  and  it  has  been  an- 
nounced that  several  of  such  units  are  to  be  run  in  par- 

But  possibly  the  immunity  from  accidents  and  need 
of  repairs,  said  to  be  possessed  by  alternating  current 
machinery,  may  be  only  a  fancied  security. 

We  can  see  the  sparks  at  the  commutator  of  a  di- 
rect current  generator,  and  we  are  able  at  once  to  per- 
ceive when  they  are  destructive  and  at  what  time  they 
are  harmless  ;  furthermore,  the  damage  they  may  do  is 
not  likely  to  be  instantaneous,  but  no  man  can  tell  when 
some  accident  along  the  circuit  has  occasioned  surgings 
in  an  alternating  machine,  nor  is  mortal  quickness  suffi- 
cient to  prevent  the  damage  which  maybe  accomplished 
by  such  surgings.  Yet  up  to  the  present  time  resonance 
has  not  proved  to  be  an  insurmountable  difficulty,  whereas 
sparking  at  the  brushes  has  absolutely  prevented  the 
introduction  of  direct  current  machines  of  large  size  when 
high  voltages  are  to  be  employed. 

This  limitation  of  the  direct  current  machine  has 
not  been  touched  upon  in  any  of  the  discussions  of 
either  Sayres'  compound  wound  armature  in  England, 
or  of  Ryan's  field  compounding  for  armature  reaction  in 
this  country.  The  experiments  of  both  these  designers 
have  been  conducted  with  low  voltage  machines,  and  it 
has  been  very  properly  objected  that  in  face  of  practical 
machines  running  sparklessly  at  five  hundred  volts  and 
currents  as  high  as  two  or  three  hundred  amperes,  no 
great  extra  expense  is  reasonable  in  order  to  gain  spark- 
less  commutation  at  lower  voltages.  It  may  be  true  that 
those  of  the  Sayres  or  Ryan  construction  are  some 
tenths  of  a  per  cent,  more  efficient  than  machines  of  the 
ordinary  design  running  sparklessly,  but  the  advantages 
of  a  slight  gain  in  efficiency  is  insignificant  in  compari- 
son with  the  possibility  which  these  designs  present  of 
the  construction  and  operation  of  large  direct  current 
units  distributing  power  at  a  great  distance  to  rotary 
transformers  in  parallel,  feeding  low  pressure  networks 
in  direct  competition  with  the  modern  multiphase  alter- 
nating current  systems. 

Should  either  of  these  designers  accomplish  the  gen- 
eration of  high  voltages  by  the  means  of  large  direct 
current  units,  the  expense  of  the  maintenance  of  a  com- 
mutation under  ordinary  wear  will  undoubtedly  sink 
into  insignificance  in  comparison  with  the  lack  of  com- 
plication of  other  details  in  the  system.  The  problem 
of  insulation  will  be  simplified  ;  capacity,  resonance  and 
self-inductive  effects  will  be  eliminated,  and  we  will  see 
the  direct  current  taking  its  place  and  doing  its  proper 
share  of  the  long-distance  transmission  which  is  still  re- 
maining to  be  accomplished. 

The  signs  of  the  times  are  clearly  set 

forth  in  the  struggle  now  going  on  be- 

vital  tween    the    Oakland,    San    Leandro   & 

issue.  Haywards    Electric   Railway   Company 

and  the  Southern  Pacific   Company  for 

the  control  of  the  traffic   between   San 

Francisco  and  Haywards.     It  is  the  now  familiar  story 

August,  1895.] 



of  the  trolley  invading  the  domain  of  the  steam  road, 
not  only  in  its  passenger  business,  but  in  express  matter 
and  freight  as  well,  and  present  indications  are  that 
upon  the  shoulders  of  the  Haywards  electric  road  will 
fall  the  burden  of  demonstrating  both  in  a  practical  and 
in  a  legal  sense,  that  electric  railways  can  wrest  a  goodly 
portion  of  traffic  from  steam  lines.  But  more  than  this, 
it  appears  necessary  that  the  courts  should  establish  the 
fact  that  electric  street  railways  are  a  new  development 
in  the  way  of  transportation,  which  cannot  be  reduced 
to  the  equality  of  steam  roads.  They  are  a  distinct 
creation,  which  owes  its  origin  to  public  demand. 

Viewed  from  an  independent  standpoint  and  broadly, 
it  certainly  seems  as  though  every  advantage  was 
arrayed  on  the  side  of  electric  traction.  With  good 
road  beds  and  unsurpassed  equipments,  with  running 
time  schedules  practically  equal  to  those  of  the  steam 
roads  and  with  the  great  convenience  of  being  able  to 
land  one  at  his  very  door,  it  is  hardly  probable  that  the 
travelling  public  will  care  to  drop  the  new  method  for 
the  old.  The  Postoffice  Department  was  quick  to  per- 
ceive these  disadvantages,  and  months  since  adopted  the 
electric  service  for  the  carrying  of  mails.  Now,  in  the 
case  of  the  Haywards  electric  road,  an  express  system 
has  been  instituted  for  the  carrying  of  all  manner  of 
express  matter,  and  as  a  result  the  mighty  corporation 
that  has  dominated  the  interests  of  California  is  evi- 
dently determined  to  see  just  how  far  the  public  will 
stand  by  the  steam  roads,  but  although  the  old  service 
was  vastly  improved  by  establishing  more  frequent  trains 
and  by  bettering  the  equipment,  still  it  preferred  the 
electric  road  for  local  travel.  Finally,  the  State  Board 
of  Railroad  Commissioners  claims  that  the  electric  line 
comes  under  its  jurisdiction  and  under  this  contention 
has  requested  the  company  to  report  to  it.  This  the 
latter  has  refused  to  do  and  at  present  it  appears  certain 
that  the  question  will  find  its  way  to  the  courts  for  set- 
tlement. The  outcome  of  the  contention  will  exert  a 
far-reaching  influence,  the  importance  of  which  must 
not  be  underestimated. 

An   insurance  policy   is    a    contract 
drawn  between  two  parties  whereby  the 

REA|DNSU°RflNCERE  first  party> in  return  for  proper  consid- 
policies.  eration,  agrees  to  insure  to  a  pre-deter- 
mined  extent  the  party  of  the  second 
part  against  loss  or  damage  by  fire  oc- 
curring to  specifically  described  property  of  the  second 
party.  A  policy  is,  in  brief,  a  clearly  drawn,  specific 
contract,  the  standard  form  of  which  has  been  not  only 
sustained  by  the  courts  time  and  again,  but  which  has, 
in  the  States  of  New  York,  Pennsylvania,  New  Jer- 
sey and  Wisconsin  been  drafted  under  legislative  sur- 
veillance. To  disregard  its  stipulations,  therefore,  is  to 
violate  the  terms  of  a  contract,  and  the  astounding  fact 
is  brought  out  during  the  adj  ustment  of  practically  every 
fire,  that  shrewd,  hard-headed  business  men  will  oft- 
times  so  forget  themselves  as  to  enter  into  a  firm  and  in- 
violable contract  involving  the  value  of  their  entire  busi- 

ness without  knowing  the  terms  and  conditions  of  tha 
contract  they  are  entering  into.  It  is  quite  rational  to 
state  that  ordinarily  the  stipulations  of  a  policy  might 
as  well  be  printed  in  Greek  for  all  the  attention  they  re- 

A  man  insures  much  as  he  would  buy  a  lottery 
ticket.  He  does  not  honestly  believe  it  will  be  of  ser- 
vice or  return  him  any  value ;  still  there  is  the  chance 
that  it  might  do  so,  and  when,  as  with  insurance,  the 
work  of  a  lifetime  may  be  preserved  from  annihilation, 
the  policy  is  taken  out  purely  as  a  means  of  self-preser- 
vation. Insurance  is  the  body  guard  of  commerce,  and 
it  is  availed  of  purely  in  the  idea  of  self-preservation. 
This  being  borne  in  mind,  is  it  not  inconceivable  that  its 
conditions  should  be  slurred,  if  not  ignored? 

There  is  no  disposition  to  review  the  terms  of  a 
standard  form  of  policy,  as  a  single  clause  will  empha- 
size the  joints.  A  clause  reads  :  "  This  entire  policy, 
unless  otherwise  provided  by  agreement  indorsed  hereon 
or  added  hereto,  shall  be  void  *  *  *  if  (any  usage 
or  custom  of  trade  or  manufacture  to  the  contrary  not- 
withstanding) there  be  kept,  used,  or  allowed  on  the 
above  described  premises,  benzine,  benzole,  gasolene, 
naphtha,  or  petroleum,  or  any  of  its  products  of  greater 
inflammability  than  kerosene  oil  of  the  United  States 
standard,"  etc.  Every  electric  light  and  power  plant  in 
the  country  has  on  hand  and  uses  daily  either  gasolene 
or  naphtha,  the  presence  of  which  on  the  premises  inval- 
idates all  insurance  thereon  unless  special  permission  for 
its  use  has  been  granted,  yet  the  instances  where  elec- 
tric station  managers  have  obtained  permits  for  the  use 
of  gasolene  or  naphtha,  as  provided  in  their  contracts  for 
insurance,  are  extremely  hard  to  find.  In  other  words, 
a  vast  majority  of  the  electric  stations  of  the  country 
are  legally  without  insurance  because  of  having  invali- 
dated their  policies. 

The  tendency  of  the  day  appears  to  be  toward  spe- 
cific insurance  on  the  various  items  constituting  the 
property  desired  to  be  covered,  but  in  following  this  out 
it  must  be  remembered  that  under  an  insurance  polioy 
insurance  ends  where  segregation  ends.  An  incident 
recently  occurred  illustrating  this  point  in  a  forcible 
way.  The  receiver  of  an  electric  railway  took  out  in- 
surance covering  a  given  amount  "  on  engines,  boilers 
and  their  connections  and  settings,"  believing  that  he 
had  insured  all  the  power  plant  equipment.  The  sta- 
tion burned,  and  in  settling  the  loss  it  was  found  that 
among  other  items  there  was  no  insurance  on  belting, 
which  was  practically  the  only  appliance  that  was  totally 
ruined.  In  no  way  can  belting  be  considered  as  a  "  con- 
nection "  or  a  "setting"  of  engines  and  boilers,  hence 
the  insurance  companies  were  under  no  liability  for  its 

No  one  expects  visitation  by  fire,  but  many  re- 
ceive it,  so  as  an  ounce  of  precaution,  or  more  properly,  of 
business  prudence,  read  your  policies  and  understand 
the  conditions  of  the  contract  obligations  you  have 
agreed  to  abide  by  in  case  of  fire. 




I,  No. 

TRANSMISSION  LINES,  by  A.  V.  Abbott. 

It  is  a  great  pleasure  to  have  been  given  the  oppor- 
tunity of  looking  over  the  proof  sheets  of  such  a  book 
as  A.  V.  Abbott's  forthcoming  volume  on  "  Transmission 
Lines."  Recently  a  writer  in  one  of  the  electrical  jour- 
nals complained  that  no  book  had  been  issued  on  engi- 
neering problems  of  line  construction,  stating  that  the  rea- 
son was  probably  to  be  found  in  the  fact  that  the  con- 
struction had  been  intrusted  to  men  of  practical  experi- 
ence rather  than  to  theoretical  designers — to  linemen 
rather  than  to  engineers.  This  may,  perhaps,  have  been 
true  in  the  construction  of  most  telegraph  pole  lines, 
or,  it  is  said,  may  account  for  the  greater  or  less  disor- 
ganization of  telegraph  service  after  every  heavy  wind- 
storm, and  undoubtedly  explains  the  waste  of  thousands 
of  dollars  in  faulty  underground  construction  by  most  of 
the  electric  light  and  railroad  companies  throughout  the 
country.  Mr.  Abbott's  book  is  the  book  of  an  engineer 
and  treats  the  problem  as  one  of  engineering. 

The  telephone  companies  were  one  of  the  first  to 
recognize  the  importance  of  erecting  their  pole  lines  in 
such  a  manner  that  their  service  should  be  continuous 
in  spite  of  climatic  conditions,  and  of  doing  their  under- 
ground construction  for  permanence  rather  than  for  sim- 
ple cheapness.  With  the  expiration  of  the  Bell  tele- 
phone patents  and  the  termination  of  the  Western  Union 
contract  we  are  bound  to  see  a  reorganization  of  both  the 
telephone  and  the  telegraph  business  throughout  the 
country,  and  in  the  forthcoming  contest  we  will  un- 
doubtedly see  fruits  of  the  efforts  of  the  engineer  where 
the  inventor  and  lineman  have  heretofore  held  sway. 

The  lead  in  the  competition  will  be  taken  by  the 
company  which  will  give  the  best  service  and  at  the  least 
cost,  which  means  the  best  apparatus,  the  best  lines  and 
the  least  repairing,  all  of  which  require  the  best  and 
most  thoroughly  trained  engineers. 

R.  Foote  and  Chas.  E.  Everett,  3  vols.,  8vo.,  2930  pages,  sheep. 
Cincinnati,  1892-93.  Price,  $15.00  For  sale  by  the  Bancroft- 
Whitney  Company,  San  Francisco,  and  The  Electrical  Jour- 

The  trite  adage  that  "Any  man  who  is  his  own 
lawyer,  has  a  fool  for  a  client,"  is  not  to  be  impeached, 
but  in  no  way  will  a  belief  in  the  precept  preclude  one 
from  posting  himself  regarding  the  general  laws  which 
govern  the  business  he  is  engaged  in,  and  in  fact,  the 
business  manager  of  corporate  interests,  who  does  not 
keep  himself  well  informed  as  to  fundamental  legal 
points,  is  remiss  in  a  very  important  item.  The 
volumes  presented  expound  the  laws  of  the  various 
States  and  Territories  of  incorporated  companies  oper- 
ating under  municipal  franchises,  such  as  gas,  electric 
light  and  power,  telephone,  street  railway  and  water 
companies ;  hence,  they  throw  the  light  of  legal  knowl- 
edge upon  the  proper  methods  of  procedure  in  the 
organizing,  incorporation,  powers,  liabilities,  franchises, 
and  general  management  of  commercial  interests  that 
are  generally  electrical  in  character.  Of  the  author, 
Mr.  Allen  E.  Foote  is  well  known  to  electrical  interests, 
because  of  his  work  on  the  "  Economic  Value  of  Elec- 
tric Light  and  Power,"  his  special  agentship  for  electri- 
cal industries  in  the  United  States  census,  and  his  mem- 
bership of  the  American  Institute  of  Electrical  Engi- 
neers. Aside  from  Mr.  Chas.  E.  Everett,  A.  M.,  LL.  B., 
who  is  editing  attorney  for  the  work,  a  resident  attor- 
ney in  each  State  has  been  appointed  as  co-editors, 
among  whom  are  noted  such  prominent  personages  as 
William  A.  Blount,  of  Florida ;  Charles  H.  Aldrich,  ex- 

Solicitor  General  of  the  United  States,  of  Illinois ;  Chief 
Justice  Henry  M.  Blake,  of  Montana  ;  Anthony  S.  Keas- 
bey,  of  New  Jersey  ;  James  W.  Eaton,  of  New  York, 
and  Judge  George  H.  Williams,  of  Oregon.  Indeed,  the 
names  associated  in  the  compilation  of  the  work,  alone, 
guarantee  its  thoroughness  and  accuracy.  It  is,  in 
brief,  a  work  that  no  lawyer  or  manager  can  afford  to 
be  without. 

POWER,  by  Wm.  Cathorne  Unwin,  F.  R.  S.,  London,  1894. 
Published  by  Longman,  Green  &  Co. 

The  transmission  of  power  to  a  considerable  dis- 
tance has  only  attracted  much  public  attention  in  this 
country  since  the  introduction  of  electricity  as  a  means 
of  energy  transformation.  In  consequence,  even  our  en- 
gineers are  in  danger  of  forgetting  that  for  many  years 
thousands  of  horse-power  have  been  economically  dis- 
tributed through  New  York  by  the  means  of  steam  pipes 
laid  in  the  streets  ;  that  hot  water  distribution  was  for  a 
time  successful  in  Boston  ;  that  natural  gas  differs  but 
little  from  a  fuel  gas,  which  it  is  possible  to  manufacture 
cheaply,  and  that  long  distance  hydraulic  transmission 
has  furnished  the  power  for  mining  millions  of  dollars 
worth  of  gold  in  California.  It  is  true  that  each  of  these 
examples  is  the  special  solution  of  a  special  case,  but  it 
is  also  true  that  such  solutions  are  the  essence  of  success- 
ful engineering,  and  it  is  wise  to  look  over  the  means 
already  at  hand  for  the  development  and  transmission  of 
power,  before  we  decide  that  any  one  is  necessarily  suit- 
able for  a  given  case.  The  first  impression  on  reading 
Prof.  Unwin's  Harvard  lecture  on  "  The  Development 
and  Transmission  of  Power  "  is  one  of  surprise  that  an 
engineer  of  high  standing  and  wide  attainments  can  be 
found  who  seems  to  believe  that  power  may  be  trans- 
mitted in  many  cases  more  economically  by  the  means  of 
high  pressure  water  or  compiessed  air,  than  by  the 
means  of  electricity. 

And  again,  one  is  surprised  by  the  magnitude  and 
success  of  the  power  plants  described,  using  those  meth- 
ods which  are  successfully  installed  in  Europe.  There  is 
much  food  for  thought  in  all  of  this,  and  an  engineer  can 
scarcely  afford  to  neglect  the  consideration  of  many  of 
the  advantages  which  this  book  calls  to  our  attention, 
present  in  other  means  of  distribution,  even  when  he 
may  be  considering  the  installation  of  an  electric  plant. 
The  generation  and  distribution  of  power  is  here  con- 
sidered as  a  whole  in  a  manner  difficult  to  express  more 
completely  in  so  compact  a  form  ;  and  central  station 
engineers  may  find  in  the  chapter  on  the  "  Condition  of 
Economy  and  Waste  in  Steam  Engines,"  "  The  Cost  of 
Steam  Power,"  and  "  The  Storage  of  Energy,"  many  of 
the  conditions  clearly  expressed,  which  are  useful  in  de- 
termining the  necessary  arrangement,  and  methods  of 
handling  apparatus  in  order  to  reduce  the  great  con- 
sumption of  coal  in  even  our  best  equipped  stations, 
which  has  been  reported  by  the  committee  of  the  Na- 
tional Electric  Light  Association.  In  the  treatment  of 
hydraulic  motors  one  is  impressed  by  the  necessary  in- 
efficiency of  the  common  hydraulic  elevator,  using,  as  it 
does,  the  same  amount  of  water  for  all  loads,  and  it 
seems  a  small  wonder  that  the  introduction  of  a  success- 
ful electric  high  speed  elevator  has  been  followed  by  a 
very  wide  spread  use.  The  problem  of  a  small  motor 
which  shall  use  hydraulic  power  economically,  will 
hinder  greatly  this  type  of  transmission  wherever  the 
cost  of  water  pumped  becomes  a  serious  consideration, 
as  has  been  shown  by  the  experience  gained  at  both 
Holyoke  and  Geneva.  Even  where  water  power  is  abun- 
dant, and  the  cost  of  pumping  low,  there  yet  remains  the 
problem  to  be  solved  whether  it  is  not  finally  more  eco- 

August,  1895.] 



nomical  to  install  electric  machinery  which  will  gener- 
ate current  directly  available  for  other  uses  than  the 
development  of  power,  and  by  the  increased  efficiency  of 
motors  save  much  of  the  expense  of  mains  and  turbines 
in  the  original  water  power  installation. 

The  complete  description  given  of  telodynamic  or 
wire  rope  transmission  confirms  one  in  the  belief  that 
save  for  small  powers  at  short  distances,  such  as  from 
one  section  of  a  works  to  another,  there  is  little  likeli- 
hood that  this  method  will  be  extensively  used  in  the 
future.  It  is  unfortunate,  however,  that  no  mention  is 
made  of  the  telodynamic  transmission  at  the  Calumet  & 
Hecla  mine,  in  which  a  rope  has  been  for  many  years 
successfully  run  at  12,000  feet  per  minute.  It  is  not 
difficult  to  perceive  that  transmission  by  the  means  of 
compressed  air  has  received  Prof.  Unwin's  greatest  at- 
tention and  favor.  We  already  know  that  very  few 
pneumatic  plants  have  been  displaced  in  mining,  aud  it 
is  an  open  secret  that  for  deep  mines  the  economy  of 
working  is  considerably  greater  with  compressed  air  than 
with  electricity,  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  neither  the  com- 
pressors or  air  drills  are  often  worked  under  the  great- 
est conditions  of  economy.  The  two  chapters  on  the 
"  Transmission  of  Power  by  Compressed  Air,"  and  the 
•'  Theory  of  Air  Transmission  "  discuss  very  carefully  the 
problems  of  the  compressors,  maius  and  motors,  taking 
into  account  all  the  subsidiary  losses  of  energy  which 
are  involved,  and  one  is  forced  to  the  conclusion  that  a 
high  efficiency  of  transmission  and  distribution  is  easily 
attained  by  the  means  of  compressed  air. 

The  economy  of  plant  is  not  by  any  means  so  com- 
pletely established,  as  it  is  difficult  to  acknowledge  that 
the  cost  of  installation  of  machinery  is  less  than  with 
electricity,  and  one  would  hardly  let  the  statement  go 
unchallenged  that  one-fourth  pound  of  coal  per  horse- 
power hour  used  in  reheaters,  is  an  inconsiderable  quan- 

The  distribution  of  power  by  steam  aud  gas  is  not 
as  fully  treated  as  the  cases  already  cited,  the  chapter  on 
steam  distribution  being  taken  almost  entirely  from  Dr. 
Emery's  published  writings,  while  the  distribution  of 
heat  by  the  means  of  exhaust  steam  is  entirely  neglected, 
though  this  has  become  a  very  important  adjunct  to 
many  power  stations  installed  in  this  country.  In  many 
cases  such  a  distribution  is  claimed  to  be  of  more  value 
to  the  financial  economy  of  a  station  than  the  availabil- 
ity of  water  for  condensation. 

"We  are  inclined  also  iu  this  country  to  look  for  a 
substitution  of  fuel  gas  for  natural  gas  in  power  trans- 
mission, and  it  is  disappointing  to  find  in  Prof.  Unwin's 
book  so  pessimistic  a  view  taken  of  the  future  possibili- 
ties of  the  economical  production  and  distribution  of  pro- 
ducer gas. 

The  two  chapters  on  •'  Electrical  Transmission,"  aud 
the  chapter  on  the  "  Utilization  of  Niagara  Falls  "  pos- 
sess a  peculiar  interest  on  account  of  the  position  of  Prof. 
Unwin  as  one  of  the  original  advisers  of  the  Niagara 
Falls  Power  Company.  The  history  of  electrical  power 
transmission  is  only  beginning  to  be  written,  and  it  is 
painfully  evident  in  this  book  that  to  the  general  engi- 
neer there  is  but  little  data  available  for  estimating  the 
cost  of  construction,  maintenance  and  operation  of  an 
electrical  transmission  plant.  Prof.  Unwin  has  hardly 
advanced  beyond  the  position  of  Prof.  Forbes'  lectures  on 
"  Electrical  Distribution,"  while  in  citing  and  applying 
Kelvin's  law  he  makes  the  serious  common  error  of  neg- 
lecting the  condition  that  the  solution  only  holds  for  the 
current  being  considered  a  constant.  Comparing  the 
power  delivered  by  the  complete  list  of  long  distance 
electrical  power  transmission  given  by  Unwin,  and  the 
capacity  of  the  plants  installed  since  his  data  was  col- 

lected, one  is  impressed  with  a  very  practical  proof  of 
the  efficiency  of  this  system  of  power  transmission. 

In  the  chapter  on  "  Niagara  "  we  have  a  clear  out- 
line history  of  the  undertaking,  and  it  is  a  relief  to  read 
an  account  of  the  Niagara  Company,  its  commission  and 
engineers,  which  is  free  from  the  ill-feeling  and  hare1 
names  which  have  been  used  so  generously  in  connec- 
tion with  this  plant.  The  volume  as  a  whole  is  a  most 
valuable  addition  to  the  literature  of  central  station 
construction  and  power  distribution,  and  presents  much 
matter  which  no  engineer  can  afford  to  neglect. 


M.  Schoen,  Assc.  Member  A.  I.  E.  E.,  Electrician  South-Eastern 
Tariff  Association.  Atlanta,  Ga.,  1894,  82  pages,  16mo,  leather. 
Illustrated.  For  sale  by  The  Electrical  Journal.  Price,  $1.00 
each,  post  free,  with  liberal  discounts  for  large  orders. 

This  little  book,  which  was  designed  for  the  guidance 
of  special  agents  for  insurance  companies  and  may  be 
read  with  advantage  by  all  electricians,  deals  with  elec- 
tricity in  its  bearings  upon  insurance  inspections.  The 
book  was  printed  by  the  South-eastern  Tariff  Associa- 
tion, and  proved  to  be  so  popular  that  the  small  edition 
issued  was  soon  exhausted.  The  author,  with  the  con- 
sent of  the  association  has  transferred  his  copy-right  to 
The  Spectator  Company,  which  has  issued  a  new  edition, 
enlarged  and  improved.  Mr.  Schoen  has  made  many  and 
important  additions  to  the  Electrical  Hand-Book:  which 
also  contains  numerous  illustrations  of  electrical  appli- 
ances aud  descriptions  of  imperfect  work  not  in  the  first 
edition,  together  with  full  instructions  to  enable  in- 
spectors to  ascertain  the  hazards  of  all  electrical  ma- 
chinery and  appliances. 


The  third  annual  meeting  of  the  Pacific  Coast  Gas 
Association  was  held  at  San  Francisco  on  July  16—17, 
during  which  the  following  papers  were  read  and  fully 
discussed:  "The  Economy  of  Small  Works,''  John 
Clement;  "  Welsh  Anthracite  Coal,"  John  L.  Howard; 
"  Treatment  of  our  Customers,"  O.  M.  Gregory  ;  "  One 
Year's  Experience  with  Wellsbach  Burner,"  E.  C.  Ban- 
dall;  "Calcic  Carbide,"  E.  C.  Jones;  "Technical  Gas 
Analysis,"  J.  Bryant  Grimwood,  "Producer  Gas,"  H. 
E.  Adams. 

The  retiring  President,  Mr.  C.  W.  Quilty,  of  San 
Jose,  also  delivered  an  interesting  address,  after  which 
the  business  of  the  association  was  transacted.  An  im- 
portant action  taken  was  the  selection  of  the  American 
Gas  Light  Journal  as  the  official  organ  of  the  association, 
in  which  publication  the  proceedings  of  the  association 
may  first  appear. 

At  the  second  days  session  the  following  officers 
were  elected  for  the  ensuing  year :  President,  E.  C. 
Jones;  Vice-President,  F.  H.  Eichbaum;  Secretary  and 
Treasurer,  John  A.  Britton.  These  officers  will  consti- 
tute an  Executive  Committee  and  an  Advisory  Board. 
The  directors  elected  are  as  follows :  O.  M.  Gregory, 
San  Jose;  G.  W.  Wilson,  Vallejo;  C.  O.  G.  Miller,  San 
Francisco;  B.  U.  Steinman,  Sacramento;  and  S.  B.  Cush- 
ing,  San  Bafael. 

The  social  features  of  the  convention  proved  most 
enjoyable,  the  first  of  which  was  the  superb  banquet 
held  at  the  new  Delmouico  on  the  evening  of  the  first 
day  of  the  session.  After  adjournment  on  the  second 
day,  there  was  an  excursion  on  the  bay  aud  luncheon 
at  the  North  Beach  station  of  the  San  Francisco  Gas 
Light  Company.  In  the  evening  a  theater  party  was 
held  at  the  Columbia,  which  concluded  the  most  enjoy- 
able and  profitable  session  yet  held. 



[Vol.  I,  No.  2. 


The  Company  of  which  the  present  system  is  the 
outgrowth,  was  organized  February  5,  1885,  as  the  Den- 
ver Electric  aud  Cable  Railway  Company,  the  earliest 
effort  of  which  was  the  operation  of  a  conduit  Sj'stem  of 
electric  railway  on  Fifteenth  street,  in  Denver,  Col.    Mr. 

Fig.  2. — The  Denver  Consolidated  Tramway  Company 

Rodney  Curtis,  now  President  of  the  Tramway  Compa- 
ny, was  the  first  manager  of  the  original  company.  Ou 
May  4,  1886,  the  Tramway  Company  was  organized  and 
shortly  after  built  and  placed  in  operation  about  twelve 
miles  of  cable  road,  constituting  the  Broadway,  Colfax 
and  Fifteenth  Street  lines,  the  latter  of  which  displaced 
the  conduit  electric  line  referred  to.  The  South  Broad- 
way Electric  line,  which  was  put  in  operation  on  Christ- 
mas day,  1889,  was  the  first  trolley  road  operated  by  this 
company,  and  to-day  the  Tram- 
way Company  has  in  operation 
eighteen  lines,  all  being  electric, 
as  the  cable  roads  were  abandoned 
in  1893.  These  lines  are  the 
Broadway,  Colfax,  Nineteenth, 
Twenty-second,  Stout,  Lawrence, 
South  Tremont,  Eleventh,  Har- 
mon, Pearl,  University  Park, 
South  Broadway,  Park  Hill,  Ber- 
keley, Rocky  Mountain  Lake, 
Agate,  Ashland  and  the  Riverside 
line,  making  in  all  99.29  miles 
of  single  track.  The  motors  used 
are  of  the  Westinghouse,  Thom- 
son-Houston and  General  Electric 

The  Grand  Avenue  Station,  the 
interior  of  which  is  shown  in 
Fig.  1,  is  mainly  equipped  with 
type  D62  T.  H.  railway  generators, 
there  being  also  one  250-kilowatt 
General  Electric  multipolar  gen- 
e"ator.      All  machines  are  driven 

from  a  counter-shaft,  operated  in  turn  by  a  large  twin 
Corliss  engine.  Either  of  the  railway  lines  can  be  oper- 
ated from  this  plant. 

It  was  at  this  station  that  one  boiler  of  a  battery  of 
twelve  tubulars  exploded  on  January  30th  last,  but  the 
accident,  though  serious,  did  not  materially  delay  oper- 
ations, as  in  a  few  days  the  plant  was  again  in  operation 
by  steam  supplied  from  locomotives  that  had  been  run 
up  alongside  the  station      The  Blake-street  Station,  on 

Blake  street,  near  Thirty-sec- 
ond, and  which  at  that  time 
carried  most  of  the  load,  con- 
tains two  General  Electric 
multipolar  500-kilowatt  gener- 
ators, and  also  one  Westing- 
house  500-kilowatt  multipolar 
generator.  These  dynamos  are 
each  belted  direct  to  Hamil- 
ton Corliss,  or  Reynolds  Corliss 
engines,  and  together  with  the 
necessary  boilers,  etc.,  consti- 
tute the  plant.  There  is,  how- 
ever, room  for  two  more  500- 
kilowatts  units,  and  at  present 
it  appears  as  though  a  500- 
kilowatt  Siemens-Halske  di- 
rect connected  generator  would 
be  placed  in  the  near  future. 
The  switchboard  is  of  white 
marble,  with  phosphor  bronze 
trimmings,  and  so  arranged 
that  it  may  be  extended  to 
almost  any  capacity.  Water 
lightning  arresters  are  used 
behind  the  switchboard. 

The  Tramway  Company  has 
several  well-stocked  car-barns, 
and  all  of  its  equipment  is  of 
excellent  design  and  finish,  both  for  summer  and 
winter  travel,  as  will  be  apparent  from  the  accom- 
panying illustrations.  Since  its  inception  the  road  has 
been  under  the  superintendency  of  Mr.  C.  K.  Durbin, 
to  whose  ability  the  general  superiority  of  the  equip- 
ment and  service  is  largely  due.  Without  doubt  Den- 
ver owes  much  of  its  growth  and  prosperity  to 
the  enterprise  of  the  Denver  Consolidated  Tramway 

Fig.  1. — The  Denver  Consolidated  Tramway  Company. 

August,  1895.] 



The  month  just  closed  will  prove  a  memorial  one  in 
electrical  circles  of  the  Pacific  Coast,  if  not  by  the  world, 
not  only  because  of  the  successful  starting  of  the  Folsom- 
Sacramento  plant,  but  because  of  the  awarding  of  con- 
tracts for  the  erection  of  other  yet  more  interesting 
power  transmissions. 

At  4  o'clock  in  the  morning  of  July  13th,  the  people 
of  Sacramento  were  roused  by 
the  boomiDg  of  100  guns,  the 
signal  which  had  been  arranged 
to  announce  the  successful  trans- 
mission of  power  from  the  Fol- 
som  dam  across  the  American 
river  to  Sacramento  river,  a  dis- 
tance of  22£  miles.  This 
installation  is  in  some  respects 
the  most  noteworthy  ever  un- 
dertaken. It  operates  at  an 
initial  potential  of  11,000  volts, 
its  four  generators  have  a  capac- 


Electric  Company  has  secured  the  contract  for  transmitt- 
ing 2,500  horse-power  a  distance  of  14  miles  from  the 
big  Cottonwood  dam  to  Salt  Lake  City,  and,  most  im- 
portant of  all,  that  the  same  Company  has  accepted  a 
contract  under  which  it  agrees  to  deliver  1000  horse- 
power in  Fresno,  Cal.,  from  a  fork  of  the  San  Joaquin, 
thirty-five  miles  distant.  This  plant  will  probably  be 
in  operation  early  in  January.  In  Southern  California 
many  ambitious  projects  are  under  way  and  will  be  in- 
stalled if  substantial  backing  is  to  effect  it.     Principal 

Fig.  3 — Car  Barns  of  the  Denver  Tramway  Co 

ity  of  750  kilowatts  or  about  1000  horse-power  each,  and 
are,  therefore,  the  largest  three-phase  dynamos  ever  con- 
structed. The  entire  equipment  is,  or  when  completed 
will  be  in  duplicate,  and  at  present  a  double  pole  line 
has  been  erected  over  the  entire  distance,  but  only  one 
generator  is  in  use.  The  present  condition  of  the  plant 
is  largely  temporary  regardless  of  statements  published 
to  the  contrary  and  a  description  of  it  at  this  time 
would  be  premature.  But  a  single  generator  is  running, 
owing  to  the  breaking  of  a  temporary  dam  and  the  wet- 
ing  of  a  second  dynamo  that  had  been  sent  out.  At 
Sacramento,  a  500  horse-power,  three-phase  motor  is 
driving  two  Edison  bi-polor  and  one  General  Electric 
street  railway  generator  and  also  a  10  horse-power 
motor  for  operating  a  toboggan  slide  that  the  Central 
Electric  Railway  has  erected  in  East  Park.  In  fact,  the 
necessity  for  obtaining  power  for  operating  the  Central 
street  railway  system,  which  is  owned  by  the  Sacramen- 
to Electric  Power  and  Light  Company,  compelled  the 
starting  up  of  the  Folsom  transmission  before  it  was 
ready.  This  statement  of  the  actual  condition  of 
affairs,  however,  does  not  detract  in  any  way  from  the 
value  of  the  enterprise  or  its  influence  upon  the  develop- 
ment of  similar  enterprises,  but,  to  the  contrary,  enough 
has  been  accomplished  to  satisfy  the  most  exacting  as  to 
the  feasibility  of  the  scheme  and  the  thorough  practicab- 
ility of  the  methods  and  apparatus  used. 

Following  close  upon  the  starting  of  the  Folsom 
transmission  comes  the  announcement  recorded  in  the 
news   department  of    this  paper,    that    the     General 

among  these  are  the  Power  Develop- 
ment Company,  of  Bakersfield,  which 
has  issued  specifications  and  is  now 
receiving  propositions,  as  described  else- 

Over  topping  all,  however,  is  the 
announcement  just  made  of  a  gigantic 
electric  power  transmission  scheme  in 
which  the  organizers  have  very  dextrous- 
ly  arranged  so  that  they  will  have  as 
generating  power  the  water  from  the 
immense  debris  dam  soon  to  be  built  at 
Deguirie,  six  miles  above  Marysville  on 
the  Yuba  river.  Acting  upon  the  rec- 
ommendation of  the  California  Debris 
Commission  the  last  legislature  appropriated  $250,000 
for  the  erection  of  a  miuing  debris  dam  at  Deguirie, 
which  amount  it  is  believed  wjll  undoubtedly  be  in- 
creased by  an  appropriation  of  $  350,000  from  Congress. 
The  Deguirie  dam  will  develop  70,000   horse-power,  the 

Fig.  4 — The  Denver  Tramway  Co. 

right  to  use  which  has  been  secured  by  Assemblyman 
R.  I.  Thomas,  of  Nevada  county,  who  states  that  he  has 
sufficient  California  capital  behind  him  to  complete  the 



[Vol.  I,  No.  2. 

Qleotro'JnsTzranos . 

THE     LESSONS    OF    A     FIKE. 

It  appears  from  the  report  rendered  by  George 
P.  Low,  appraiser  for  ths  various  insurance  companies 
represented  in  the  fire  which  destroyed  the  power  house 
and  car  barn  of  the  Seattle  (Wash.)  Consolidated  Street 
Railway  Company  early  on  the  morning  of  June  20th 
last,  as  described  in  the  last  issue  of  this  publication, 
that  in  addition  to  a  large  amount  of  supplies,  the 
burned  station  contained  the  following  dynamos,  with 
their  usual  wiring  and  switchboard  appurtenances  : 

7,  Type  D82,  80  horse  power,  Thomson-Houston, 
500-volt  railway  generators. 

2,  60-kilowatt  Edison,  500-volt   railway  generators. 

1,  60-kilowatt  National,  500-volt  railway  generator. 

2,  1000,  16-candle  power,  National  alternating  in- 
candescent lighting  dynamos,  with  exciters. 

2,  50-light  Western  Electric  arc  lighting  dynamos. 

25,  Electric  street  railway  passenger  cars  and  equip- 
ments, and 

1,  Electric  wood  hauling  car. 

The  list  given  represents  practically  every  type  of 
dynamo-electric  machinery  used,  as  it  includes  500-volt 
direct  current  generators,  2200-volt  alternating  current 
generators,  and  2500-volt  arc  lighting  dynamos.  The 
equipments  of  the  electric  cars,  though  serviceable, 
were  mostly  of  an  inefficient  type,  no  longer  manufactured 
or  for  sale,  and  which,  therefore,  would  not  find  a  ready 
market  if  rebuilt.  The  seven  D62  railway  generators 
and  the  electric  cars  and  supplies  named,  which  were  the 
property  of  the  Seattle  Consolidated  Street  Railway 
Company,  alone  are  considered  in  the  report. 

The  dynamo  and  engine  room  was  located  on  the 
ground  or  basement  floor,  and  as  the  fire  originated  or 
burned  most  fiercely  in  the  car  barn,  constituting  the 
upper  story,  the  injury  to  the  power  plant  was  princi- 
pally due  to  water,  the  falling  of  car  equipments,  etc., 
and  of  burning  timbers  and  cars.  From  information 
and  evidences  at  hand,  it  is  clear  that  the  efforts  of  the 
Fire  Department  were  exerted  in  the  direction  of  keep- 
ing the  fire  from  reaching  the  power  plant  as  far  as  pos- 
sible, in  order  to  accomplish  which,  several  powerful 
streams  were  kept  playing  upon  the  dynamos,  and  in  the 
dynamo  and  engine  room  during  the  fire.  As  a  result, 
and  although  the  building  was  entirely  destroyed,  the 
dynamos  were  thoroughly  soaked  and  buried  in  burned 
debris.  At  the  outset  the  prospect  of  saving  the  genera- 
tors seemed  remote,  but  it  transpired  that  the  method 
adopti  d  by  the  Fire  Department  in  playing  continuous 
streams  of  water  upon  the  dynamos  and  in  the  dynamo 
room,  was  to  be  highly  commended. 

The  task  of  drying  out  and  testing  the  generators, 
continues  the  report,  proved  long  and  laborious,  not 
only  because  of  the  almost  infinite  care  aud  watchfulness 
that  must  be  exercised  to  detect  any  adverse  symptom 
that  might  develop  during  the  process,  but  because  of  the 
necessity  of  using  the  crude  and  more  or  less  unsatisfac- 
tory means  at  hand  for  prosecuting  the  work.  On  June 
28th,  three  D62  generators  had  been  dried  out  and 
tested,  and  set  up  and  put  in  operation  under  the  direc- 
tion and  supervision  of  the  Insurance  Appraiser.  The 
third  day  following,  a  fourth  generator  was  placed  in 
serviceable  condition  and  put  in  operation,  and  on  July 
3rd,  the  Consolidated  Company,  through  its  proper  rep- 
resentatives, released  the  insurance  companies  from 
further  liability  on  these  dynamos.  The  fifth  dynamo 
was  placed  in  service  July  4th,  but  the  armatures  for  the 
remaining  two  dynamos  proved   refractory,  and  despite 

the  most  careful  treatment  they  burned  out ;  the  first 
while  under  potential  test,  and  the  second  on  July  9th, 
after  having  been  in  actual  service  but  five  hours  the 
previous  day. 

The  Appraisers'  report  shows  the  sound  values  of 
these  seven  D62  generators  to  be  $10,600.  The  cost  of 
placing  the  same  in  service  again  in  first-class  condition, 
and  including  an  item  of  $400  for  labor  (which  local 
conditions  rendered  excessive)  was  $1,306.15,  or  12.4  per 
cent,  of  the  sound  value.  Under  ordinary  conditions 
regarding  labor,  this  ratio  would  have  been  reduced  to 
almost  8  per  cent. 

The  switchboard  was  totally  consumed,  except  the 
circuit-breakers,  which  were  rewound  and  remounted  at 
a  cost  of  $7.50  each,  and  are  now  in  regular  use.  The 
sound  value  of  same  was  $240,  and  the  damage  $30. 
The  car  equipments,  electrical  and  other  similar  materi- 
als and  supplies  were  destroyed  beyond  reclaim,  except 
as  junk. 

Circumstances  indicate  that  the  fire  originated 
either  through  spontaneous  combustion  or  incendiarism, 
but  certain  it  is  that  the  fire  was  not  due  to  electricity, 
as,  when  first  discovered,  it  was  in  a  portion  of  the  car 
barn  that  was  not  lighted  by  or  wired  for  electric  light- 
ing. It  was  the  invariable  practice  to  remove  the  trol- 
ley wheel  from  the  trolley  wire  when  the  cars  were  in 
the  barn,  hence,  there  is  no  probability  that  the  fire  was 
caused  by  defective  electrical  equipment  in  a  car.  The 
floors  were  of  rough  2-inch  planking,  with  cracks  be- 
tween planks,  the  ceiling  below  was  finished  with  £-inch 
tongued  and  grooved  stuff;  the  floor  had  been  soaking 
oil  for  three  or  four  years,  and  although  orders  had  been 
given  regarding  the  disposal,  etc.,  of  oily  waste,  it  is 
possible  that  such  orders  were  disregarded  and  that 
spontaneous  combustion  resulted  therefrom.  On  the 
other  hand,  the  fire  when  first  seen,  was  in  the  immedi- 
ate vicinity  of  a  doorway  leading  out  of  doors,  and 
which  was  never  closed,  as  it  had  no  door.  Regardless 
of  orders  to  the  contrary,  the  car  barn  was  unoccupied 
at  the  time  of  the  fire,  as  the  night  barn  foreman  and 
his  helper  had,  in  violation  of  instructions,  taken  out  a 
special  car  to  take  another  employee  home.  The  engi- 
neer and  dynamo  tender  were  at  their  work  in  the  en- 
gine room ;  it  was  about  1  o'clock  in  the  morning,  the 
car  barn  was  vacant,  all  its  doors  were  wide  open,  and 
an  incendiary  would  have  found  a  most  favorable  oppor- 
tunity. No  direct  evidence  of  a£y  nature  is  available, 
hence,  it  is  impossible  to  reach  a  conclusive  opinion  re- 
garding the  origin  of  the  fire. 

The  report  offers  the  following  comments  as  the 
principal  lessons  of  the  fire : 

1.  Railway  generators  are  not  susceptible  to  great 
injury  from  water  alone,  if  not  in  operation  when  wet- 
ted,-^the  average  damage  from  such  cause  being,  ap- 
proximately, 12.5  per  cent,  of  their  value. 

2.  The  injury  to  railway  generators,  by  fire  and 
water  together,  will  not  ordinarily  exceed  approxi- 
mately, 50  per  cent,  of  their  value,  if  the  frames  and 
shafting  remain  sound. 

3.  The  losses  on  switchboards  and  electrical  sup- 
plies of  all  descriptions,  if  burned,  will  be  practically 

4.  The  losses  on  switchboards  and  electrical  sup- 
plies by  water,  will  rarely  exceed  25  per  cent,  of  the 
sound  value  of  any  article. 

5.  The  water  damage  to  car  motors  and  equip- 
ments, will  generally  average  less  than  20  per  cent,  of 
their  values. 

6.  The  damage  to  car  motors,  etc.,  by  fire,  cannot 
well  be  pre-estimated,  because  of  the  many  forms  of 
motor  equipments,  and  the  fact  that  owing  to  recent 

August,  1895.] 



great  advances  iu  the  art  of  car  motor  building,  the  type 
of  motors  now  most  in  use  are  neither  manufactured  or 
demanded.  Forty  per  ceut.  of  the  value  would,  how- 
ever, ordiuarily  be  sufficient  to  rebuild  the  motor,  pro- 
vided the  frame  be  sound. 

7.  A  careful,  competent  and  conscientious  apraise- 
ment  is  necessary  on  the  damage  to  all  electrical  ma- 
chinery injured  by  fire  or  water. 

8.  Since  fires  in  electric  power  plants  spread  with 
such  astoundiug  rapidity,  sometimes,  as  in  the  present 
instance,  enveloping  the  entire  structure  in  a  very  few 
seconds,  there  appears  to  be  emphatic  need  for  the  in- 
troduction of  reliable  thermostatic  alarms  and  auto- 
matic sprinklers  in  such  risks,  in  order,  (1),  that  the 
engineer  may  receive  instant  notification  of  fire,  and 
shut  the  plant  down,  and  (2),  that  the  damage  may,  so 
far  as  is  possible,  be  by  water  rather  than  by  tire. 

In  conclusion,  the  report  compliments  Messrs.  B.  D. 
Smalley  and  B.  B.  Broomell,  for  their  cordial  support  iu 
facilitating  the  work  of  the  appraisers,  and  to  Mr.  \V. 
J.  Grambs,  appraiser  for  the  assured,  for  the"  honorable 
and  fair-minded  manner  in  which  he  conducted  the  ap- 
praisement on  the  part  of  the  Seattle  Consolidated  Rail- 
way Company." 


The  eighth  fire  report  of  the  Electrical  Bureau  of 
the  National  Board  of  Fire  Underwriters,  cites  an  in- 
teresting case,  illustrating  a  new  source  of  danger  from 
electric  wires,  which  was  recently  brought  to  the  notice 
of  the  Boston  Board  of  Fire  Underwriters  by  the  acci- 
dental sounding  of  an  automatic  fire  alarm  in  that  city. 
The  following  account  is  given  by  F.  E.  Cabot,  Superin- 
tendent : 

"  For  some  time  past  a  slight  smoke  has  been 
noticed  issuing  from  the  casing  about  the  electric  light 
wires  in  the  basement,  where  they  enter  from  the  street. 
When  the  insurance  inspectors  arrived  and  the  casing 
was  removed,  it  was  found  that  a  peculiar  substance  had 
accumulated  about  the  wires  which,  when  moistened 
and  struck  with  any  hard  substance,  would  give  off 
flashes  of  fire.  All  around  this  point  the  woodwork 
was  covered  with  a  thick  liquid  which  had  dried  in 
places  to  a  white  substance  resembling  discolored  salt, 
and  which  was  slippery  to  the  touch  and  strongly  cor- 
rosive.    The  wood  itself  was  soft  and  badly  discolored. 

"  The  deposit  discovered  about  the  wires  proved, 
upon  analysis,  to  be  mainly  metallic  sodium.  Metallic 
sodium  is  a  substance  very  difficult  to  obtain  except  by 
the  aid  of  the  electric  current.  It  is  exceedingly  com- 
bustible and  unites  so  readily  with  water  that  its  pres- 
ence in  a  damp  cellar  would  be  impossible  under  ordi- 
nary conditions.  When  it  unites  with  water  hydrogen 
gas  is  given  off  and  at  the  same  time  a  considerable 
amount  of  heat  is  generated.  Under  certain  conditions 
this  heat  would  be  sufficient  to  ignite  the  hydrogen  gas. 
Hydrogen  gas  and  air  will  form  an  explosive  mixture. 
Hence,  the  greatest  danger  lies  iu  the  liability  of  an  ex- 
plosion if  the  gas  should  become  ignited. 

"  The  explanation  of  the  appearance  in  a  damp  cel- 
lar of  a  substance  so  combustible  and  unstable  in  the 
presence  of  moisture  as  metallic  sodium,  is  given  as  fol- 
lows :  The  metallic  sodium  was  undoubtedly  the  prod- 
uct of  an  electrolytic  decomposition  of  impure  sodium 
hydrate.  This  sodium  hydrate  came  from  the  cement 
mortar  used  in  laying  the  brick  wall  of  the  basement, 
upon  which  the  wires  were  supported.  Some  of  the  hy- 
drate may  have  possibly  worked  its  way  through  the 
wall   from    the   cement   used   in  the  foundation  of  the 

paved  street  (Washington  street),  immediately  adjacent. 

"  The  electric  current  which  caused  the  electrolytic 
action  was  due  to  a  leak  inside  the  casing,  from  one  of 
the  mains  to  another.  The  leak  was  produced  by  the 
action  of  the  sodium  hydrate  on  the  insulating  covering 
of  the  wires.  This  covering  was  what  is  known  as 
"  Weather-proof  Insulation,"  which  consists  of  a  cotton 
braiding  covered  with  tar.  Such  a  material  is  readily 
attacked  by  sodium  hydrate  and  its  insulating  proper- 
ties destroyed.  Moreover,  the  sodium  hydrate  itself 
furnishes  a  good  path  for  the  current  when  it  has  once 
penetrated  through  the  insulation. 

"  This  case  is  especially  interesting  in  connection 
with  several  of  the  explosions  which  have  occurred  in 
underground  conduits,  usually  attributed  to  a  leak  in 
the  gas  mains.  In  the  London  papers  recently  it  has 
boen  suggested  that  metallic  sodium  may  possibly  have 
had  something  to  do  with  these  explosions.  This,  how- 
ever, appears  to  be  the  first  instance  in  which  the  ap- 
pearance of  metallic  sodium  has  been  proved  and  a  com- 
plete explanation  of  an  actual  case  given." 


Dr.  F.  A.  C.  Perrine,  of  the  Leland  Stanford  Junior 
University,  and  Mrs.  Perrine,  are  spending  the  summer 
vacation  on  the  Atlantic  Coast. 

Among  the  prominent  guests  of  the  recent  meeting 
of  the  Pacific  Coast  Gas  Association  were  Mr.  Walton 
Clark,  of  Philadelphia,  President  of  the  American  Gas 
Light  Association  ;  Mr.  O.  N.  Guldlin,  of  Fort  Wayne, 
President  of  the  Western  Gas  Construction  Company  ; 
Mr.  Daniel  R.  Russell,  of  St.  Louis,  of  Barker,  Russell  & 
Co.,  and  Mr.  E.  P.  Callender,  of  New  York,  publisher  of 
the  American  Gas  Light  Journal. 

The  University  of  Wisconsin  has  conferred  the  hon- 
orary degree  of  LL.D.  upon  two  men  of  national  repu- 
tation on  account  of  their  great  services  in  the  interest 
of  engineering  and  the  industries.  The  first  of  these  is 
Edwin  R.  Reynolds,  of  Milwaukee,  Wis.,  designer  and 
builder  of  the  Reynolds  Corliss  engine.  The  degree  was 
conferred  upon  Mr.  Reynolds  in  recognition  of  his  posi- 
tion as  an  expert  of  the  highest  rank  and  of  interna- 
tional authority  as  a  steam  engineer,  and  on  account  of 
his  remarkable  ability  and  success  as  a  designer  and  in- 
ventor. The  second  is  Don  J.  Whittemore,  of  Milwau- 
kee, Wis.,  Chief  Engineer  of  the  Chicago,  Milwaukee _ 
and  St.  Paul  Railway.  The  degree  was  conferred  upon' 
him  in  recognition  of  his  distinguished  services  in  the 
railway  interests  of  the  country. 


A  scroll  was  presented  and  ordered  spread  upon  the 
minutes  of  the  annual  meeting  of  the  stockholders  of  the 
Oakland  Gas,  Light  and  Heat  Company,  held  on  August 
5th,  as  follows : 

"  In  memoriam — Van  Leer  Eastland  died  September  8,  1894, 
after  twenty-seven  years  of  active  service  in  the  field  of  gas  in- 
dustries and  more  than  forty  years  after  his  first  engaging  in  the 
work  of  the  San  Francisco  Gas,  Light  and  Heat  Company. 

"  His  was  a  character  worthy  of  emulation  by  all  who  sur- 
vive him.  Zealous  in  every  just  cause,  loyal  to  all  his  trusts, 
kindly  in  all  his  ways,  honorable  because  honesty  was  his  creed, 
esteemed  by  those  with  whom  he  came  in  daily  contact  and  re- 
spected because  of  his  manliness,  it  becomes  this  body,  of  which 
he  was  an  earnest  member,  to  pause  in  its  progress  and  say  of 
him  as  was  said  of  that  noble  Roman,  '  His  life  was  gentle  and 
the  elements  so  mixed  in  him  that  Nature  might  stand  up  and 
say  to  all  the  world,  '  This  was  a  man.'  " 



[Vol.  I  No.  2. 

^dhe  ^rade. 

In  responding   to    advertisements    in   this  publication,   please 
mention  The  Electrical  Journal. 


The  Type  D  transformer  of  the  "Wagner  Electric  Man- 
ufacturing Company  marks  a  new  departure  in  the 
mechanical  design  of  transformers.  The  difficulties  at- 
tending the  use  of  primary  fuse  cutouts  in  the  trans- 
former box  have  led  some  manufacturers  to  entirely 
abandon  their  use  in  this  way,  as  it  seemed  impossible  to 
design  a  fuse  block  which  would  not  arc  at  times  when 
the '  fuse  blew  on  a  bad  short  circuit.  This  arc  would 
in  turn  cause  a  short  circuit  between  the  two  blocks,  and 
usually  burned  out  the  whole  cutout  as  well  as  the 
transformer.  Appreciating  the  fact  that  the  transformer 
box  is  the  best  and  most  convenient  place  for  the  primary 
fuse,  the  Wagner  Company  at  last  provided  a  cutout 
which  is  claimed  to  mjet  all  possible  requirements,  with 
none  of  the  objections  or  weak  points  of  fuse  blocks  here- 
tofore used. 

The  first  requirement  is  a  fuse  block  which  can  never 
arc  and  the  second  is  to  have  the  fuses  so  placed  that 
they  will  be  separated  entirely  from  each  other  and  from 
the  transformer  box,  although  supported  by  the  latter. 
The  new  "Wagner  fuse  pings  are  each  carried  in  a  sepa- 
rate cast  iron  shell,  attached  simply  by  means  of  screws 
to  either  side  of  the  transformer  box.  The  third  re- 
quirement is  that  fuses  should  be  readily  replaced  wich- 
out  tools  of  any  kind.  Not  only  are  no  tools  of  any 
kind  required  to  remove  the  Wagner  fuse  plugs  and  re- 

A  Novel  Transformer  Fuse. 

place  fuses  thereon,  but  there  is  no  cover  or  lid  of  any 
sort  to  remove  or  raise  in  order  to  reach  them.  The  end 
of  the  plug  extends  below  the  protecting  shell,  and  three 
or  four  turns  of  this  knobbed  end  releases  the  plug, 
which  may  then  be  withdrawn. 

The  plug  and  its  insulating  shell  are  not  made,  as 
usual,  of  porcelain,  which  is  very  brittle  and  easily 
broken,  but  are  turned  out  of  lava,  as  refractory  a  sub- 
stance as  any  known,  and  which  has  about  five  times  the 
strength  of  porcelain.  With  the  smallest  size  fuse  plugs, 
the  Wagner  Company  claims  to  have  repeatedly  broken 
a  current  of  fifty  amperes  at  five  thousand  volts,  without 
producing  an  arc,  or  which  left  any  traces  on  the  plug. 
They,  therefore  guarantee  these  fuse  plugs  not  to  arc 
with  five  thousand  volts. 

After  securing  this  perfect  fuse  cutout,  the  Company 

took  up  the  matter  of  transformer  installation,  with  a 
view  to  reducing  its  cost  by  rendering  the  transformer 
more  convenient  to  hang  and  connect.  By  providing 
cross  arm  and  wall  hooks  to  be  bo  ted  to  the  transformer 
lugs,  the  most  convenient  hanging  of  the  box  itself  was 
obtained  and  eventually  it  was  determined  to  attach  the 
wall  brackets  ordinarily  used  to  the  transformer  box, 
thereby  obviating  the  cost  of  brackets  and  the  labor  of 
drilling  walls,  etc.  The  result  was  a  combination  of 
transformer,  box,  primary  fuses  and  service  wire  brackets, 
in  one  compact  piece  of  apparatus,  as  shown  in  the  ac- 
companying cuts. 

The  Sterling  Supply  Company,  54  Second  street,  San 
Francisco,  represents  the  Wagner  Electric  Manufacturing 
Company  on  the  Pacific  Coast. 


The  design  of  the  Lundell  motor  lends  itself  most 
readily  in  application  to  exhaust  fan  work.  The  motor, 
being  iron  clad,  is  almost  wholly  enclosed  and  easily 
permits  of  connection  by  radial  arms,  spider,  or  bolts  to 
any  of  the  many  forms  of  exhaust  fans  now  to  be  found 
in  the  market. 

It  has  been  the  practice  of  manufacturers  of  exhaust 
fans  to  supply  a  bearing  in  front  as  well  as  in  the  back 
of  the  fan,  but  in  the  present  application  a  shaft  is 
carried  which  may  be  horizontal  or  vertical,  in  two 
bearings  in  the  motor  frame  itself,  not  supporting  the 
shaft  in  any  sense  from  the  fan  ring.  This  course  in- 
sures perfect  alignment  and  noiseless  running. 

All  Lundell  exhaust  fan  outfits  are  made  with  hori- 
zontal shafts,  unless  otherwise  ordered,  and  are  inva- 
riably made  so  that  the  direction  of  the  flow  of  air  is 
from  the  motor  toward  the  fan.  If  it  is  desired  to 
operate  the  fan  with  a  vertical  shaft  or  to  drive  the  air 
through  the  fan  and  over  the  motor,  it  should  be  specif- 
ically so  stated  in  the  order.  With  the  standard  hori- 
zontal shaft  fans,  an  adjustable  thrust  bearing,  as  shown 
in  cut,  is  provided.  When  the  flow  of  air  is  desired  con- 
trary to  the  standard  direction,  a  button  and  thrust 
bearing  is  placed  at  the  rear  of  the  motor.  In  the  hori- 
zontal shaft  fans,  lubrication  is  effected  in  an  oil  recep- 
tacle enclosing  a  step  at  the  bottom  of  the  shaft,  and  a 
graphite  or  other  self-lubricating  bearing  (never  a  grease- 
cup  or  oil  bearing)  at  the  upper  end  of  the  shaft. 

The  Lundell  dynamos  and  motors  are  handled  by 
Thos.  Day  &  Co.,  San  Francisco,  the  Pacific  Coast  agents 
for  the  Interior  Conduit  and  Insulation  Company. 


The  A.  A.  Griffin  Iron  Company,  through  its  West- 
ern agents,  Charles  C.  Moore  &  Co.,  is  distributing  a 
neat  brouchure,  pointing  out  the  advantages  to  be  de- 
rived from  the  use  of  Bundy  return  steam  traps  con- 
nected on  boilers,  by  means  of  which,  the  necessity  for 
running  feed  pumps  is  avoided.  In  the  Bundy  trap, 
the  waters  of  condensation,  by  their  own  weight,  fur- 
nish the  valve  operating  power,  for  when  the  water  in 
the  pear-shaped  bowl  over-balances  the  weight  of  the 
ball,  the  bowl  settles  down  into  the  frame,  thereby  open- 
ing the  valve  in  the  live  steam  connection  from  top  of 
boiler  or  dome  to  trap,  which  equalizes  the  pressure  on 
both  trap  and  boiler,  when  the  water,  of  its  own  weight, 
discharges  into  the  boiler. 

The  conviction  comes  from  reading  the  booklet,  that 
the  Bundy  steam  trap  is  too  good  a  thing  to  suppress. " 

The  Ferre  Elastic  Paint  Company  promises  to  make 
an  interesting  display  of  its  new  insulating  paints  and 
compounds  during  the  Mechanic's  Fair,  soon  to  be  held 
at  San  Francisco. 

August,  1895.] 







Plumas  [County]  has  hundreds  of  ledges  and  plenty  of  ore 
easily  extracted,  at  points  where  steam  or  water  power  for  min- 
ing or  milling  purposes  would  be  very  expensive,  possibly  ren- 
dering the  working  of  such  ledges  impracticable,  but  which  are 
at  such  distance  from  streams  capable  of  furnishing  ample  water 
power  for  large  electric  plants,  that,  by  means  of  wires  varying 
in  length  from  one-half  mile  to  five  miles,  electric  power  could 
be  transmitted  up  out  of  canyons,  over  mountains  and  to  any 
point  desired.  By  means  of  such  power,  at  once  cheap  and  con- 
venient, many  of  our  low  grade  propositions,  from  $2  to  $5  per 
ton,  could  be  operated  at  a  handsome  profit.  In  fact,  to  work 
such  mines  successfully,  cheap  and  reliable  power  is  the  great 

Just  below  Spanish  Creek  bridge,  about  five  miles  north  of 
Quincy,  is  a  most  favorable  point  for  the  erection  of  an  electric 

The  Ltjndell  Exhaust  Fan. 

plant.  Practically  an  unlimited  amount  of  free  water  could  be 
obtained,  and,  with  a  small  expenditure,  a  pressure  of  from  70 
to  100  feet  easily  secured.  Within  three  miles  of  that  point,  are 
numerous  quartz  ledges  carrying  free  gold.  Some  prospect  as 
high  as  $8  to  $10  per  ton,  but  most  of  them  from  $2  to  $5  per  ton. 
If  cheap  and  convenient  power  were  supplied,  all  these  proper- 
ties would  be  developed  and  worked  at  a  profit.  Among  the 
mines  within  range  of  such  an  electric  plant  may  be  mentioned 
the  Bell,  the  Butterfly,  the  Kellogg,  the  Wormlev,  the  Lee  & 
Blakesley,  the  Orr,  the  Golden  Gate,  etc.  Electric  power  from 
this  plant  would  be  of  especial  value  in  working  the  Elizabeth- 
town  channel  claims  from  which,  at  points  where  operated,  such 
quantities  of  large  gold  nuggets  have  been  taken.  This  plant 
could  also  be  utilized  in  furnishing  electric  lights  to  the  town  of 
Quincy — an  item  of  no  small  interest. 

The  figures  we  have  quoted  and  the  facts  mentioned  as  to 
location  of  plant  and  the  mines  within  range  of  it,  all  point  out 
a  grand  opportunity  for  capital  seeking  profitable  investment. 
The  venture,  from  the  start,  would  be  a  paying  one. — Quincv 
(Cal.)  Bulletin,  June  20th. 

The  whole  State  has  cause  to  rejoice  over  the  completion 
and  transfer  to  it  of  the  immense  electrical  plant  at  Folsom. 
The  history  of  this  great  undertaking  has  been  repeatedly  pub- 
lished and  is  familiar  to  all.  The  State  is  now  in  possession  of 
one  of  the  greatest  plants  in  the  world  for  the  generation  of  elec- 
tricity, but  of  far  greater  value  than  that  bare  consideration  is 
the  fact  that  to  the  extent  of  its  applicability  it  is  a  complete  so- 
lution of  the  fuel  problem,  which  alwavs  has  been  a  drawback 
to  the  State. 

The  principle  represented  in  the  Folsom  plant  is  the  utiliza- 
tion of  the  power  held  by  the  perennial  streams  that  flow  down 
into  the  great  valleys  of  the  State  from  the  Sierra  Nevada.    Thus 

the  waters  of  the  American  River,  which  is  only  one  of  a  vast 
number  of  these  streams,  are  held  by  a  dam  and  made  to  run 
electrical  generators.  At  present  the  application  of  this  enor- 
mous power  is  confined  to  Folsom,  the  Folsom  prison  and  the 
city  of  Sacramento,  but  this  is  only  a  beginning,  both  of  the  use 
of  electricity  generated  by  this  plant  and  of  the  utilization  of  the 
power  held  by  the  Sierra  streams. 

The  advent  of  this  power  is  particularly  welcome  just  now 
when  the  natural  disadvantages  under  which  we  labor  on  the 
score  of  expensive  coal  is  aggravated  by  the  formation  of  a  com- 
bination for  advancing  its  price.  The  Folsom  plant  is  to  be  op- 
erated at  a  cost  which  represents  but  a  fraction  of  the  expense  of 
coal  required  to  generate  an  equal  power.  This  matter  has  not 
yet  been  determined,  but  it  soon  will  be,  and  we  are  confident 
that  the  revelation  which  it  will  make  will  be  one  of  the  strong- 
est of  conceivable  incentives  for  pushing  forward  on  new  lines  of 
enterprise  and  development  that  will  produce  a  complete  revolu- 
tion in  some  of  the  most  important  concerns  of  our  people.- — 
San  Francisco  Call,  July  13th. 

The  new  era  opening  for  Sacramento  by  the  installation  and 
successful  working  of  the  plant  for  the  electric  transmission  of 
power  from  Folsom  is  one  upon  which  the  whole  State  can  con- 
gratulate itself.  If  Sacramento  can  make  use  of  the  great  power 
from  a  mountain  river  other  cities  can  do  the  same  thing.  Every 
stream  in  California  can  be  harnessed  and  a  brilliant  row  of  man- 
ufacturing cities  will  spring  up  along  the  whole  length  of  the 
foothills  of  she  Sierras. 

Meanwhile  Sacramento,  as  the  pioneer  in  this  part  of  the 
State,  deserves  the  praise  of  all  who  are  interested  in  the  develop- 
ment of  California.  She  has  something  now  that  is  better  than 
the  Capitol,  and  something  that  no  constitutional  amendment 
can  take  away.  The  fuel  question  is  solved,  and  with  cheap 
power  Sacramento  ought  to  become  a  center  of  manufactures.  It 
should  be  an  Meal  manufacturing  place,  too,  with  none  of  the 
smoke,  grime  and  cinders  of  the  coal-burning  purgatories,  but 
with  fresh,  clean,  airy  factories,  in  which  the  whirring  electric 
motors  will  be  attended  by  cheerful  operatives,  and  where  indus- 
try will  not  spoil  the  clear  atmosphere  for  residence .  We  wel- 
come the  new  Sacramento  and  wish  it  every  success. — San  Fran- 
cisco Examiner,  July  14th. 

To  communities  that  witnessed  the  successful  introduction  of 
the  trolley  system  in  the  West  years  ago,  and  who  have  had  long 
lines  of  city  and  suburban  electric  roads  in  practical  operation  so 
far  back  that  a  younger  generation  has  come  upon  earth  and  the 
trolley  system  is  regarded  in  the  light  of  a  back  number,  it  is 
amusing  to  read  in  the  columns  of  the  Philadelphia  papers  arti- 
cles descriptive  of  the  "  new  system  "  and  the  wonderful  revolu- 
tion it  is  creating  in  supplanting  the  "horse  cars,"  and  bringing 
the  suburban  districts  into  town.  Over  a  hundred  years  ago 
Franklin  gave  the  Philadelphians  the  key  to  lightning,"  but  they 
were  slow  to  catch  on,  and  the  word  became  obsolete  in  that  an- 
cient place.  Seattle  could  give  those  people  some  pointers  on 
trolleys.  A  Western  city  that  can  burn  up  a  trolley  system  at  1 
a.  m.  and  have  it  in  active  operation  at  8  a.  m.,  can  teach  Phila- 
delphia some  things  in  the  way  of  modern  progress  that  would 
convulse  Benjamin  in  his  grave,  and  make  even  the  "  horse  cars" 
laugh.— Seattle  (Wash.)  Past-Intelligence,  June  25th. 

The  figures  given  in  yesterday's  Argus,  showing  the  amazing 
waste  of  money  that  has  resulted  from  municipal  ownership  of 
the  electric  light  plant,  ought  to  interest  every  lax-payer.  One 
of  the  reasons  that  taxes  are  high  is  because  the  city  runs  an 
electric  plant.  In  eight  years  one  hundred  thousand  dollars  have 
been  absolutely  thrown  away — absolutely,  without  question,  for 
the  lights  could  have  been  purchased  of  private  parties  for  the  ex- 
cess beyond  that  amount.  That  excess  would  have  been  upwards 
of  $8000  a  year,  and  any  private  company  would  scramble  for  a 
contract  to"  light  Alameda  for  $8000  a  year.  Why  cannot  a  com- 
mon sense  view  be  taken  of  the  matter  now?  We  have  certainly 
had  experience  enough. — Alameda  (Cal.)  Argus,  June  26th. 

An  electric  railroad  connecting  the  principal  towns  and  cities 
of  Southern  California  is  a  feasible  project.  Such  a  railroad 
would  monopolize  the  passenger  traffic  because  it  could  trans- 
port passengers  as  quickly  and  more  cheaply  than  the  steam 
roads.  Between  Redlands  and  the  sea  there  is  enough  power 
going  to  waste  to  operate  a  thousand  miles  of  railway.  An  elec- 
tric railway  from  Redlands  to  Los  Angeles  is  a  project  that  is 
already  enlisting  the  attention  of  capital,  and  its  consummation 
is  only  a  matter  of  time.  Such  a  road  would  pay  were  it  in 
operation  now. — Ontario  (Cal  )  Observer,  June  10th. 

It  is  worth  noting  that  nearly  all  the  predictions  that  elec- 
tricians made  ten  years  ag->,  have  either  been  fulfilled,  or  are 
well  on  the  way  to  such  a  result. — Oakland  (Cal.)  Tribune,  June 



[Vol.  I,  No.  2. 

On  all  sides  Sacramento  is  now  the  recipient  of  congratula- 
tions as  the  pioneer  city  in  this  new  scheme  of  low  priced  power 
and  the  utilization  of  water  power  to  turn  the  wheels  of  indus- 
try through  the  agency  of  transmitted  electrical  energy.  But 
we  must  keep  in  mind  that  these  congratulations  wdl  be  re- 
peated for  other  cities  and  towns  which  secure  similar  advant- 
ages by  similar  means.  Thus,  within  three  months  electrical 
power  transmitted  thirty-five  miles  will  be  introduced  into 
Fresno,  and  that  place  will  then  boast  of  the  longest  distance  of 
transmission    in    the   world.  Interests  are   becoming 

fixed  JU8t  BOW  that  have  long  been  fluctuating.  Next  year  and 
the  next  are  to  determine  what  are  to  be  the  large  and  prosper- 
ous centers  in  this  State,  and  those  cities  and  towns  that  are  not 
to  the  forefront  within  that  period  will  be  likely  to  remain  far  in 
the  rear  for  many  years. — Sacramento  (Cal.)  Record-Union, 
July  15th. 

The  rapid  development  of  electrical  engineering  bids  fair  to 
greatly  aid  California.  Hitherto  the  water  power  of  the  State 
has  been  little  used  owing  to  the  fact  that  in  most  localities 
where  it  exists  it  is  practically  unavailable  by  the  old  methods, 
which  required  its  utilization  on  the  spot,  or  by  which  its  dis- 
tant employment  was  made  extremely  costly.  In  some  in- 
stances water  was  carried  several  miles  in  pipes  or  ditches,  for 
the  purpose  of  operating  water  wheels,  but  this  manner  of 
utilization  restricted  its  employment  within  comparatively 
narrow  limits,  and  could  only  be  adopted  where  the  power  was 
applied  at  an  altitude  lower  than  that  of  the  source  of  the 
water.  '    Now,  however,  the  electrical  works  at  Folsom, 

on  the  American  River,  are  partially  in  operation,  and  are 
supplying  a  thousand  horse-power.  *  *  '  Like  utilization  of 
water  power  for  long-distance  transmission  of  electricity  will 
eventually  be  made  on  the  Upper  Sacramento,  the  Feather, 
Yuba,  Hear,  Mokelumne,  Russian  and  other  rivers.  It  is  well 
within  the  limits  of  possibility  that  electric  power  shall  some 
day  be  brought  to  this  city  from  the  streams  of  the  Sierra  or  the 
Coast  Range,  and  it  would  seem  that  with  such  an  unlimited 
power  at  command,  and  at  trifling  cost,  the  development  of 
manufacturing  in  the  district  thus  favored  should  go  forward 
rapidly. — San  Francisco  News-Letter,  June  6th. 

JYeiDs  of  the  Jffonth. 


Ballard,  Wash.— The  Mayor  has  received  a  summons  from 
George  F.  Gund  in  a  suit  for  $6200  against  the  city  for  breach  of 
contract  in  the  purchase  of  an  electric  light  system. 

Tacoha,  Wash. — Efforts  are  being  made  to  compromise  the 
$1,000,000  suit  brought  against  the  Tacoma  Light  and  Water 
Company  by  the  city  to  recover  the  money  paid  the  company 
for  the  plant  now  held  by  the  city. 

Seattle,  Wash  —Federal  Judge  Hanford  has  set  aside  a  ver- 
dict which  Howard  Baker  secured  against  the  Western  Union 
Telegraph  Company  for  ifiiOOO  because  of  an  error  made  in  a 
cablegram  in  making  h  s  name  appear  "  Barker,"  on  the  ground 
that  the  damages  awarded  are  excessive.  'J he  matter  will  now 
undoubtedly  be  compromised. 

Los,  Cal.— Western  Union  Telegraph  Company 
has  tiled  a  complaint  in  equity  against  the  Los  Angeles  Lighting 
Company  for  an  injunction  to  restrain  the  defendant  from  putting 
up  a  line  of  poles  and  erecting  electric  wires  thereon  in  line  with 
the  pole  hues  of  the  plaintiff  on  Second  and  Alameda  streets 
The  telegraph  company  avers  that  induction  would  so  distort 
the  signals  on  the  duplex  and  quadruples  instruments  as  to 
render  their  signals  liable  to  serious  interference. 


Oakland,  Cal— The  City  Council  has  advertised  for  bids  for 
a  telegraph  and  telephone  franchise. 

.1  v.  K.soNvn.LE,  Oit.-The  new  telephone  line  between  here 
and  <  rescent  (  lty,  Cal  ,  has  been  completed. 

Portland,  Or.— The  Columbia  Telephone  Company  is 
busily  erecting  poles  for  its  new  system  in  this  city. 

San  Francisco.— The  Pacific  Telephone  and  Telegraph  Com- 
pany is  placing  its  wires  underground  in  the  Mission. 

l'KEsrorr,  A.riZ  -Work  is  being  prosecuted  on  'a  telephone 
line  o  haparrel  via  Lynx  Creek  Camp.  Lines  are  also  to  be 
built  to  Jerome  and  all  important   mining  camps  in  the  country 

Sab  Francisco.— The  Sunsel  Telep] e  and  Telegraph  Com- 
pany has  purchased  100  cells  of  chloride  battery  for  operating 
Kxpress  "  systems  of  telephone  exchanges  in   various  cities  of 

San  Jose,  Cal. — The  Council  has  adopted  a  resolution  that 
it  is  the  intention  to  grant  a  franchise  authorizing  the  construc- 
tion of  a  telephone  and  telegraph  system,  and  inviting  proposals 
for  the  same. 

Spokane,  Wash. — The  Spokane  Terminal  Railway  has  been 
incorporated,  and  under  its  articles  it  has  authority  to  maintain 
telegraph  and  telephone  lines  or  contract  with  telephone  com- 
panies for  the  construction  and  maintenance  of  such  lines. 

Salt  Lake  City,  Utah. — The  Rocky  Mountain  Bell  Tele- 
phone Company  and  the  Salt  Lake  and  Ogden  Gas  and  Electric 
Light  Company  have  consummated  an  agreement  by  which 
both  companies  will  utilize  the  same  poles  whenever  possible. 

San  Jose,  Cal. — The  California  Telephone  and  Construction 
Company,  by  its  Secretary,  Walter  M.  Field,  has  applied  for  a 
telephone  franchise.  The  petition  states  that  the  Columbia  Tele- 
phone and  the  Smith  system  are  to  be  used  and  the  company  has 
400  subscribers . 

Helena,  Mont  —The  Rocky  Mountain  Bell  Telephone  Com- 
pany has  practically  completed  its  long  distance  line  between 
this  city  and  Great  Falls,  a  distance  of  about  100  miles.  New 
lines  have  also  been  erected  between  Helena  and  Butte,  and  be- 
tween Butte  and  Basin. 

Walla  Walla,  Wash. — The  offices  of  the  train  dispatchers 
on  the  Washington  division  of  the  O.  R.  &  N.  Company  have  been 
moved  from  Walla  Walla  to  Starbuck.  At  present,  under  W.  E. 
Borden  as  chief,  the  office  handles  all  trains  between  Pendleton 
and  Umatilla  and  Spokane,  and  branches  from  Walla  Walla,  and 
also  transact  all  the  telegraph  business  pertaining  to  the  Star- 
buck  shops.    - 

Sacramento,  Cal.— The  Capital  Telephone  and  Telegraph 
Company  has  practically  completed  the  poling  and  wiring  of  this 
city  for  its  new  exchange,  which  will  have  a  capacity  of  about 
1,000  subscribers.  Metallic  circuits  of  No.  12  bare  copper  wire 
are  used  throughout,  and  the  Columbia  transmitter  has  been 
adopted.  V.  J.  Mayo  is  electrician  and  E.  Severance  is  manager 
of  the  Company. 

San  Francisco,  Cal.— Walter  Francis  Burns  of  the  Stand- 
ard Telephone  Company  of  New  York,  states  that  his  company 
has  obtained  the  exclusive  franchise  for  the  placing  of  a  system 
of  long  distance  telephones  in  Japan.  The  first  operations  will 
be  in  the  cities  of  Tokio  and  Yokohama,  after  which  lines  will  be 
extended  all  over  the  empire.  Mr.  Burns  sailed  for  Japan  on 
July  23d,  and  was  preceded  by  a  number  of  men  to  be  employed 
in  the  construction  of  the  system. 


Chico,  Cal.— H.  H.  Clark,  of  Santa  Cruz,  has  been  granted 
a  franchise  for  an  electric  light  plant. 

Los  Angeles,  Cal.— E.  E.  Peck  has  been  granted  a  franchise 
for  an  electric  lighting,  power  and  heating  plant. 

Oroville,  Cal.— Max  Marks  has  been  granted  an  electric 
light  and  power  franchise  in  this  city  and  vicinity. 

San  Francisco.— The  Mutual  Electric  Light  Company  is  lay- 
ing redwood  conduits  throughout  the  business  section  of  the  city. 

Waterloo,  Or.— An  incandescent  plant  is  to  be  placed  in  the 
woolen  mills.     Capacity,  300  lights. 

Berkeley,  Cal.— The  local  electric  light  company  has  in- 
stalled a  new  200  h.  p.  Corliss  engine. 

Pasadena,  Cal.— The  Electric  Light  and  Power  Company 
has  moved  its  offices  to  the  Banning  Block. 

i.  ^NmA,-PAI"— A  7°-light  incandescent  plant  is  being  installed 
by  0.  W.  I  ox  in  the  woolen  mill  in  East  Napa. 

i  .■?H(E^I?'^?T"The  Electric  Light  Company  has  ordered  an 
additional  1,000-hght  General  Electric  generator. 

Hamilton,  Mont.— It  is  expected  that  the  new  electric  light 
plant  will  be  completed  during  the  present  month. 

.  Wallace,  Idaho.— General  M.  C  Moore  has  purchased  an  Ed- 
ison 110-hght  dynamo  to  be  used  for  an  isolated  plant. 

Salt  Lake  City,  Utah.— The  Citizens'  Electric  Light  Com- 
pany are  erecting  their  pole  lines  throughout  the  city, 

i     ,N.APA'pAL-—L.-^rothwell  has  been  awarded  a  franchise  for 
electric  lighting  privileges  from  the  Asylum  to  Calistoga. 

Olympia  Wash.— The  new  State  Capitol  building  will  be 
equipped  with  an  electric  lighting  plant  and  an  electric  elevator. 

Salt  Lake,  UrAii.-The  Salt  Lake  Irrigation,  Light  and 
dent  pany  has  been  incorporated  with  W.  P.  Noble,  Presi- 

K»0?RTLI'a\CaJC~$  60;kil°watt  Westinghouse  alternator  has 
been  ordered  by  the  Oroville  Gas,  Electric  Light  and  Power  Com- 

August,  1895.] 



South  Bend,  Wash. — Arrangements  have  been  concluded  by 
which  C.  S.  D.  Sale  will  continue  to  operate  the  electric  light 

Alyarado,  Cal. — A20-kilowatt  Siemens-Halske  incandescent 
lighting  dynamo  and  plant  has  been  ordered  for  the  Alvarado 
Sugar  Refinery. 

Eugene,  Or. — The  Board  of  Regents  of  the  State  University 
has  concluded  to  light  the  University  buildings  and  dormitory 
with  gasoline  gas. 

Weaverville,  Cal. — The  Weaverville  Electric  Light  Com- 
pany has  ordered  two  new  dynamos,  which  will  double  the  ca- 
pacity of  the  plant. 

Redlands,  Cal. — The  Light  and  Power  Company  is  soon  to 
extend  its  pole  line  from  this  city  to  the  Asylum,  a  distance  of 
about  seven  miles. 

Orange,  Cal. — The  Santa  Ana  Gas  an  1  Electric  Light  Com- 
pany has  asked  for  an  exclusive  franchise  over  all  streets  for  elec- 
tric lighting  purposes. 

Redlands,  Cal. — The  Redlands  Light  and  Power  Company 
has  secured  the  contract  for  the  electric  lighting  in  the  Highlands 
Asylum  at  $375  per  month. 

San  Leandro,  Cal. — The  matter  of  installing  a  municipal 
electric  lighting  plant  has  been  referred  to  Trustees  Eber,  Cary 
and  Downie  for  consideration. 

Spokane,  Wash. — The  Consumers'  Light  and  Power  Com- 
pany, by  Simon  Oppenheimer,  President,  has  received  an  elec- 
tric lighting  and  power  franchise. 

Quincy,  Cal. — Dr.  R.  Heidrich  and  F.  Gausner,  of  San  Jose, 
are  conferring  with  Judge  Goodwin  regarding  the  advisability  of 
putting  in  an  electric  light  and  power  plant. 

Eerndale,  Cal. — An  electric  light  plant  is  desired  here,  and 
Oluff  Andreason  has  made  a  liberal  offer  to  operate  the  same. 
The  plant  complete  would  cost  less  than  $5,000. 

Antioch,  Cal. — The  Ledger  states  that  CM.  Belshaw  is 
seriously  considering  the  proposition  of  putting  in  an  electric 
light  plant  in  connection  with  the  water  works. 

South  San  Francisco. — Miller  &  Lux  have  ordered  a  150- 
light  110-volt  chloride  battery  to  supplement  the  incandescent 
lighting  plant  of  their  cold  storage  warehouses . 

San  Francisco. — The  local  papers  announce  that  the  electric 
light  and  power  plant  proposed  to  be  placed  by  the  San  Francisco 
Gas  Light  Company,  will  be  driven  by  gas  engines. 

Jackson,  Cal. — B.  E.  Letang,  of  the  Jackson  Gas  Works, 
has  fully  decided  to  put  up  an  electric  light  plant  this  Fall  and 
have  it  in  running  order  by  the  beginning  of  winter. 

Alameda,  Cal  — The  city  has  accepted  the  arc  and  incan- 
descent dynamos  purchased  from  the  Westinghouse  Electric  & 
Manufacturing  Company,  and  has  cancelled  the  bonds  given. 

Los  Angeles,  Cal. — W.  L.  Richardson  has  applied  for  an 
electric  light  and  power  franchise,  and  the  Board  of  Supervisors 
has  advertised  for  bids  for  same  to  be  received  until  August 

San  Francisco. — E.  C.  Jones,  engineer  for  the  San  Francisco 
Gas  Light  Company,  read  a  paper  illustrated  by  practical  exper- 
iments, on  "  Calcium  Carbide,"  before  the  last  meeting  of  the 
Academy  of  Sciences. 

Phcs nix,  Ariz. — The  Phoenix  Electric  Light  and  Fuel  Com- 
pany has  received  and  is  erecting  a  1,500-light  monocyclic  genera- 
tor and  two  new  boilers,  having  a  capacity  of  250  h.  p.  to  supple- 
ment its  present  plant. 

Salt  Lake  City,  Utah. — All  machinery  for  the  power 
house  and  the  supplies  necessary  for  the  construction  of  the 
new  plant  of  the  Citizens'  Electric  Light  Company,  have  been 
shipped  from  the  East. 

San  Francisco,  Cal. — The  new  Cliff  House,  now  being 
erected  on  the  site  of  the  old  Cliff  House,  is  being  wired  with 
the  conduit  system,  using  the  flexible  tubing  of  the  American 
Circular  Loom  Company. 

San  Francisco. — Fifty-eight  1,000-ampere-hour  chloride  ac- 
cumulator cells  are  to  be  placed  in  the  Safe  Deposit  building. 
Regulation  will  be  effected  by  the  "  booster"  system  of  the  Elec- 
tric Storage  Battery  Company. 

San  Jose,  Cal.— The  San  Jose  Light  and  Power  Company,  at 
the  annual  meeting  of  stockholders  on  June  21st,  elected  C.  W. 
Quilty,  President;  Uriah  Wood,  Vice-President;  W.W.  Gillespie, 
Secretary;  and  C.  T.  Ryland,  Treasurer, 

San  Francisco. — Bids  have  been  received  for  the  electric 
wiring  of  the  Parrott  building  for  4,000  incandescent  and  400  arc 
lamps.  The  lowest  bid  received  was  that  of  E.-li.  Forst  for  $32,- 
9t>4,  and  to  whom  the  contract  was  awarded. 

San  Rafael,  Cal. — The  Electrical  Construction' and  Repair 
Company,  of  San  Francisco,  has  built  the  pole  line  from  this 
city  to  Mill  Valley,  and  will  connect  up  all  Mill  Valley  circuits 
thereto  for  the  San  Rafael  Gas  and  Electric  Light  Company.    ., 

Logan,  Utah  — The  Hercules  Power  Company  has  com- 
pleted its  dam  across  the  Logan  River  in  Logan  Canyon,  and  it 
is  said  will  soon  purchase  turbines  and  electrical  machinery  for 
transmitting  light  and  power  to  this  city  and  surrounding  towns. 

Ventura,  Cal. — The  people  of  Ventura  have  voted  for  the 
issuance  of  $130,000  bonds,  of  which  $106,500  is  for  the  purchase 
of  the  Santa  Ana  Water  Works  and  $23,500  is  for  the  purchase 
of  the  arc  light  system  of  the  Ventura  Land  and  Power  Com- 

Seattle,  Wash. — The  Third  Street  and  Suburban  Company 
has  erected  a  power  house  adjoining  that  of  the  Seattle  Steam, 
Heat  and  Power  Company,  on  West  street,  in  which  are 
placed  the  dynamos  for  operating  the  lighting  circuits  of  the 

Tacoma,  Wash. — Mayor  Orr  has  vetoed  the  ordinance  pro- 
posing to  reduce  the  price  of  gas  as  sold  by  the  Tacoma  Gas  and 
Electric  Company,  on  the  ground  that  the  present  rates  of  $2  a 
thousand  for  lighting  purposes  and  $1.75  for  heating  purposes  are 

Santa  Cruz,  Cal. — The  Santa  Cruz  Electric  Light  and  Power 
Company  is  driving  a  1,000-light  alternator  by  means  of  an  Otto 
gas  engine.  The  plant  is  operating  satisfactorily,  and  two  more 
similar  double  cylinder  gas  engines  will  probably  soon  be  placed, 
displacing  the  use  of  steam. 

San  Francisco,  Cal. — The  Park  Commissioners,  in  response 
to  many  imperative  demands,  are  considering  ways  and  means 
for  lighting  the  park  drives.  It  is  probable  that  material  assist- 
ance towards  defraying  the  cost  will  be  received  from  bicycling 
clubs  and  livery  stable  people. 

Spokane,  Wash. — The  County  Commissioners  have  aban- 
doned the  idea  of  erecting  an  isolated  electric  lighting  plant  in 
the  new  Court  House,  the  reason  assigned  being  that  the  cur- 
rent can  be  bought  from  central  stations  more  cheaply  than  it 
can  be  produced  in  an  isolated  plant. 

Prescott,  Ariz. — The  Prescott  Electric  Light  Company  has 
been  incorporated  with  a  capital  stock  of  $100,000.  President 
and  Treasurer,  Frank  L.  Wright ;  General  Manager,  J.  D.  Moore ; 
Secretary,  F.  A.  Cole  ;  who,  with  R.  H.  Burmister  and  William 
E.  Hazeltine,  constitute  the  Board  of  Directors. 

San  Jose,  Cal. — The  Electric  Improvement  Company  has  con- 
cluded to  meet  the  competition  of  the  San  Jose  Light  and  Power 
Company  at  all  points,  and  is  therefore  engaged  in  laying  mains 
preparatory  to  the  erection  of  a  gas  plant.  It  is  probable  that  a 
hard  gas  war  will  follow  the  electric  light  war  that  has  waged  sc 
long  between  these  companies. 

Leadville,  Col. — Some  of  the  stockholders  of  the  Denver 
Consolidated  Electric  Company,  among  whom  are  E.  W.  Rol- 
lins, Jonn  Poole  and  Colonel  Goddell,  have  organized  a  light  and 
power  company  here.  The  plant  will  be  operated  by  water 
power,  or  will  use  some  multi-phase  system.  C.  E.  Doolittle 
has  been  engaged  to  superintend  the  designing  and  construction 
of  the  plant. 

Oakland,  Cal. — The  stockholders  of  the  Oakland  Gas,  Light 
and  Heat  Company,  at  their  annual  meeting  held  on  August 
5th,  unanimously  re-elected  the  old  Board  of  Directors,  consist- 
ing of  Joseph  P.Eastland,  John  W.  Coleman,  D  E.  Martin, 
John  T.  Wright  and  James  Moffitt.  Mr.  Eastland  was  elected 
President,  Mr.  Coleman  Vice-President,  and  John  A.  Britton 
Secretary  and  Treasurer. 

Phcenix,  Ariz. — The  Phoenix  Light  and  Fuel  Company  and 
the  East  End  Electric  Light  Company,  known  as  the  Gardiner 
plant,  have  effected  a  combination  to  go  into  effect  on  August 
18th.  The  Gardiner  plant  will  be  removed  to  the  works  of  the 
other  Company  on  First  avenue  and  an  advance  in  rates  will  un- 
doubtedly result,  as  competition  has  been  such  that  the  Compa- 
nies have  heretofore  been  operating  at  a  loss. 

San  Francisco,  Cal. — The  Edison  Light  and  Power  Company, 
at  its  fourth  annual  meeting,  held  July  15th,  elected  J.  B.  Stet- 
son, W.  F.  Whittier,  W.  E.  Brown,  Gustav  Sutro,  L.  P.  Drexler, 
C.  E.  Green  and  John  J.  Valentine  as  Directors,  after  which  the 
Directors  elected  the  following  officers :  President,  J.  B.  Stetson  : 
Vice-President,  W.  Brown  ;  J.  E.  Green,  Secretary  and  Manager; 
William  Angus,  Assistant  Secretary;  R.J.  Davis,  Assistant  Man- 



[Vol.  I,  No.  2. 


Saratoga,  Wvo. — An  electric  railway  is  projected  between 
this  place  and'Wiilcott,  a  distance  of  twenty-two  miles. 

Salem,  Or,. — The  Davidson  Park  branch  line  of  the  Salem 
Motor  Company  has  been  completed  and  is  in  operation. 

Whictier,  Cal. — The  sum  of  $7050  has  been  subscribed 
towards' building  an  electric  railway  in  this  place  and  vicinity. 

Seattle,  Wash. — David  Bruce  has  been  appointed   Superin- 
tendent of  the  Union  Trunk  lines  vice  E.  B.  Hussey,  resigned. 
•'    Antioch,  Cal. — C.  M.  Belshaw  is  considering  the  advisability 
of  constructing  an  electric  railway  here. 

Phosnix,  Ariz. — The  Phoenix  Electric  Railway  Company  has 
purchased  an  additional  25  h.  p.  Westinghouse  railway  equip- 

San  Pedro,  Cal. — A  ship-load  of  cedar  poles  for  the  Los  An- 
geles and  Santa  Monica  Electric  Road  has  arrived  from  Everett, 

Seattle,  Wash. — Fifteen  "  G:  E.  800  "  railway  equipments 
have  been  ordered  by  the  Seattle  Consolidated  Street  Railway 

Galt,  Cal. — The  Work  of  grading  for  the  electric  road  be- 
tween Stockton  and  Lodi  is  progressing  rapidly,  and  the  road  will 
be  completed  within  twelve  weeks. 

Seattle,  Wash. — Sixty-seven  miles  of  street-car  lines,  both 
electric  and  cable,  are  used  by  the  Postoffice  Department  in 
this  city  for  the  transportation  of  mail. 

San  Diego,  Cal. — It  is  reported  that  George  Kerper,  owner 
of  the  property  of  the  cable  road,  proposes  to  start  up  the  line 
after  having  equipped  it  with  the  trolley. 

Seattle,  Wash. — The  Seattle  Consolidated  Street  Railway 
Company  has  decided  to  build  a  fire-proof  station  and  car  barn 
on  the  site  of  the  station  recently  burned. 

Seattle,  Wash. — F.  L.  Dame  has  resigned  the  general  man- 
agership of  the  Consolidated  Street  Railway  Company  and  S.  L. 
Shufiieton  has  been  appointed  his  successor. 

San  Francisco. — Orders  have  been  issued  to  conductors  of 
the  Market-street  Railway  Company's  system  to  issue  transfers 
to  parallel  lines  of  the  Company  in  case  of  stoppage. 

San  Franctsco,  Cal. — The  trolley  will  soon  supplant  the  cable 
on  the  Ellis  street  line  of  the  Market-street  Railway  Company, 
and  the  cable  road  on  Oak  street  will  be  the  next  to  go. 

Hermosillo,  Mexico. — It  is  believed  that  the  Government 
of  Mexico  has  granted  H.  T.  Richards  a  concession  to  build  a 
street  railway  here,  to  be  operated  by  horses  or  electricity. 

San  Francisco,  Cal. — Four  bids  have  been  received  for  the 
power  plant  for  the  Sutro-street  Railway,  and  it  is  said  that  the 
road  will  be  in  operation  to  the  Sutro  Baths  by  October  1st. 

Tacoma,  Wash. — The  power  house  for  the  Fern  Hill  and 
Puyallup  branch  of  the  Tacoma  Traction  Company  is  completed 
and  is  now  operating  all  cars  on  the  Edison  and  Puyallup  lines. 

Los  Angeles,  Cal. — The  Los  Angeles  Railway  Company, 
owning  forty-seven  miles  of  street  railroad,  proposes  to  reorganize 
its  system,  and  will  undoubtedly  change  its  cable  lines  to  electric. 

Galt,  Cal. — The  Gazette  is  of  the  opinion  that  the  people  of 
Gait  should  reach  out  and  offer  some  inducement  for  the  intro- 
duction of  the  electric  power  and  electric  transportation  for  their 

San  Francisco,  Cal. — The  Market-street  Railway  Company 
has  obtained  a  franchise  for  the  construction  of  an  electric  line 
through  Sunnyside,  Corbett  and  Ocean  avenues  to  the  new  race- 

San  Francisco,  Cal. — The  Market-street  Railway  Company 
is  to  equip  the  horse  car  line  at  present  running  on  Tenth  street 
and  Potrero  avenue  to  the  Potrero  and  South  San  Francisco  with 
the  trolley. 

Tacoma,  Wash, — The  City  Park  Raihvay  Company  will  build 
a  2000-foot  extension  into  Point  Defiance  Park  at  once,  as  all 
papers  with  the  Park  Commissioners  have  been  signed  and  the 
contracts  awarded. 

Seattle,  Wash. — Two  cars  on  the  West  Street  and  North 
End  Electric  Railway,  running  between  this  city  and  Ballard, 
have  been  running  as  scheduled  for  months  with  a  daily  mileage 
of  225  mileage  each. 

Boise  City,  Idaho. — The  Boise  Rapid  Transit  Company  en- 
joys the  distinction  of  being  an  electric  railway  company  that  is 
able  to  run  a  power  house  and  operate  a  single  car,  and  j'et  make 
satisfactory  dividends. 

Oakland,  Cal. — The  Oakland  Consolidated  Street  Railway 
Company  has  contracted  with  the  Walker  Electric  Manufactur- 
ing Company  for  the  purchase  of  a  400-kilowatt  Walker  railway 
generator,  to  be  driven  by  rope  transmission. 

St.  Helena,  Cal — A  franchise  for  the  construction  of  an 
electric  railway  along  Main  street,  and  for  the  erection  and  opera- 
tion of  telephone,  telegraph  and  electric  light  lines  will  be  sold 
on  August  13th. 

Shanghai,  China. — L.  S.  J.  Hunt,  formerly  owner  of  the 
Post-Intelligencer  of  Seattle,  has  secured  from  the  Shanghai 
Council  the  right  to  construct  an  electric  street  car  system  at  a 
cost  of  $2,000,000  in  gold. 

Sacramento,  Cat. — L.  T.  Hatfield  has  been  awarded  a  fran- 
chise to  construct  and  operate  an  electric  railway  on  V  street, 
which  is  believed  to  be  for  the  recently  organized  Sacramento, 
Fairoaks  and  Orangevale  Electric  Railway  Company. 

Portland,  Or. — The  Vancouver  cars  are  running  through 
from  the  intersection  of  Second  and  Washington  streets,  Port- 
land, to  the  Vancouver  ferry  landing  on  the  Columbia  River,  en- 
abling passengers  to  make  the  entire  trip  for  one  fare. 

San  Francisco. — C.  M.  Bridges  is  exhibiting  a  model  of  an 
underground  conduit  electric  railway  system  in  the  History 
Building,  in  which  the  working  equivalent  of  the  trolley  wire  is 
on  the  car,  while  the  equivalent  of  the  trolley  is  in   the  conduit. 

San  Francisco,  Cal. — The  Sutter-street  Railroad  Company 
has  decided  to  extend  its  Pacific  avenue  line  by  building  an  elec- 
tric road  out  Pacific  avenue  from  the  terminus  of  the  cable 
line  at  Devisadero  street  to  Walnut  street  through  Richmond  to 
the  Park. 

Los  Angeles,  Cal. — Notice  of  sale  of  franchise  has  been  pub- 
lished for  an  electric  railway  to  run  from  the  intersection  of 
Freeman  street  with  Bush  street,  thence  southwesterly  on  Bush 
street  to  Hoover,  thence  south  on  Hoover  street  to  Forrester  ave- 
nue.   Bids  must  be  in  by  August  19th. 

Oakland,  Cal. — The  Southern  Pacific  Company  is  waging  a 
hot  fight  against  the  Oakland,  San  Leandro  and  Haywards  Elec- 
tric Railway  Company  since  the  latter  has  established  an  express 
service  for  the  carrying  of  parcels,  etc.,  between  San  Francisco, 
Haywards  and  the  way  towns  along  the  line. 

Sacramento,  Cal. — The  Sacramento,  Fairoaks  and  Orange- 
vale  Electric  Railway  has  been  organized  to  build  a  line,  prefer- 
ably along  the  north  bank  of  the  American  River  from  Orange- 
vale  and  Folsom  to  this  city.  The  road  will  undoubtedly  be  oper- 
ated by  power  from  the  plant  of  the  Electric  Power  and  Light 

Santa  Barbara,  Cal. — The  Santa  Barbara  Consolidated 
Electric  Company,  proposing  to  construct,  acquire,  operate  and 
maintain  electric  railways  in  the  county  of  Santa  Barbara,  has 
been  incorporated  with  a  capital  stock  of  $200,000,  of  which  $40,- 
000  is  subscribed.  Its  President  is.S.  J.  Keese,  a  well-known 
electrical  engineer  of  Los  Angeles. 

San  Francisco,  Cal. — The  Market-street  Railway  Company 
has  commenced  work  on  its  new  electric  power  house  to  be 
erected  on  the  corner  of  Bryant  and  Alameda  streets.  When 
finished,  it  will  be  the  largest  electric  plant  in  the  country,  and 
will  be  used  to  drive  all  the  electric  street-car  lines  belonging  to 
the  Market-street  system.  The  power-house  of  the  Metropolitan 
Railroad  will  then  be  abandoned. 

Iron  Mountain,  Cal. — The  Iron  Mountain  Railway  Compa- 
ny, of  Shasta  County,  has  been  incorporated  with  Alfred  Fellows 
and  Charles  W.  Fielding,  of  England,  and  L.  B.  Parrott,  C.  O. 
Eels  and  M.  M.  O'Shaugnessy  as  Directors.  The  Company  pro- 
poses to  build  a  steam  or  electric  railroad  from  the  Iron  Mountain 
Mine  to  the  Spring  Creek  crossing,  on  the  California  and  Oregon 
Railroad,  a  distance  of  12}4  miles,  thence  to  Popley  Station. 

Tacoma,  Wash. — A  bill  of  sale  has  been  filed  conveying  the 
property  of  the  Point  Defiance-street  Railway  Company  to  the 
City  Park  Railway  Company  for  $163,000.  Shortly  after  the 
sale  the  City  Park  Railway  Company  filed  a  mortgage  on  the 
property  for  $163,000  to  S.  Z.  Mitchell  at  six  per  cent,  per  an- 
num, one  note  being  for  $13,000,  and  thirty  for  $5,000  each,  all 
of  them  payable  on  demand  at  the  office  of  the  Old  Colony  Trust 
Company,  of  Boston. 

Los  Angeles,  Cal. — The  new  electric  system  of  the  Los  An- 
geles Traction  Company  will  be  in  operation  by  September  1st. 
The  road  is  being  constructed  in  a  substantial  manner  with  sixty- 
pound  rails,  the  overhead  wiring,  etc.,  is  completed,  and  the  en- 
tire equipment  will  be  modern .  The  road  is  to  run  from  the 
Santa  Fe  depot  to  Hoover  street,  the  line  of  construction  being 
as  follows:  From  the  depot  up  Third  to  Hill,  to  Eighth,  to  Pearl, 
to  Eleventh,  to  Bush,  to  Hoover. 

San  Francisco,  Cal. — Contracts  for  equipments  for  the 
Sutro  Electric  Railroad  have  been  awarded  as  follows :  To  the 
Westinghouse  Electric  and  Manufacturing  Company,  6,  type  12A 
25  h.  p.  equipments;  to  the  Walker  Manufacturing  Company, 
fifteen  25  h.  p.  equipments ;  to  the  General  Electric  Company' 
six  "  G.  E.  800  "  equipments,  also  one  400-kilowatt,  and  one  200- 
kilowatt  railway  generators,  to  be  direct  connected  to  Fulton 
Iron  Works  engines. 

August,  1895.] 



Los  Angeles,  Oal.-~ Most  of  the  material  for  the  extension 
of  the  Pasadena  and  Pacific  Electric  Railway,  from  this  city  to 
Santa  Monica,  is  on  the  ground,  and  the  work  of  construction 
will  begin  about  September  1st,  or  as  soon  as  the  right-cf-way 
and  franchise  matters  can  be  settled.  The  extension  will  be 
eighteen  miles  long  and  double-tracked  throughout.  Two 
dynamos  for  the  Santa  Monica  division  are  here.  They  have  a 
capacity  of  350  and  450  h.  p.  respectively.  Oil  is  to  be  used  as 

Los,  Cal. — Articles  of  incorporation  have  been 
filed  by  the  Commonwealth  Trust  Company  of  Los  Angeles 
county,  formed  f_r  the  purpose  of  obtaining  rights  of  way,  sub- 
scriptions, donations,  etc.,  for  the  construction  of  a  railway  from 
Victor  to  Hesperia,  San  Bernardino  county,  through  Antelope 
Valley  and  Tejon  Pass,  Kern  county,  to  Bakersfield,  to  be  oper- 
ated by  steam  or  electricity.  The  directors  are  T.  W.  Haskins, 
C.  It.  Wells,  Nathan  Cole,  Jr.,  E.  S.  Mead,  A.  C.  Sprague,  C.  A. 
Richey  and  S.  C.  Wilcox. 

Auburn,  Cal. — Messrs.  Hartley  &  Reynolds,  well-known 
mining  men,  have  applied  for  an  electric  street  railway  franchise 
to  be  built  on  the  main  thoroughfare  from  the  station  to  lower 
Auburn.  The  projectors  intend  to  have  the  road  in  operation  by 
next  winter,  and  whenever  business  will  justify,  will  extend  the 
line.  Power  will  probably  be  purchased  from  the  Ball  Electric 
Light  Company,  and  the  accepted  franchise  calls  for  the  comple- 
tion of  the  road  within  one  year. 

San  Francisco,  Cal. — The  Presidio  and  Ferries  Railway 
Company,  operating  a  horse  car  line  from  the  ferries  to  the  inter- 
section of  Montgomery  avenue  and  Montgomery  street,  and  a 
cable  road  thence  via  Montgomery  avenue  and  Union  street  to 
the  Presidio,  is  to  reconstruct  its  road-bed,  and  equip  the  line  as 
an  electric  railway.  This  is  one  of  the  most  hilly  railways  in  the 
city,  encountering  grades  as  high  as  18)2'  per  cent.,  but  excessive 
grades  will  be  equipped  with  auxiliary  cables. 

San  Francisco,  Cal. — The  Washburn  Moen  Manufacturing 
Company  has  acquired  the  business  and  plant  of  the  Califor- 
nia Wire  Works,  will  hereafter  operate  the  same  in  con- 
junction with  their  factories  at  Worcester,  Mass.,  and  Wau- 
kegan,  111.  With  the  fine  rope  and  cable  machinery  and  trained 
mechanics  of  the  California  Wire  Works  they  claim  to  be  pre- 
pared to  manufacture  and  promptly  supply  the  strongest  and 
most  serviceable  wire  rope  and  cables  made  in  the  world. 

Seattle,  Wash. — The  franchise  of  the  Consolidated  Street 
Railway  Company  has  been  renewed,  with  several  modifications, 
principal  among  which  are  that  from  the  years  1900  to  1909  in- 
clusive, the  company  is  to  pay  the  city  1  per  cent,  of  the  gross 
receipts,  and  from  1910  to  1944  inclusive,  the  company  is  to  pay  2 
per  cent.  The  new  franchise  requires  also  that  when  the  city 
shall  have  a  population  of  125,000,  the  company  shall  be  required 
to  issue  transfers  to  cross  lines,  and  to  accept  "tickets  from  such 
cross  lines. 

Hay-wards,  Cal. — E.  P.  Vandercook  has  been  granted  a 
franchise  for  an  electric  road  from  Oakland  to  Livermore.  The 
proposed  road  is  to  start  from  Lynde  street  and  Peralta  avenue, 
Oakland,  and  will  strike  San  Leandro ;  thence  along  the  county 
road  from  San  Leandro  by  the  way  of  Lake  Chabot  to  Castro 
Vailey,  following  said  road  to  its  intersection  with  the  road  from 
Haywards  to  Moraga  Valley ;  thence  along  said  road  to  the  Hay- 
wards  and  Dublin  road  to  the  town  of  Dublin,  and  from  there  to 
the  town  of  Livermore. 

San  Francisco,  Cal. — The  State  Railroad  Commission,  act- 
ing under  a  decision  of  the  Attorney  General  to  the  effect  that  all 
roads,  whether  steam  or  electric,  carrying  freight  must  report  to 
the  Railroad  Commission,  has  ordered  the  San  Francisco  and  San 
Mateo  Electric  Railway  Company  to  report  to  it,  because  the  road 
owns  and  operates  a  funeral  car.  and  carries  bodies  to  the  Holy 
Cross  Cemetery  for  interment.  The  road  has  refused  to  report  as 
ordered,  and  the  lawyers  are  trying  to  decide  whether  a  hauling 
dead  body  is  freight  or  passenger  traffic. 

.  San  Francisco. — The  first  two  units  of  the  eight  400-kilowatt 
Siemens-Halske  generators  for  the  Market-street  Railway  Com- 
pany will  be  in  operation  by  the  middle  of  August.  When  com- 
pleted the  plant  will  consist  of  four  vertical  triple  expansion. 
Union  Iron  Works  engines,  running  at  145  revolutions  per  min- 
ute at  an  initial  pressure  of  175  pounds  of  steam,  each  engine  be- 
ing direct  connected  to  two  400-kilowatt  dynamos.  The  Union 
Iron  Works  is  installing  5,000  horse-power  of  water  tube  boilers 
of  its  own  manufacture  in  the  Bryant-street  power  house. 

Tacoma,  Wash. — Postmaster  Case  has  rendered  a  report  to 
the  Postofnce  Department  in  regard  to  mail  service  on  electric 
roads  in  this  city.  The  report  shows  that  the  following  lines 
are  used:  Tacoma  Railway  and  Motor  Company,  city  lines- 
34.80  miles,  carrier  service  to  Steilacoom,  13.25  miles,  mail  con- 
tract;  Tacoma  Traction  Companj',  to  Midland,  9.38  miles,  mail 
contract;  Tacoma  Traction  Company,  to  Edison  Junction,  5 
miles,  carrier  service ;  City  Park  Railway,  to  Smelter,  7.60  miles, 
carrier  service.  The  total  number  of  miles  used  daily  by  the 
postal  service  is  therefore  70.3  miles. 

San  Francisco,  Cal. — The  West  Shore  Railroad  Company 
has  been  incorporated  for  the  purpose  of  constructing  and  operat- 
ing a  double  or  single  track  railroad  by  steam,  electricity  or  other 
motive  power,  through  San  Mateo  and  Santa  Cruz  counties  from 
San  Francisco  to  Santa  Cruz.  The  estimated  length  of  the  road 
is  eighty  miles,  and  the  capital  stock  is  $2,000,000,  of  which  $88,- 
000  has  been  subscribed.  The  Directors  are  C.  M.  Sanger,  of  San 
Leandro,  Behrend  Joos',  of  San  Francisco,  Robert  S.  Thornton, 
of  Colma,  John  W.  Eisenhuth,  of  San  Francisco,  and  Louis  Dun- 
and,  of  San  Rafael. 


Salinas,  Cal. — A.  L.  Burbank  has  secured  the  right  of  way 
for  water  mains  from  the  Arroyo  Seco,  the  object  being  to  secure 
water  for  King  City  and  for  the  installation  of  an  electric  trans- 
mission p'.ant. 

Behus  Bay,  Juneau,  Alaska. — The  Berus  Bay  Mining  and 
Milling  Company  has  recently  installed  a  25-kilowat  Edison  Gen- 
erator operating  two  15  horse-power  Edison  double  reduction 
railway  motors  used  for  hoisting. 

Cceur  d'Alene,  Idaho. — The  Poorman,  Tiger,  Gem  and 
Frisco  Mines,  which  are  the  wealthiest  mines  in  the  State,  are 
working  up  a  plan  to  utilize,  the  power  of  Thompson  Falls  for 
the  operation  of  the  mines  in  the  Cceur  d'Alene  district. 

Bakersfield,  Cal. — It  is  intended  to  run  the  Big  Blue,  the 
Joe  Walker,  Bright  Star,  the  Keysville  and  any  other  mining 
property  within  a  radius  of  fifty  miles  from  the  Kern  County 
power  plant  by  electricity,  both  for  pumping  and  mining. 

Redding,  Cal. — The  English  syndicate  which  recently  .pur- 
chased the  Iron  Mountain  Mine  is  engaged  in  considerable  de- 
velopment work,  and  will  probably  erect  a  reduction  mill  near 
Copley  to  be  run  by  electric  power  transmitted  from  a  neighbor- 
ing spring. 

Yellow  Jacket,  Idaho. — The  water  power  of  Yellow  Jacket 
Creek  is  to  be  used  to  drive  the  mine  and  mill  at  this  place.  The 
transmission  will  be  one  mile,  and  experts  have  reported  that 
these  improvements  will  be  necessary  before  the  mine  can  start 
up  with  satisfactory  results. 

Bodie,  Cal. — The  Standard  Consolidated  Mining  Company, 
which  was  the  first  to  install  a  long  distance  electric  transmis- 
sion plant  on  the  Pacific  Coast,  has  increased  its  plant  by  the 
addition  of  a  100  h .  p.  General  Electric  generator  for  operating 
pumps,  hoisting  machinery,  etc. 

Seattle,  Wash. — F.  H.  Osgood  and  E.  H.  Ammidown  have 
announced  that  they  are  prepared  to  enter  into  a  contract  to  de- 
liver to  the  city  any  amount  of  water  necessary  from  the  Cedar 
River  falls.  This  will  deliver  water  into  the  city  at  high  head, 
the  utilization  of  which,  for  electric  purposes,  is  being  con- 

Oroville,  Cal. — It  is  believed  that  the  Golden  Feather 
Mine,  comprising  about  a  mile  of  the  Feather  River  bed,  will  be 
practically  worked  out  this  year,  in  view  of  which  its  owners  are 
considering  the  advisability  of  utilizing  the  water  power  at  the 
command  of  the  mine  for  electric  transmission  purposes.  Proba- 
bly 5,000  horse-power  can  be  developed. 

Los  Angeles,  Cal. — The  Journal  states  that  a  survey  is 
being  made  at  Tejunga  for  the  development  of  water  on  a  large 
scale  by  means  of  tunnels  and  percolating  pipe,  by  people  whose 
identity  is  kept  secret.  Already  nearly  $2000  has  been  expended 
on  preliminary  work,  and  the  Los  Angeles  Railway  Company  has 
agreed  to  abandon  its  present  steam  plant  and  adopt  power  from 
the  electric  transmission,  provided  a  saving  of  5  per  cent,  will  be 
effected  thereby. 

Los  Angeles,  Cal. — H.  Hawgood,  Consulting  Engineer  of  the 
Kern  River  and  Los  Angeles  Electric  Power  Company,  has  sent 
out  a  party,  under  F.  H.  Olmstead,  to  locate  a  route  for  the  trans- 
mission line  from  the  point  where  power  is  to  be  generated  to 
this  city,  a  distance  of  about  105  miles.  The  work  of  the  survey- 
ing party  will  occupy  about  a  month,  and  in  the  meantime  work 
on  the  canal  is  progressing  rapidly.  From  the  report  of  W.  D. 
Larrabee,  C.  E.,  it  appears  that  10,000  horse-power  at  200  feet 
fall,  or  50,000  horse-power  at  1,000  feet  fall,  can  readily  be  devel- 
oped. It  is  expected  to  develop  and  tronsmit  to  Los  Angeles  40,- 
000  horse-power,  which  can  be  done  at  a  cost  of  $125  per  horse- 

Salt  Lake  City,  Utah. — Contracts  have  been  closed  in  New 
York  for  the  complete  transmission  plant  of  the  Big  Cottonwood 
Power  Company.  Four  General  Electric  400-kilowatt  tri-phase 
generators  are  to  be  driven  from  Pelton  water  wheels,  each  gen- 
erator being  direct  coupled  to  a  Pelton  wheel.  The  plant  will  be 
an  innovation  in  that  the  wheel  house  will  be  moulded  to  and  oc- 
cupy the  position  on  the  dynamo  base  ordinarily  held  by  the  dy- 
namo pulley,  which  at  once  makes  a  very  compact  installation. 
The  Pelton  "wheels  will  be  about  four  feet  in  diameter  and  will  be 
driven  at  a  head  of  380  feet,  water  for  the   same   being  carried 



[Vol.  I,  No.  2. 

partly  in  wood-stave  pipe  and  partly  in  iron  pipe.  The  total 
transmission  will  be  for  seventeen  miles,  at  10,00(3  volts,  and  the 
entire  equipment  has  been  ordered.  The  Big  Cottonwood  plant 
was  conceived  and  promoted  by  R.  M.  Jones,  the  well-known 
hydraulic  and  electric  engineer  of  this  city. 

Tulare,  Cal. — All  rights  of  way  for  the  Keweah  Electric 
Power  Company  have  been  secured. 

Grass  Valley,  Cal- — Eugene  J.  de  Sabla  has  been  ap~ 
pointed  Superintendent  of  construction  of  the  Nevada  County 
Electric  Power  Company,  with  headquartes  in  this  city. 

Redlands,  Cal. — President  Baldwin  of  Pomona  College  has 
a  force  of  men  at  work  on  his  tunnel  in  Mill  Creek,  which  is 
designed  to  develop  power  for  an  electric  plant.  The  tunnel  is 
now  300  feet  deep. 

Grass  Valley,  Cal. — The  Gold  Hill  Mine  will  commence 
operations  again  as  soon  as  electric  power  can  be  obtained  from 
the  Nevada  County  Electric  Power  Company,  now  under  con- 
struction. The  mine  has  long  been  idle  because  of  the  high 
price  of  fuel. 

Ferndale,  Cal. — Surveyors  Shaw  and  Francis  have  reported 
adversely  upon  a  proposition  to  utilize  the  water  power  of  the 
Upper  Bear  River  forjtrans  mission  to  this  place,  as  the  cost  would 
be  tyo  great. 

Jacksonville,  Or. — The  Klamath  Falls  Light  and  Water 
Company,  recently  incorporated  for  the  purpose  of  erecting  and 
operating  an  electric  plant  and  water  works,  has  purchased  a 
site  from  E.  R.  Reames,  and  have  contracted  with  the  irrigation 
company  to  run  their  plant. 

San  Francisco. — The  American  Power  and  Tide  Wheel 
Company  has  been  incorporated  for  the  purpose  of  securing  and 
owning  water  rights ;  to  construct  and  own  reservoirs  and  canals ; 
to  erect,  sell,  own  and  use  prime  movers  and  power  plants  to  be 
run  by  electricity,  water,  steam  or  other  means.  Directors, 
Chas.  Boone,  Marcus  S.  Love,  A.  H.  St  Marie,  R.  M.  Clements, 
of  this  city,  andD.  E.Alexander,  of  Sacramento.  Capital  stock, 

Missoula,  Mont. — The  Board  of  Trade  has  adoptea  resolu- 
tions favorable  to  a  proposition  submitted  by  the  Missoula  Gen- 
eral Electric  Company  for  the  damming  of  the  Missoula  River. 
Under  this  proposition  the  citizens  of  Missoula  are  to  guarantee 
title  and  flowagerights  to  either  the  Heyfrow  or  Kroone  ranch, 
with  flowage  rights,  and  to  subscribe  $15,000  to  the  first  mort- 
gage bonds  of  the  Electric  Company,  which  amount  to  $15,000. 
The  city  is  to  extend  the  light  contract  with  the  Company  for  a 
minimum  of  31  lights,  five  years  beyond  the  present  contract 
period.  If  these  conditions  be  fulfilled  the  Company  agrees  to 
build  an  18-foot  dam  and  power  house  by  January  1st.  The  Com- 
pany states  that  500  horse-power  will  be  developed  for  electric 
purposes.  The  dam  will  develop  3,000  horse-power  at  low  water, 
of  which  600  horse-power  will  be  used  for  irrigating.  $11,000  is 
already  subscribed  and  the  plan  meets  with  general  approval. 

Bakersfield,  Cal. — Specifications  asking  for  bids  have  been 
issued  by  the  Power  Development  Company,  of  San  Francisco. 
The  Company  proposes  to  develop  the  water  power  existing  at 
the  mouth  of  the  Kern  river  canyon,  about  fourteen  miles  north- 
east of  Bakersfield,  which  will  be  used  under  a  head  of  190  feet, 
and  furnish  at  least  10,000  horse-power.  Some  of  the  best  capit- 
alists in  San  Francisco  control  the  Company  and  it  is  proposed  to 
supply  power  to  consumers  at  a  price  equivalent  to  what  it  would 
be  if  coal  could  be  bought  for  $6  per  ton.  The  present  price  of 
coal  in  Bakersfield  is  $13  per  ton.  The  flume  line  is  nearly  com- 
pleted, and  on  August  15th  the  contract  will  be  let  for  the 
remainder  of  the  construction  work.  A  seventy-two  inch  steel 
pipe  will  be  used  to  convey  the  water  from  the  end  of  the  long 
flume  to  the  water-wheels  in  the  power  house.  At  first  1500 
horse-power  will  be  developed,  and  this  will  be  gradually  in- 
crealed  from  time  to  time  to  meet  the  demands  for  extra  power. 
There  are  some  valuable  mines  about  thirty  miles  east  of  Bakers- 
field,  that  require  about  1300  horse-power,  and  they  will  be 
accommodatod  next  summer. 

San  Francisco. — Satisfactory  progress  is  being  made  by  the 
Clear  Lake  Electric  Company  toward  the  utilization  of  the  waste 
water  power  of  Clear  Lake,  in  Lake  County,  for  delivering 
electric  energy  to  San  Francisco,  Oakland,  Benecia,  Mare  Island, 
Vallejo,  Santa  Rosa  and  other  cities  along  the  line.  The  invest- 
ment necessary  to  develop  the  power  may  reach  $3,000,000. 
Clear  Lake  has  a  surface  area  of  eighty-two  square  miles  and  a 
catchment  area  of  517  square  miles.  Its  average  depth  is  forty 
feet  and  the  average  rainfall,  as  taken  from  different  measure- 
ments and  observations  from  1867  to  date,  is  34.4  inches  per  an- 
num, 50  per  cent,  of  which  for  utilization  would  amount  to 
119,565  000.000  gallons  per  annum,  or  327,000,000  gallons  daily. 
By  building  a  27-foot  dam  across  Cache  Creek,  the  outlet  of  the 
lake  at  a  point  five  miles  below  the  lake,  and  by  building  67,300 
feet  of  5-foot  pipe  line,  a  head  of  424  feet  of  water  will  be  ob- 

tained which  will  develop  28,950  horse  power  at  the  dynomos. 
Clear  Lake  lies  at  an  elevation  of  1317  feet,  a  distance  of  seventy- 
five  miies  due  north  of  San  Francisco,  and  the  company  hope  to 
be  able  to  sell  power  in  San  Francisco  for  $4.00  per  horse  power 
per  month.  Tne  construction  of  an  electric  railway,  to  be  known 
as  the  Clear  Lake  and  Vaca  Valley  Railroad,  from  Clear  Lake  to 
Benecia  is  also  contemplated . 


San  Francisco. — Union  No.  6  of  the  National  Brotherhood  of 
Electrical  Workers  held  their  annual  picnic  at  Schuetzen  Park 
on  July  14th. 

Santa  Barbara,  Cal. — San  Francisco  parties  have  leased 
all  the  bituminous  rights  of  the  Alcatraz  Asphalt  Company,  at 
Carpenteria  and  will  sink  oil  wells. 

Palouse,  Wash. — The  Palouse  Mica  Company  has  been  in- 
corporated by  Charles  Treavor  Cross,  John  P.  Duke  and  William 
Goodyear.     Capital  stock,  $100,000. 

San  Diego,  Cal. — Mayor  Carlson  has  vetoed  an  ordinance 
imposing  a  ground  rental  of  fifty  cents  per  annum  for  each  pole 
erected  or  used  for  electrical  purposes. 

San  Francisco. — The  illustrations  which  appeared  in  the 
Morning  Call  concerning  the  recent  fiesta  in  Los  Angeles,  were 
transmitted  from  that  city  by  the  telautograph. 

Bakersfield,  Cal  — It  is  reported  that  Captain  John  Barker 
recently  signed  a  contract  with  parties  in  San  Francisco  to  bore 
for  gas  and  oil  at  his  place  on  Kern  river,  about  six  miles  above 

Anaconda,  Mont. — E  M.  Talbot,  foreman  of  the  power 
house  of  the  Anaconda  Electric  Light  and  Power  Company, 
was  instantly  killed  on  July  7th  by  the  bursting  of  a  pulley  on 
the  main  shaft. 

Watsonville,  Cal. — A  committee  of  local  firemen  has  ad- 
vised the  Board  of  Trustees  to  investigate  and  then  adopt  a  new 
fire  alarm  system  which  Burbeck  &  Co.  agreed  to  maintain  for  a 
monthly  rental  of  $20. 

Victoria,  B.  C. — William  Sutton,  a  lumberman  of  Euculet 
District,  Barclay  Sound,  is  erecting  a  complete  electric  power 
transmission  plant,  to  be  driven  by  water  power,  to  be  used  for 
transporting  logs  from  timber  land  to  water.  The  electric  motors 
will  displace  the  use  of  teams  or  horses  and  portable  steam  en- 

Seattle,  Wash. — In  revenge  for  a  fancied  grievance,  a  mis- 
creant crossed  an  arc  and  an  alternating  incandescent  circuit  with 
several  strands  of  bell  wire,  the  result  of  which,  probably 
fifty  telephones  were  burned  out,  together  with  a  dozen  or  more 
fire  alarm  boxes,  and  the  lighting  service  on  the  crossed  circuits 
was  interrupted  for  the  night. 

Los  Angeles,  Cal.— The  oil  producers  of  this  city  have  or- 
ganized by  adopting  a  Constitution  for  the  formation  of  an  Oil 
Producers' Exchange,  which  will  endeavor  to  put  in  pipe  lines 
to  the  ocean,  so  that  shipment  can  be  made  by  water,  thus  widen- 
ing the  market.  It  is  believed  that  by  this  means  oil  can  be 
landed  in  San  Francisco  for  $1.30  per  barrel. 

Tacoma,  Wash. — An  ordinance  has  been  enacted  establishing 
new  rates  of  lighting  service  from  the  municipal  plant  and  which 
reduces  the  old  rates  approximately  as  follows :  All  night  arc 
lights,  20  per  cent. ;  midnight  arc  lights,  37  per  cent. ;  half  arc 
lights,  30  per  cent. ;  incandescent  commercial  lights,  50  per  cent. 
The  Board  of  Public  Works  claims  this  to  be  necessary  because 
of  alleged  violations  by  the  Commercial  Electric  Light  Company 
of  an  agreement  with  the  city  to  maintain  the  old  ordinance 
rates,  while  the  company  denies  this  but  claims  that  the  intro- 
duction of  the  Welsbach  business  have  cut  into  the  city's 
business.  A  rate  war  is  now  being  waged  between  the  city  and 
the  company,  and  the  Tacoma  Gas  and  Electric  Light  Company 
has  under  consideration  the  bringing  of  a  suit  to  enjoin  the  city 
from  selling  any  lights  at  less  than  cost. 


One  Western  Altei-nating  and  Direct  Current,  Di- 
rect Reading  WATTMETER.  Scale  0  to  30,000  Watts; 
0  to  200  amperes  and  0  to  150  volts.  Complete,  with 
conducting  cable  and  portable  case.  But  little  used  and 
in  strictly  first-class  condition.  A  bargain  for  cash. 
May  be  examined  at  the  office  of  the  Electrical  Jour- 
nal, 303  California  Street,  San  Francisco. 


I .  # 

Vol.  I. 

SEPTEMBER,    1895.  No.  3. 

^he  folsom' ^acramonto  ^oiDzr  transmission. 

The  utilization  of  the  water-power  of  the  American 
River  was  first  conceived  by  the  late  Horatio  Gates 
Livermore,  one  of  the  pioneers  of  the  State,  who  in  the 
early  '60s  was  engaged  in  the  logging  industry.  The 
famous  Georgetown  Divide,  in  which  the  first  discovery 
of  gold  in  California  was  made,  is  situated  in  El  Dorado 
County,  between  the  Middle  and  the  South  Forks  of  the 
American  River.  It  is  a  district  that  is  exceedingly 
mountainous,  and  is  heavily  timbered  with  sugar  and 
yellow  pines  of  unsurpassed  quality,  and  while  floating- 
logs  down  the  American   River   from    this   district  the 

worked  or  even  explored  only  during  a  few  months  in 
the  year.  Iu  the  fall,  when  the  snows  have  about  dis- 
appeared, the  rainy  season  sets  in'replenishing  the  wan- 
ing supply  from  melted  snows,  and  thus,  between  the 
rains  of  winter  and  the  melting  snows  of  summer,  the 
water  supply  has  never  been  known  to  fail.  Practically 
all  of  the  catchment  area  is,  moreover,  of  granite  forma- 
tion, surfaced  with  soil  of  varying  depths,  and  its  hun- 
dreds of  deep  ravines  form  natural  sites  for  the  building 
of  impounding  reservoirs  for  increasing  the  water  sup- 
ply to  enormous  proportions.      In  fact,  it  has  been  de- 

Figure  1.— The  Dam  and  Head  "Works  of  the  Foi.som  Water  Power  Company,  ShowingISection^IJof  the  East  Canal. 

Looking  Down  the  American  River. 

necessity  for  securing  a  still  water  basin  for  locating  log 
booms  to  receive  the  logs  became  impressed  upon  the 
mind  of  Mr.  Livermore,  who,  in  1866,  as  President  of  the 
Natoma  "Water  and  Mining  Company,  laid  the  founda- 
tions for  the  present  dam.  The  various  forks  of  the 
American  River  rise  in  the  Sierra  Nevada  Mountains 
within  a  few  miles  of  Lake  Tahoe,  and  the  supply  of  the 
river  is  peculiar  in  that  the  catchment  is  derived  from 
new  sources  at  all  seasons  of  the  year.  The  period  usual 
elsewhere  as  the  "  dry  season  "  is  bridged  over  by  the 
melting  of  snows  in  the  mountains,  and  so  deep  is  the 
snow  in  some  of  these  regions  that  the  country  can  be 

Copyrighted  1895,  by  Geo.  P.] 

termined  from  carefully  made  surveys  that  an  expenditure 
of  less  than  twenty-five  dollars  per  horse-power  in  the 
construction  of  such  impounding  reservoirs  will  perma- 
nently increase  the  flow  of  the  river  at  Folsom  to  such  an 
extent  that  its  minimum  flow,^after  these  improvements 
have  been  carried  out,  will  exceed  its  present  maximum 
flow.  A  conservative  estimate  of  the  possible  power 
that  can  be  developed  by  this  means  at  Folsom  is  a 
minimum  of  15,000  horse-power. 

The  Folsom  Water  Power  Company,  which  consists 
of  H.  P.  and  C.  E.  Livermore,  Albert  Gallatin,  A  .J. 
Ralston,  and 'others,  succeeded  to  all^the  rights  of  the 

Low.    All; Eights  Reserved. 



[Vol.  I,  No.  3. 

Natoma  Water  and  Mining  Company  in  1881,  up  to 
which  time  the  foundations  of  the  dam  had  been  laid  in 
solid  granite  masonry,  but  so  much  capital  was  re- 
quired to  build  a  dam  of  sufficient  solidity  to  withstand 
the  enormous  pressures,  that,  in  the  early  part  of  1888, 
a  contract  was  entered  into  with  the  State  of  California, 
whereby  the  State  in  return  for  ample  concessions  agreed 
to  furnish  to  the  Folsom  Water  Power  Company  such 
convict  labor  as  was  necessary  to  enlarge  and  finish  the 
company's  dam,  and  to  finish  Sections  1  and  2  of 
the  proposed  canal  to  the  termination  of  Section  2  at 
Robbers'  Ravine,  near  the  town  of  Folsom. 

The  nature  of  the  site  of  the  dam  is  clearly  indicated 
in  the  accompanying  illustrations.  High  granite  bluffs 
confine  the  river  on  either  side  for  many  miles,  and 
where  the  dam  is  erected  they  form  a  natural  point  for 
the  building  of  such  a  structure.  The  dam  has  an 
elevation  of  210  feet  above  sea  level,  and  of  175  feet 

seven  inches  in  diameter  each,  the  remaining  two  having 
a  diameter  of  five  and  one-half  inches  each,  all  having 
a  stroke  of  five  feet  six  inches  each.  The  details  of  the 
larger  rams  will  illustrate  the  construction  of  the  smal- 
ler ones  as  well.  The  cylinders  are  seven  and  one-half  feet 
in  length,  with  an  external  diameter  of  eleven  inches, 
and  each  has  two  trunnions  on  which  it  is  free  to  oscil- 
late. One  of  these  trunnions  is  solid,  while  the  other  is 
bored  with  a  half-inch  hole  to  i-eceive  the  pressure  water 
by  which  the  apparatus  is  operated.  The  bottom  of  the 
cylinder  has  a  hemispherical  cap  secured  to  it  by  eight, 
one  aud  one-fourth  inch  bolts,  while  at  the  other  end 
there  is  a  brass  stuffing  box  through  which  the  shank  of 
the  piston  passes.  The  piston  is  six  inches  in  diameter 
and  seven  feet  eight  and  one-half  inches  long,  and  the 
piston  head  is  a  hemispherical  brass  knob  with  a  project- 
ing screw,  by  which  it  is  fastened  to  the  piston.  When 
the  shutters  have  been  raised  the  piston  is  fastened  in 

Figure  2. — The  Dam  and  Head  Gates  op  the  Folsom  Water  Power  Company, 
Looking  up  the  American  River. 

above  Sacramento.  It  contains  more  than  37,000  cubic 
yards  of  masonry,  while  the  contents  of  the  head  works 
is  about  15,000  cubic  yards.  The  general  dimensions  of 
the  dam  are  shown  in  Figure  5,  from  which  it  will  be 
seen  that  the  crest  is  provided  with  a  heavy  wooden 
shutter,  180  feet  in  length,  which  can  be  raised  during 
the  low-water  season  in  September  by  five  hydraulic 
rams,  so  as  to  create  a  storage  basin  for  conserving  the 
flow  during  the  hours  of  light  load  when  the  least  amount 
of  water  is  used.  The  basin  formed  when  the  shutter  is 
raised  backs  up  the  water  in  the  river  for  a  distance  of 
about  four  miles,  causing  an  estimated  storage  of  13,- 
007,105  cubic  yards  of  water.  The  shutter  is  a  trussed 
timber  platform,  resting  in  a  masonry  recess  running 
longitudinally  along  the  top  of  the  center  of  the  dam. 
When  raised,  the  platform  is  made  tight  at  the  ends  by 
wedge  pieces,  and  at  the  bottom  by  mud  apron  boards. 
When  lowered  into  the  recess  it  is  flat  and  secure  from 
damage  by  trees  and  logs  which  may  pass  over  it.  Three 
of  the  five  hydraulic  rams  operating  the  shutter  are 

position  by  means  of  a  lockiug  pin,  moved  back  and  forth 
by  a  pinion  aud  hand  wheel. 

This  hydraulic  method  of  operating  the  gates  is  a 
characteristic  feature  of  the  works  of  the  company,  and 
there  are  in  all  about  thirty  similar  rams  in  different 
places,  most  of  which  are  operated  by  hydraulic  pressure, 
at  a  pressure  of  1000  pounds  per  square  inch,  piped  from 
the  state  power  house  on  the  canal.  Snow  and  ice  are 
practically  uuknown  at  Folsom,  and  on  this  account  it 
is  possible  to  use  hydraulic  apparatus  that  would  prove 
impracticable  in  a  severe,  climate.  The  appliances  for 
operating  the  head  gates  on  the  east  side  canal,  and 
which  are  illustrated  in  Figure  6,  are  perhaps  the  most 
noteworthy  of  all.  The  gateways  they  operate  are  six- 
teen feet  by  fourteen  feet  in  the  clear,  and  are  provided  with 
gates  opening  to  a  height  of  twelve  feet  six  .inches  above 
the  sill,  and  made  of  three  by  twelve  inch  timbers, 
secured  together  by  six  bolts  fastened  through  them. 
Each  gate  is  attached  by  link  aud  pin  to  the  lower  end 
of  a  piston  six  inches  in  diameter,  made  of  wrought  iron 

Sept,  1895.] 



Figure  3.— Section  1  of  the  East  Canal  op  the  Folsom  Water  Power  Company,  Showing  the 

State  Power  House  in  the  Distance. 

and  sheathed  with  brass.  The  brass  piston,  which  is 
packed  with  cut  leather,  moves  in  a  brass-lined  cast  iron 
cylinder  of  twelve-inch  bore  and  thirteen-foot  stroke, 
closed  at  each  end  with  a  stuffing  box  and  gland  to  re- 
ceive hemp  packing.  The  pistons  are  operated  by  water 
under  the  pressure  stated,  which  is  delivered  to  the 
cylinders  through  a  half-inch  pipe.  To  provide  against 
any  movement  of  the  gates  by  leakage  of  water  in  the 
cylinders,  suitable  checking  gears  are  placed,  there  being 
two  such  gears  to  each  gate,  and  these  gears  are  keyed 
to  a  three  and  one-half  inch  shaft  passing  through  the 
bracket  by  which  the  cylinder  is  mounted  on  the  bulk- 

State  is  using  about  800  horse-power  of  the  power  avail- 
ble  from  this  drop.  Section  1  is  cut  much  of  the  way 
into  solid  granite  cliffs,  and  the  rock  taken  therefrom 
was  almost  entirely  used  in  the  construction  of  the  dam 
and  headworks  on  the  east  side  and  in  the  building  of 
the  heavy  masonry  wall,  eight  feet  wide  on  the  top,  from 
fifteen  to  thirty  feet  wide  at  the  base,  and  in  some  places 
as  high  as  thirty  feet.  This  wall,  which  is  built  on  the 
bed  rock,  forms  the  outer  bank  of  the  canal.  The  sec- 
tion is  provided  with  four  sand  gates,  and  is  about  2000 
feet  in  length. 

Section  2  is  constructed  with  an  outside  bank  of 

Figure  4  -Robbers'  Ravine,  Marking  the  Division  Between  Sections  2  and  3  op  the  Folsom 
Water  Power  Company's  Canal,  Showing  a  Log  Dam  of  the  American  Land  and  Lumber 
Company  and  the  American  River  in  the  Back  Ground. 

head.  A  wire  rope  runs  from  the  top  of  the  gate  to 
each  of  the  wheels,  and  a  spiral  spring  is  riveted  at  one 
end  to  a  projecting  casting  on  the  gear,  and  is  fastened 
at  the  other  to  a  boss  on  the  cylinder  bracket. 


Two  canals,  known  as  the  West  Side  and  East  Sxle 
Canals,  are  projected  to  continue  on  down  the  river  from 
the  dam.  As  yet  the  West  Side  Canal  has  not  been  con- 
structed, but  the  East  Side  Canal  is  entirely  finished. 
It  is  divided  into  three  sections,  the  first  of  which  ex- 
tends from  the  dam  to  a  point  just  below  the  first  or 
State  fall,  where  a  drop  of  7.33  feet  iu  level  occurs,  at 
which  is  located  the  State  power-bouse.     At  present  the 

earth  and  rock  filling,  on  which  is  laid  a  broad-gauge 
railroad  track,  and  at  the  lower  end  of  the  section  are 
located  four  deep  outlet  gates,  raised  and  lowered  by 
hydraulic  rams.  Section  2  is  4000  feet  long,  and  its 
inner  side  is  faced  by  a  heavy  masonry  wall,  and  the 
outer  side  is  protected  against  the  river  by  heavy  rip- 

The  third  section  was  built  by  the  Folsom  Water 
Power  Company.  It  is  made  by  earth  and  rock  excava- 
tions and  an  earth  rock  fill,  which  forms  the  outer  bank 
of  the  canal  and  which,  as  in  Section  2,  carries  the  rail- 
road track.  The  outer  bank  is  protected  by  rip-rap,  and 
some  portions  of  the   inside  are  faced  with  dry  rubble 



[Vol.  I.  No.  3. 

wall.  Section  3  is  3500  feet  long,  which  makes  the  total 
length  of  the  canal  to  be  9,500  feet. 

The  East  Side  Canal  has  a  width  of  sixty-six  feet 
above  the  headgates.  From  the  headgates  to  the  State 
fall,  Section  1  has  a  width  of  fifty-three  feet  on  top  and 
forty-five  feet  on  the  bottom.  Sections  2  and  3  are 
each  fifty  feet  wide  on  the  top  and  forty  feet  wide  on  the 
bottom.  They  carry  water  eight  feet  deep,  and  with 
such  a  grade  that  the  water  in  the  canal  has  an  estimated 
flow  of  104,000  cubic  feet  per  minute. 

Four  sluice  or  sand  gates,  each  covering  an  opening 
five  by  six  feet  through  the  wing  dam,  are  located  at  the 

stance  will  be  drawn  into  one  or  the  other  of  the  tunnel- 
months  and  be  discharged  through  the  sluices  into  the 
river  below. 

Between  Sections  1  and  2,  and  immediately  over  the 
canal,  the  State  of  California  has  erected  the  Slate 
power-house  previously  referred  to.  This  is  adjoining 
the  yard  of  the  State  Prison  and  is  built  of  heavy  granite 
masonry.  It  has  a  floor  area  of  166  by  sixty  feet,  is 
sixty  feet  high,  and  within  it  are  installed  six  special 
eighty-seven-incb  Leffel  turbine  water  wheels  with  verti- 
cal shafts,  geared  through  beveled  pinions  to  a  horizontal 
shaft  overhead.      From  this  shaft  power  is  delivered  by 

>°  -rDAM>    ANY 



Figure  5. — An  Outline  Plan  of  the  Daii  and  Head  Works  of  the  Folsom  Water  Power  Company. 

end  of  the  dam  to  prevent  saud  or  gravel  from  passing 
into  the  canal  and  causing  injury  to  the  wheels.  The  bot- 
tom of  these  gates  is  eight  feet  below  the  level  of  the 
bottom  of  the  canal,  and  a  short  distance  further  down 
the  stream  an  eight-foot  wall  is  built  directly  across  the 
canal.  Inasmuch  as  ordinary  gates  placed  in  the  side 
of  the  canal  would  only  remove  the  gravel  within  a  few 
feet  of  their  entrance,  three  of  the  gates  have  a  tunnel- 
like arrangement  built  through  the  outer  bank,  the 
mouths  of  these  tunnels  covering  the  entire  width  of 
the  canal.  As  the  entrances  to  these  tunnels  are  eight 
feet  below  the  bottom  level  of  the  canal,  the  water  is 
not  impeded  in  its  flow  thereby,  and  any  heavy  sub- 

cables  and  belting  to  a  heav}'  set  of  pumps,  to  a  large 
air  compresser,  to  ice  machines  and  to  electric  lighting 
generators.  The  arrangement  at  the  State  fall  is  such 
that  the  flow  of  water  may  be  directed  either  to  the 
wheels  or  turned  into  Section  2  of  the  canal  through 
side  gates  operated  by  hydraulic  rams,  and  in  addition, ' 
a  log  chute  or  by-pass  is  provided  to  facilitate  the 
passing  of  logs  down  the  canal  to  the  saw  mill  which 
it  is  proposed  will  be  erected  at  Folsom.  No  water  is 
wasted  at  the  State  fall,  but  the  entire  flow  continues 
passing  on  down  the  canal. 

At  the  lower  end  of  Section  2  four  other  sand  gates 
have  been  placed,  but  they  are  more  for  the  purpose  of 

Sept.,  1S95.] 



FrGURE  (i. — Hydraulic  Rams  Operating  Head  Gates  of  the  Folsom  Water 

Power  Company. 

relieving  the  canal  during  storms  than  for  clearing  it  of 
sand  deposits.     They  are  not,  therefore,  fitted  with  tun- 
nels  across   the  caual.     The  company's  railroad  crosses 
from  the  outer  to  the  inner  bank  of  the  caual  ou  a  sub- 
stantial truss  bridge,  supported  by  heavy  masonry  but- 
tresses at  the  upper    end  of  Section  3.      Just  below 
this    bridge   a  timber  boom    is   extended  across   the 
caual  to  deflect  the  logs  into  a  large  log  basiu  cover- 
ing several  acres. 


The  dam  and  canal  is  the  property  of  the  Fol- 
som Water  Power  Company,  but  the  plant  about  to 
be  described  is  the  property  of  the  Sacramento  Elec- 
tric Power  and  Light  Company,  which  has  acquired 
all  the  power  rights  for  the  water  from  the  Folsom 
Water  Power  Company.  At  the  terminal  of  the 
canal  a  forebay,  150  feet  long,  100  feet  wide  and 
twelve  feet  deep  has  been  constructed  in  a  north- 
westerly direction  at  right  angles  to  the  canal.  It  is 
divided  lengthwise  by  a  continuous  stone  wall,  reach- 
ing above  the  top  of  the  water  and  extending  from 
the  canal  to  the  power-house,  so  as  to  make  virtually 
two  forebays.  Each  of  these  is  again  divided  longi- 
tudinally by  planking  which  does  not  reach  to  the 
surface  of  the  water,  and  gates  are  placed  at  each  end 
of  each  forebay. 

This  construction  was  carried  out  because  at  cer- 
tain seasons  of  the  year  much  silt  is  held  in  suspension 
in  the  water  of  the  American  River,  owing  to  the 
hydraulic  mining  constantly  going  on  in  its  upper 
branches.  The  velocity  of  flow  in  the  river  and  canal 
is  sufficient  to  carry  this  silt  along,  and  uuless  it  were 
interrupted  it  would  cause  considerable  trouble  in  the 
turbines.  Advantage  has  therefore  been  taken  of  the 
fact  that  when  a  channel  is  widened  out  so  as  to  cause 

slack  water  silt  will  be  deposited, 
hence  wide  forebays    were    con- 
structed.     It  will   now  be   clear 
that  in  order  to  clean  out  the  silt 
it  will  only  be  necessary  to  check 
the  flow   in  one  of  the  divisions 
of  the  forebay  by  closing  the  wheel 
gates  and  opening  the  waste  gates, 
thus  allowing  a  small  flow  to  take 
place  in  the  forebay,  dropping  out 
all  silt  with  it,      Then  the  water 
■  is  again  let  in.  and  the  wheels  may 
be  started  and   the  other  part  of 
the  forebay  may  be  cleaned  out. 
But   one   forebay    was    com- 
pleted up  to  the  time  of  the  Elec- 
tric Carnival,  hence  the  plant  was 
operating  to  only  half  its  capacity, 
but  by  October  1st  the  remaining 
forebay  will  be  entirely    finished, 
when  the  entire  plant  will  be  prac- 
tically completed.     The  hydraulic 
part   of    the  equipment  was  fur- 
nished by  the   S.    Morgan-Smith 
Iron  Works,  of  York,  Pa.,  under  contract  with  the  Pelton 
Water  Wheel  Company,  of  San  Francisco,  and  consists  of 
four  pairs  of  30-inch  McCormick  turbines,  having  a  capa- 
city of   1260  horse-power  each,  and  two  of   which,  to- 
gether with  an  exciter  turbine,  are  illustrated  iu  Figure  7. 

Figure  7. — Penstocks  and  Turbines  for  Two  Units  in  the 

Power  House  of  the  Sacramento  Electric 

Power  and  Light  Company. 



[Vol.  I,  No.  3. 

The  wheels  run  under  11  head  of  fifty-five  feet  at  300 
revolutions  per  minute,  and  are  directly  connected  to 
the  armature  shafts  of  the  generators  by  insulated  coup- 
lings. The  inlet  pipes  are  eight  feet  in  diameter,  and  made 
of  five-eighths-inch  steel,  with  double  draft  lubes. 


Figure  8. — The  Powee  House  of  the  Sacramento  Electric 
Power  and  Light  Company  at  Folsom. 

Each  pair  of  wheels  is  furnished  with  a  steel  fly- 
wheel ten  feet  in  diameter,  weighing  10,000  pounds,  and 
which  has  a  peripheral  speed  of  9125  feet  per  minute. 
To  provide  for  the  centrifugal  strain  that  such  a  high 
velocity  gives,  heavy  steel  tires  are  shrunk  on  to  the 
rims.  The  exciters  are  run  by  two  special  wheels  of  a 
size  to  give  them  the  proper  speed,  which  are  also  direct 
connected  as  in  the  case  of  the  larger  wheels.  The  gov- 
ernors are  of  the  Feasch-Picard  type,  the  same  as  are 
used  on  the  Niagara  wheels,  and,  being  located  iu  1he 
generator  room,  are  convenient  for  observation  and 
control.  Under  the  present  temporary  conditions  it 
is  necessary  for  an  attendant  to  watch  the  tachometer 
and  control  the  water  manually. 

-The  wheels  are  made  of  phosphor-bronze  aud 
the  work  throughout  embraces  the  latest  and  most 
improved  practice  iu  hydraulics.  The  hydraulic 
equipment  weighs  upward  of  400,000  pounds,  and 
the  plant,  as  a  whole,  is  believed  to  be  the  most 
massive  and  powerful  in  the  world,  with  the  single 
exception  of  that  at  Niagara. 

THE      POWER      HOUSE. 

Coupled  direct  to  each  of  these  four  turbines,  as 
stated,  through  a  6   7-16  inch    shaft  fitted  with  in- 
sulating flanges,  is  a   750  kilowatt   three-phase  Gen- 
eral Electric  generator.      At  the  time  of  the  Electric 
Carnival  only  two  of  these  generators,  as   shown  in 
Fig.  10, were  in  operation,  and  these  are  without  doubt 
the  largest   three-phase    dynamos    yet    constructed. 
Their   height   is   8  feet  8i  inches,  they  cover  a  floor 
area  of  11  feet  by  8  feet  8  inches,   and  their  weight  is 
57,877  pounds   each.      They  are  provided  with  twenty- 
four  poles,  and  deliver  a  three  phase   current  at  a  peri- 
odicity of  sixty  cycles  per  second  and  at  a  potential  of 
S00  volts.      The  station  is  provided  with  two  four-pole 

500-volt  exciters,  having  a  capacity  of  30  kilowatts  each, 

and    the  entire  four   generators    may    be    excited    from 

either  exciter. 

From  the  generators  the  current  is  led  through  the 

simple  switching-board,  Fig.  10,  to  the  bank  of  the  step- 
up  transformers  placed  in  the  transformer  chamber 
on  the  upper  floor  of  the  building.  These  are  of  the 
large  air-blast  type  manufactured  by  the  General 
Electric  Company,  and  each  have  a  capacity  of  265 
kilowatts.  Each  generator  feeds  a  group  of  three  such 
transformers,  making  a  total  rated  transformer  capa- 
city of  3180  kilowatts  in  the  power  house. 

Only  the  dynamo  potentials  are  handled  at  the 
station  switchboard,  which  is,  as  stated,  essentially 
a  switching  board.  The  two  outside  panels  control  the 
four  generators,  and  as  the  board  is  provided  with 
double  sets  of  bus  bars,  the  generators  may  be 
coupled  to  the  circuits  of  the  pole  lines  as  de- 
sired. The  center  panel  contains  the  synchroniz- 
ing indicator  lamps,  the  exciter  instruments  and  the 
main  line  switches,  while  the  generator  panels,  in  ad- 
dition to  the  switches,  are  provided  with  a  volt- 
meter, current  indicator,  aud  the  usual  pressure 
regulator  in  each  set.  The  switchboard  is  of  Ten- 
nessee marble,  and  presents  a  very  handsome  ap- 

Both  the  primary  and  secondary  coils  of  all  step-up 
transformers  are  worked  in  parallel,  taking  current  at 
800  volts  from  the  generators  and  delivering  to  the  lines 
at  a  potential  of  11,000  volts.  Each  generator  is  pro- 
vided with  a  separate  and  distinct  circuit  from  the  power 
house  to  Sacramento,  and  they  may  be  worked  singlj' 
or  in  parallel,  in  the  latter  instance  a  synchronism  being- 
effected  through  the  use  of  suitable  indicators.  As  yet  the 

Figure  9. — Two  of  the  Four  750-Kilowatt  Three-Phase 
Generators  in  this  Folsom  Power  House. 

transformers  are  run  without  the  air  blast,  but  as  soon  as 
the  load  increases  sufficiently  to  cause  material  heating, 
both  the  power  house  at  Folsom  and  the  sub-station  at 
Sacramento  will  be  equipped  with  Sturtevant  blowers, 
each  operated  by  a  2- kilowatt  inductor  motor. 

Sept.,  1S95.] 



The  power,  which  is  shown  at  Fig.  8.  is 
divided  into  practically  four  parts.  The  photograph 
from  which  the  accompanying  illustration  was  made  was 
taken  before  water  was  run  into  the  tail-race,  and  at 
present  the  water  comes  up  withiu  a  few  inches  of  the 

Figure  10. — Generator  Switchboard  at  the  Folsom 
Power  House. 

arches.  The  tail-race  forms  the  first  section  of  the  power 
house  and  the  first  story  is  divided  into  two  portions, 
one  for  the  turbines  and  the  other  for  the  electrical  ap- 
paratus. The  transformers  occupy  the  upper  story,  form- 
ing the  fourth  portion  of  the  station.  The  secondaries 
are  led  from  the  transformers  to  the  pole  lines  out 
through  twelve  porcelain-lined  holes  in  the  end  of  the 
station,  protected  by  a  substantial  hood. 

THE      POLE      LINE. 

The  pole  line  fittingly  exhibits  the  care  that  has 
been  exercised  in  the  construction  of  the  entire  installa- 
tion. It  is  a  double  line  throughout,  and  following,  as 
it  does,  along  the  sides  of  the  country  road  and  the  Sac- 
ramento Valley  railroad,  it  forms  an  avenue  of  poles 
20.4  miles  in  length  and  of  uniform  construction.  Fort}'- 
foot  peeled  Washington  cedar  poles  of  diameters  averag- 
ing twelve  inches  at  the  top  to  sixteen  inches  at  the  butt, 
are  used  throughout  the  country  division,  but  in  the 
city  sixty-foot  poles  have  been  placed  at  points  of  inter- 
section with  other  pole  lines.  The  transmission  circuits 
proper,  or  those  carried  on  the  country  pole  lines,  are 
supported  on  large  special  double-petticoat  porcelain  in- 
sulators that  have  been  tested  to  withstand  a  potential 
of  25.000  volts  A.  C.  The  pole  lines  each  support  six 
No.  1  B.  &  S.  bare  copper  wires,  effecting  transmission 
with  an  estimated  line  loss  of  ten  per  cent.  Four  such 
wires  are  carried  by  the  upper  cross  arm  and  the  two  re- 
maining wires  by  the  remaining  cross  arms,  as  clearly 

shown  in  Figure  11.  The  illustration  also  shows  that  the 
poles  are  gained  for  two  extra  cross  arms,  with  the  inten- 
tion of  doubling  the  capacity  when  necessary.  The  cross 
arms,  which  are  braced  with  angle  irons,  are  seven  feet 
in  length,  having  a  section  of  4x4  inches,  and  the  poles 
are  set  fifty  to  the  mile,  being  placed  six  feet  in  the 

For  many  years  the  Sunset  Telephone  and  Tele- 
graph Company  operated  a  long-distance  telephone  line 
between  Sacramento  and  Folsom.  It  was  of  ordinary 
galvanized  iron  construction  and  grounded  at  each  end, 
but  as  soon  as  the  power  transmission  lines  were  put  in 
operation  the  telephone  circuit  became  useless  from  the 
induction.  The  new  Capital  Telephone  and  Telegraph 
Company,  however,  which  has  just  been  established 
in  Sacramento,  secured  the  privilege  of  placing  a  third 
cross  arm  on  one  of  the  pole  lines  a  distance  of  thirty- 
six  inches  below  the  lowest  power  line.  Number  14  bare 
copper  wire  is  supported  on  porcelain  knobs  four  feet 
apart,  and  the  wires  are  transposed  at  every  fifth  pole. 
Collimbia  receivers  and  carbou  transmitters  are  used, 
and  the  service  is  not  only  satisfactory  between  Sacra- 
mento and  Folsom,  but  conversation  may  be  carried  ou 
from  Sacramento  to  Placerville,  which  is  thirty-eight 
miles   beyond  Folsom,  or  a  total  distance  of  fifty  miles. 

The  actual  length  of  the  power  transmission  circuits 
as  measured  by  the  pole  line  is  as  follows: 


From  the  power  house  to  the  railroad  depot  at 

Folsom  1,05b* 

From  the  Folsom  depot  to  the  limits  of  Sacra- 
mento   102,432 

From  the  city  limits  to  the  sub-station 10,000 

Total  length  of  pole  line.... 
Or,  practically,  21J  miles. 


Figure  11.— Double  Pole  Line  Transmission  Circuits  of  the 
Sacramento  Electric  Power  and  Light  Company. 

the   sub-station. 
The  distributing  station,  as  the  step-down  or   sub- 
station  of  the   Sacramento    Electric   Power  and    Light 
Company  is    called,   is   located   on    the  northwest   cor- 
ner of  Sixth  and   H   streets,   Sacramento,   quite   close 



[Vol.  I,  No.  3. 

to  the  business  portion  of  town.  It  is  a  substantial 
lire-proof  structure,  two  stories  in  height,  with  an  airy 
basement,  and  in  addition  to  the  general  offices  of  the 
company,  which,  when  completed,  will  occupy  the  front 

Figure  12. — The  Motor-Generator  Room  in  the  Sub-statiom 

of  the  Sacramento  Electric  Power  and  Light 

Company  at  Sacramento. 

corner  portion,  it  contains  the  motor  and  generator 
room  (Fig.  12)  on  the  ground  floor.  This  room  has  an 
area  of  50  by  100  feet  in  the  clear,  and  here  are  located 
the  three  3-phase  synchronous  motors  and  the  various 
electric  railway  genera- 
tors, and  arc  lighting 
dynamos  comprising  the 

From  the  pole  line 
the  transmission  circuits 
are  led  direct  to  the  step- 
down  transformer  cham- 
ber in  the  sub-station. 
Only  a  temporary 
wooden  apartment, 
which  appears  in  the 
corner  of  the  dyuaino 
room  (Fig.  12)  is  used 
at  present,  as  the  per- 
manent chamber  has 
not  yet  been  completed. 
Here  are  located  nine 
125-kilowatttype  "A  B" 
or  air  blast  transformers, 
taking  energy  at  10,000 
volts,  and  transforming 
down  to  the  various  po- 
tentials required  for  the 
different  forms  of  dis- 

being  distributed  over  the  city  on  a  four-wire  system  con- 
sisting of  three  wires  for  the  three-phase  current,  and  of 
a  fourth  or  neutral  wire.  The  incandescent  lighting  ser- 
vice is  rendered  from  extensions  made  between  either  of 
the  three  wires  and  the  neutral,  due  care  of  course  being 
maintained  to  keep  the  circuits  balanced  within  reasona- 
ble limits,  but  the  power  service  is  rendered  from  the 
three-phase  wiring  without  reference  to  the  neutral  in 
any  way.  Motors  of  large  capacity  will  undoubtedly  be 
operated  from  500-volt  three-phase  wiring,  while  the  125 
and  250-volt  four-wire  system  will  be  used  for  incandes- 
cent lighting  and  small  motor  work. 

The  synchronous  motors  used  are  of  the  General 
Electric  "A  F  "  type,  form  A,  and  each  have  a  capacity 
of  250  kilowatts.  These  motors  are  identical  in  all  de- 
tails. Each  has  sixteen  poles,  and  develops  300  horse- 
power at  a  speed  of  450  revolutions  per  minute.  They 
are  operated  at  an  E.  M.  F.  of  500  volts,  the  current  al- 
ternating at  a  periodicity  of  60  cycles.  A  peculiarity  of 
the  plant  is  the  fact  that  the  motors  are  connected  di- 
rectly in  line  with  the  main  shafting  through  friction 
clutches,  and  all  pulleys  on  the  shafting  are  friction  pul- 
leys. The  main  shafting,  including  the  motor  shafts,  is 
91  feet  6  inches  in  length  over  all,  and  has  a  uniform 
diameter  of  seven  inches.  Its  speed  is,  of  course,  identi- 
cal with  that  of  the  motors,  or  450  revolutions  per  min- 
ute, and  from  the  shaft  are  belted  direct :  One  General 
Electric,  4-pole,  200-kilowatt,  500-volt  railway  generator  ; 
two  Edison  bi-polar,  500-volt  railway  generators  rated  at 
100  kilowatts  each,  and  one  Thomson-Houston  M.  P.  90, 

Figure  13. — The  Oar  Barn  of  the  Central  Electric  Railway  Company,  Sacramento. 

The  large  250-kilowatt  synchronous  motors  are  sup 
plied  with  energy  from  six  of  the  nine  125-kilowatt  trans- 
formers, delivering  current  at  500  volts.  The  remain- 
ing  transformers   step  down  to  125  volts,   the   current 

500-volt  generator ;  also  three  Brush  arc  lighting  Class 
Y  dynamos,  each  having  a  capacity  of  100,  2000  candle- 
power  arc  lamps,  and  each  of  which,  therefore,  has  a 
rated  output  of  9.6  amperes  at  5000  volts.     The  approxi- 

Sept.,  1895.] 



mate  energy  required  to  operate  these  dynamos  at   full 
load  is  1000  horse-power. 

No  novel  features  are  presented  in  the  switchboards, 
which  are  of  the  usual  fire-proof  form.  The  sub-station 
will  eventually  contain  four  distinct  boards',  the  first  of 
which  handles  the  incandescent  lighting  circuits  of  the 
city.  From  the  second  switchboard,  which  is  fed  with 
3-phase  current  at  a  potential  of  500  volts  from  the  trans- 
former room,  the  circuits  run  through  the  usual  devices 
to  the  three  250-kilowatt  motors  described.  The  third 
switchboard  will  control  the  various  railway  generators 
and  circuits,  while  the  fourth  switchboard  is  the  stand- 
ard form  of  arc  lighting  board  designed  and  manufactured 
by  the  General  Electric  Company. 


An  observation  that  should  be  emphasized  in  a  de- 
scription of  the  Sacramento  Electric  Power  and  Light 
Company's  plant  is  the  fact  that  a  market  for  a  consider- 
able portion  of  its  output  is  already  contracted  for.  The 
transmission  scheme  itself  is,  therefore,  a  reality  and  not 
a  venture,  and  of  its  consumers  at  the  present  time,  the 
Central  Electric  Railway  Company,  comprising  the  en- 
tire street  railway  system  of  the  city,  is  the  lai-gest  pa- 
tron. This  road  embraces  24.5  miles  of  a  single  track 
and  17  miles  of  double  track,  a  standard  gauge  of  4  feet 
8i  inches  being  used.  The  i*ails  are  of  combination 
type,  weighing  from  35  pounds  to  56  pounds  per  yard, 
according  to  whether  they  are  used  on  the  main  thor- 
oughfares or  on  branch  lines.  The  cars  are  largely  of 
the  combination  type,  and  the  practice  of  equipping  each 
car  with  a  15  horse-power  single  reduction  motor  has 
been  adopted  because  Sacramento  is  an  absolutely  level 
city,  and  the  simple  single  equipment  has  been  found  to 
be  satisfactory  in  every  way.  Brill  trucks  are  used  ex- 
clusively, and  in  all  the  system  comprises  thirty-two 
motor  cars  and  three  trailers.  The  maximum  power  re- 
quired to  operate  the  system  is  650  horse-poAver,  but  in 
laying  out  the  station  a  surplus  of  250  horse-power  has 
been  provided  for  extensions  of  the  road,  and  the  capacity 
available  by  the  railway  company  from  the  transmission 
circuits,  is,  therefore,  900  horse-power. 

The  Company  owns  about  three-quarters  of  the  block 
bounded  by  Twenty-eighth,  Twenty-ninth,  N  and  M 
streets,  upon  the  south-east  corner  of  which  is  located 
the  large  brick  car-barn  illustrated  in  Fig.  14.  This 
structure  has  a  capacity  of  housing  forty-eight  cars,  and 
in  addition  contains  in  the  rear  a  well-fitted  repair  shop 
operated  by  electric  power.  Other  buildings  adjacent 
contain  a  blacksmith,  carpenter  and  paint  shop,  while 
the  offices  of  the  general  manager  of  the  road  occupy  the 
front  corner  portion  of  the  main  building. 

The  system  is  well  provided  with  features  for  at- 
tracting the  patronage  of  the  amusement-loving  public. 
At  East  Park,  on  Thirty-first  street,  the  company  has 
erected  the  largest  toboggan  slide  in  the  State,  which  is 
operated  by  a  10  horse-power  electric  motor  run  from  the 
railroad  circuit.  Here  a  hotel  has  been  erected,  and  the 
park  itself  is  a  very  attractive  recreation  and  picnic 
ground,     Oak  Park,  which  is  owned  by  the  company,  is 

situated  on  the  south-east  corner  of  the  city  limits,  and 
here  are  found  lawns,  gardens  and  other  attractions, 
among  which  is  an  excellent  dancing  pavilion.  The 
branch  of  the  railroad  reaching  Oak  Park  also  extends 
to  the  baseball  ground,  while  on  the  M  street  line  is  lo- 
cated the  well-known  Sutter's  Fort  with  its  surrounding 
grounds,  and  which  daily  attracts  hundreds  of  visitors. 

New  demands  for  power  seem  to  be  arising  daily 
and  negotiations  are  now  in  progress  with  the  Southern 
Pacific  Company  for  the  placing  of  900  horse  power  in 
motors  in  the  railroad  shops,  which  at  present  are  opera- 
ted by  steam.  These  shops  employ  about  4000  men,  and 
it  is  possible  that  the  amount  of  power  required  for  their 
operation  may  materially  exceed  the  figure  named. 

Sacramento  is  located  on  a  low,  level  country  that 
is  protected  from  inundations  from  the  Sacramento  river 
by  means  of  levees  built  along  its  bank,  as  a  result  of 
which  there  is  a  considerable  seepage  of  water  beneath 
its  soil,  and  at  present  this  seepage  is  collected  by  means 
of  percolation,  and  pumped  back  into  the  river,  the 
power  for  running  the  pump  being  obtained  from  the 
city  water-works.  During  the  recent  State  Fair,  how- 
ever, the  members  of  the  City  Board  of  Trustees  were  so 
impressed  with  the  efficacy  of  operating  centrifugal 
pumps  from  induction  motors  that  they  have  now  passed 
a  resolution  inviting  proposals  for  the  operating  of  the 
city  pumping  station  by  electricity,  and  as  a  result  of 
which,  it  is  believed  that  the  Sacramento  Electric  Power 
and  Light  Company  will  receive  the  contract  for  deliver- 
ing several  hundred  horse-power  for  the  purposes  named. 

Referring  to  the  question  which  has  been  raised  from 
time  to  time  as  to  the  water-power  available  for  use  at 
Folsom,  Mr.  H.  T.  Knight,  consulting  hydraulic  en- 
gineer for  the  Folsom  Water  Power  Company  and  who 
has  perhaps  made  more  careful  measurement  of  the 
water  supply  of  the  American  River  than  any  other 
person,  reports  that  the  available  fall  below  the  power- 
house from  the  tail  race  of  the  plant  to  the  American 
River  is  twenty-six  feet,  while  the  head  utilized  by  the 
present  plant  is  55  feet.  This  twenty-six-foot  fall  can 
be  readily  utilized,  Mr.  Knight  states,  by  constructing 
about  100  feet  of  canal  from  the  present  tail  race,  fifty- 
five  or  sixty  feet  in  length,  to  carry  the  water  from  the 
proposed  supplementary  power-house  to  the  river.  The 
present  arrangements  of  the  Sacramento  Electric  Power 
and  Light  Company  contemplate  the  use  of  only  about 
one-third  of  the  capacity  of  the  canal,  and  its  remaining 
capacity  may  be  made  available  for  additional  installa- 
tions by  a  comparative! jr  small  outlay. 

The  electrical  equipment  of  the  system  of  the  Sacra- 
mento Electric  Power  and  Light  Company  was  installed 
by  the  General  Electric  Company  through  its  regular  en- 
gineering corps,  the  work  being  placed  under  the  general 
supervision  of  Mr.  J.  A.  Lighthipe,  Chief  Engineer  of 
the  Pacific  Coast  office,  who  was  assisted  by  Mr.  A.  C. 
Jewett,  Superintendent  of  Construction  at  the  power 
house,  by  Mr.  B.  O.  Boswell,  Superintendent  of  Pole 
Line  Construction,  and  by  Mr.  C.  O.  Schaeffer,  Super- 
intendent of  Construction  at  the  sub-station. 

The  principal  stockholders  of  the  Sacramento  Elec- 
tric Power  and  Light  Company,  as  well  as  of  the  Central 
Electric  Railway  Company,  are  Messrs.  Albert  Gallatin, 
Horatio  C.  Livermore,  Charles  E.  Livermore  and  others. 
The  officers  of  the  first-named  corporation  are  Albert 
Gallatin,  President;  Horatio  P.  Livermore,  General  Man- 
ager, and  Joshua  Barker,  Secretary,  and  it  is  to  the 
energy  and  enterprise  of  these  gentlemen  and  Mr. 
Charles  E.  Livermore,  that  the  installation  of  this  re- 
markable j)ower  transmission  is  due. 



[Vol.  I,  No.  3. 


Up  to  the  present  time  the  requirements  of  the  Sac- 
ramentans  for  gas  and  electric  light  and  for  electric 
power  have  been  catered  to  by  the  Capital  Gas  Company, 
a  powerful  concern  that  was  organized  by  the  consolida- 
tion of  the  Sacramento  Gas  Company  and  the  Citizens' 
Gas,  Light  and  Heat  Company.  The  then  new  concern 
was  incorporated,  on  January  4th,  1875,  with  a  capital 
stock  of  $40,000,  which  was  subsequently  reduced  to 
$10,000  while  at  present  the  amount  is  divided  into 
10,000  shares  at  $50  each,  making  a  total  issue  of 
$500,000.  Among  the  original  incorporators  of  the  Cap- 
ital Gas  Company,  and  all  of  whom  are  now  holders  of 
its  stock  to  a  great  extent,  are  names  that  are  known  the 
country  over.  Leland  Stanford,  Mark  Hopkins,  Charles 
Crocker  and  C.  P.  Huntington  all  had  considerable  hold- 
ings, as  did  Wm,  Alvord,  now  of  the  Bank  of  California, 

stituted  the  first  effort  of  the  parent  Thomson-Houston 
company  to  introduce  its  electric  lighting  machinery  on 
the  Pacific  Coast ;  its  "  apparatus  "  consisted  of  one  12- 
lamp  2000  candle  power  arc  lighting  dynamo  and  one 
25-lamp  dynamo,  which  were  among  the  first  brought 
to  the  Pacific  Coast ;  hence  it  is  clear  that  the  subject  of 
this  sketch  is  at  least  entitled  to  mention  in  electrical 

At  the  present  the  Capital  Gas  Company  is  operating 
practically  all  the  electric  lights,  both  arc  and  incandes- 
cent, burned  in  Sacramento  ;  but  the  electric  power  con- 
sumed is,  on  the  other  hand,  most  generally  furnished 
by  the  Sacramento  Electric  Power  and  Light  Company. 
Incandescent  service  is  furnished  both  by  the  fiat  rate 
and  meter  systems,  the  rate  for  the  latter  being  15  cents 
per  kilowatt  hour,  with  a  sliding  scale  of  discount  ac- 
cording to  the  amount  consumed.  For  arc  lighting  by 
2000  candle  power  lamps  the  weekly  rates  vary  as  fol- 

Figures  1  and  2.— The  Electric  Power  House  and  Gas  Works  of  the  Capital  Gas  Company,  Sacramento. 

Oliver  Eldridge,  of  the  Pacific  Telephone  and  Telegraph 
Company,  and  B.  J  Tallant,  the  banker.  In  addition  to 
these,  the  Capital  Gas  Company  now  has  coupled  with  it 
the  names  of  B.  U.  Steinman,  Mayor  of  Sacramento  and 
who  is  President  of  the  Company;  C.  H.  Cummings,  Secre- 
tary and  Treasurer;  Frank  Miller,  President  of  the  Bank 
of  D.  O.  Mills  &  Co.;  Benj.  Welsh  ;  Oliver  Eldridge,  who 
is  Vice-President ;  H.  H.  Taylor  and  H.  C.  Woods  of 
San  Francisco,  and  others  —  hence  it  will  be  seen  that 
the  commercial  antagonist  of  the  Sacramento  Electric 
Power  and  Light  Company  is  supported  by  men  of  the 
soundest  financial  standing. 

The  industry  of  electric  lighting  was  not  entered  into 
by  the  Capital  Gas  Company  until  18S7,  when  the  busi- 
ness, apparatus  and  good  will  of  the  Pacific  Thomson- 
Houston  Electric  Company  was  purchased.  The  com- 
pany was  exploited  by  Mr.  F.  G.  Waterhouse.  and  con- 

lows  :  Nine  o'clock  circuit,  $2  ;  ten  o'clock  circuit, 
$2.25  ;  twelve  o'clock  circuit,  $2.75,  and  all  night  circuit, 
$3.50.  The  gas  rate  for  lighting  and  fuel  purposes  is 
$2.50  per  thousand  cubic  feet. 

The  power  house  of  the  Capital  Gas  Company  (Fig. 
1)  is  a  substantial  brick  building  having  inside  dimen- 
sions of  124  feet  by  104  feet.  It  is  of  thoroughly  fire- 
proof construction,  and  contains  no  wood  work  or  timber 
whatever,  except  the  door  and  window  casings  and 
the  mats  about  the  high  potential  dynamos.  It  is  divided 
by  a  fire  wall  into  two  portions,  known  as  the  dynamo 
and  boiler  rooms,  the  former  being  124  by  64  feet  in 
area,  and  the  latter  124  by  40  feet.  The  roof  over  each 
is  of  corrugated  iron,  supported  by  iron  trusses,  and  be- 
neath the  dynamo  room  is  a  basement  12  feet  high.  The 
floor  of  the  dynamo  and  engine  room  is  supported  by 
brick  piers  and  steel  I  beams  which  carry  brick  arches 

Sept.,  1895.] 



over  which  is  placed  the  concrete  tioor.  The  entire  con- 
struction is  most  substantial,  and  is  designed  with  the 
idea  of  preventing  a  recurrence  of  the  destructive  fire 
which  consumed  the  plant  in  April,  1894. 

In  the  boiler  room  is  a  battery  of  six  Babcock 
it  Wilcox  water  tube  boilers  having  a  working  capacity 
of  900  horse  power,  and  which  operate  under  pressure 
as  high  as  140  pounds  to  the  square  inch.  The  boiler 
feed  pumps  consist  of  one  6  inch  Dow  pump  having  a 
capacity  in  excess  of  the  requirements  of  the  boilers, 
together  with  an  auxiliary  of  two  4-inch  Buffalo  duplex 
pumps.  In  addition,  the  boiler  room  contains  a  5-inch 
Buffalo  duplex  pump,  to  be  used  for  fire  purposes.  A 
large  horizontal  flue  extends  along  the  rear  of  the  boil- 
ers for  a  distance  of  over  70  feet,  ending  in  the  chamber 
of  the  brick  stack  This  stack,  which  is  140  feet  high 
and  circular  in  form,   rests  on  a  brick  foundation  that  is 

As  is  well  known,  the  item  of  fuel  has  always  been 
of  serious  concern  in  California,  and,  as  a  result  of  care- 
ful experiment,  the  Capital  Gas  Company  has  now 
adopted  and  is  using  lone  coal,  under  a  forced  draught  of 
J  inch  pressure.  This  is  a  lignite  coal  mined  not  far 
from  Sacramento,  and  which  has  a  market  value  of  $1.80 
per  ton.  It  is  only  recently  that  it  has  been  found  pos- 
sible to  use  lone  coal  to  any  advantage,  otherwise  its 
low  price,  as  compared  with  the  rates  of  $6  and  $7  per 
ton  for  ordinary  coal,  would  have  brought  it  iuto  exten- 
sive use.  The  boilers  are  also  fitted  for  burning  Welch 
anthracite  coal  should  it  be  necessary  for  any  reason 
to  change  from  lone  coal.  The  plant  has  coal  stor- 
age bins  for  about  4000  tons  for  the  electric  light  plant 
and  for  about  7000  tons  for  the  gas  works.  The  Com- 
pany imports  all  coal  direct. 

The  motive  power  for  the  electric  plaut  consists  of 

Figures  3  and  4. — Interior  op  the  Electric  Light  Plant  of  the  Capital  Gas  Company,  Sacramento. 

30  feet  square,  and  its  base,  which  is  18  feet  square  (out- 
side measurement),  contains  the  chamber,  13  feet  square. 
At  a  height  of  30  feet  this  chamber  is  brought  to  the 
cylindrical  portion  of  the  stack  proper,  and  extends  to 
the  top  with  an  internal  diameter  of  7  feet.  Not  only 
the  stack  but  the  entire  station  was  laid  out  for  an  ulti- 
mate capacity  of  double  the  present  size. 

The  condensing  plant  is  located  in  the  basement  of 
the  station,  and  consists  of  three  Davidson  condensers 
each  having  a  capacity  of  650  horse-power.  The  engines 
are  connected  to  an  exhaust  header  so  arranged  as  to  use 
one  or  more  condensers  at  any  time.  Condensing  water 
is  taken  from  the  Sacramento  river,  on  the  bank  of 
which  the  station  is  located.  From  the  hot  well  the 
water  is  passed  through  Baragwanath  tubular  heaters. 
The  water  is  practically  free  from  scale,  as  it  never 
forms  more  than  a  mud  scale  1-16  of  an  inch  thick, 
which  soon  scales  off. 

three  engines,  each  of  which  is  belted  direct  to  the  coun- 
tershaftiug,  which  is  along  the  north  wall  of  the  building 
under  the  switchboard  gallery.  The  first  engine  is  a 
cross  compound  Corliss  condensing  engine,  built  by  the 
Risdon  Iron  Works  of  San  Francisco.  It  has  a  stroke 
of  4S  inches,  with  cylinders  22  inches  and  40  inches  in 
diameter,  respectively,  and,  running  at  SO  revolutions 
per  minute  with  steam  at  120  pounds,  it  develops  600 
horse  power.  The  next  engine  is  a  triple  expansion  ma- 
rine type  vertical,  built  by  the  San  Francisco  Tool  Com- 
pauy,  and  which  has  a  capacity  of  400  horse  power  at 
140  revolutions  per  minute.  The  stroke  of  the  engine 
is  30  inches ;  the  high-pressure  cylinder  has  a  diameter 
of  15  inches,  the  intermediate  cylinder  has  a  diameter  of 
24  inches,  while  two  low  pressure  cylinders  each  having 
a  diameter  of  24  inches  are  used.  Iu  order  to  economize 
floor  space,  one  of  these  low  pressure  cylinders  is  placed 
in  tandem  over  the  high  pressure  cylinder  and  the  other 



[Vol.  I,  No.  3. 

is  iu  tandem  over  the  intermediate  cylinder.  The  third 
engine  is  a  simple  Eeynolds  Corliss,  20  by  48  inches,  run 
condensing,  and  which  delivers  250  horse  power  at  78 
revolutions  per  minute. 

These  engines  all  belt  together  from  their  fly  wheels 
to  the  line  shafting,  a  double  leatlier  belt  30  inches  in 
width  being  used  on  the  Eeynolds  Corliss  and  rope  trans- 
mission being  used  on  the  other  two  engines,  the  Risdon 
cross  compound  being  equipped  with  ten  2-inch  single 
manilla  ropes  and  the  vertical  engine  being  equipped 
with  the  Link  Belt  Company's  rope  transmission, 
using  1^-iuch  manilla  ropes.  The  driven  pulleys 
of  the  countershaft  are  equipped  with  Hill  clutch 
couplings,  except  for  the  vertical  engine,  which  is  so  ar- 
ranged with  flanges  as  to  be  detachable,  iu  order  that,  if 
desired,  it  may  be  at  rest  while  the  shaft  is  in  motion. 
The  countershafting  runs  at  272  revolutions  per  minute, 
is  equipped  throughout  with  self-oiLing  bearings,  is  100 
feet  long,  and  its  diameter  varies  from  5J  inches  to  4-J 
inches.  The  driving  pulleys  on  the  countershaft  are, 
wherever  necessary,  equipped  with  Hill  clutches. 

The  generating  plant  consists  of  eleven  50  lamp 
Thomson-Houston  arc  dynamos  and  two  35  lamp  arc 
machines  of  the  same  make.  Also  one  ''  D  62  "  500  volt 
Thomson-Houston  power  generator  for  the  distribution 
of  both  light  and  power  on  metallic  service,  together  with 
one  60  kilowatt  Thomson-Houston  alternator  aud  two 
120  kilowatt  General  Electric  alternators.  All  leads 
from  dynamo  to  switchboard  are  carried  in  iron-armored 
conduits  under  the  floors  and  up  along  a  wall  of 
the  station  to  the  switchboard  gallery,  which  is  con- 
structed entirely  of  iron  and  marble,  with  the  usual  fit- 
tings common  to  the  latest  type  of  fire-proof  switchboards 
as  manufactured  by  the  General  Electric  Company. 

Overhead  distribution  is  used  exclusively,  and  the 
pole  lines  and  circuits  for  the  various  services  embrace 
all  the  principal  streets,  while  the  entire  city  is  covered 
by  the  arc  circuits  for  public  lighting.  The  main  pole 
line  from  the  station  to  the  business  centers  consists  of 
sawed  Santa  Cruz  redwood  poles,  16  inches  square  at  the 
butt  and  10  inches  square  at  the  top.     Eight-pin  cross- 

Figure  5.—  Interior  op  the  Electric  Light  Plant  of  the 
Capital  Gas  Company,  Sacramento. 

arms,  4  inches  by  6  inches,    are  used,  and  the  construc- 
tion is  very  substantial. 

The  Directors  of  the  Capital  Gas  Company  have 
long  since  realized  that  it  is  the  province  of  organiza- 
tions of  their  class  to  furnish  illumination  in  whatever 
form  the  public  may  demand,  whether  that  be  as  gas  or 

as  electric  light,  hence  in  the  prosecution  of  their  light- 
ing business  they  have  given  great  attention  to  the  de- 
velopment of  their  gas  works.  This  is  principally  con- 
tained in  an  irregularly  shaped  building  constituting  the 
retort  house,  which  has  an  area  of  66  by  100  feet,  and 
the  purifying  and  lime  house,  having  an  area  of  60  by  80 

Figure  6. — Interior  of  the  Electric  Light  Plant  of  the 
Capital  Gas  Company,  Sacramento. 

feet.  In  this  combined  buildiug  are  contained  the  en- 
gine and  pump  rooms,  the  scrubber  and  purifying  rooms 
and  the  lime  storage.  In  the  retort  house  are  eight 
benches  of  six  retorts  each,  each  bench  being  heated  with 
a  half  depth  regenerative  furnace.  A  six-foot  setting  of 
the  Lowe  double  superheater,  with  all  necessary  pumps, 
injectors,  elevating  machinery,  meters,  steam  and  air 
plant  used  in  the  generation  of  water  gas,  are  used. 
Two  seven-foot  MacDonald  station  meters,  each  having 
a  capacity  of  300,000  cubic  feet  per  day,  are  here  located, 
while  on  the  grounds  are  three  gas-holders,  each  having 
a  capacity  of  70,000  cubic  feet.  The  gas  produced  is  of 
20  candle  power  absolute. 


Mr.  G.  Gustavson  has  been  appointed  General 
Manager  of  the  Oakland,  San  Leandro  and  Haywards 
Electric  Road,  vice  F.  M.  Leland,  resigned. 

Mr.  V.  J.  Mayo,  has  resigned  the  Superintendency 
of  the  Capital  Telephone  and  Telegraph  Company,  and 
is  at  present  in  San  Francisco. 

Me.  T.  P.  Hornsby,  representing  the  National 
School  of  Electricity,  is  organizing  classes  for  the  schools 
in  San  Francisco. 

Mr.  Michael  T.  O'Day,  M.  S.  E.  E.,  Professor  of 
Applied  Electricity,  University  of  Notre  Dame,  Iudiana, 
is  visiting  San  Francisco  and  other  California  cities  for 
rest  and  recreation. 

Mr.  Francis  O.  Blackwell,  Chief  Engineer  of  the 
power  and  mining  department  of  the  General  Electric 
Company,  and  who  has  been  spending  several  weeks  of  his 
vacation  on  the  Pacific  Coast,  has  returned  to  the  East. 

Mr.  W.  S.  Heger,  universally  known  as  a  pioneer 
in  the  electric  lighting  business,  has  assumed  the  mana- 
gership of  the  Pacific  Coast  office  of  the  Westinghouse 
Electric  and  Manufacturing  Company,  with  headquarters 
in  the  Mills  Building  San  Francisco.  His  many  friends 
on  the  Pacific  Coast  are  pleased  to  know  of  his  return 
and  wish  him  unlimited  success. 

Sept.,  1895.] 




Resplendent  indeed  was  the  scene,  when,  on  the 
perfect  evening  of  September  9th  the  joy  felt  by  the  peo- 
ple of  the  city  of  Sacramento  over  the  completion  of  an 
enterprise  that  assured  a  cheap  power  to  its  languishing 
industries,  gave.outbursts  of  approval  in  the  decorations 
of  gaudy  carnival  array,  in  brilliant  illuminations,  in 
electric  pageants,  and  in  the  hospitality  that  has  become 
proverbial  to  California  and  Californians.  The  occasion 
was  one  of  triple  jubilee  ;  the  State  Fair,  that,  has  yearly 
drawn  thousands  to  the  Capital  City,  was  in  progress. 
Then  it  was  "  Admission  Day  "—the  forty-fifth  anniver- 
sary of  the  entry  of  California  into  the  sisterhood  of 
States — and  thousands  upon  thousands  of  members  of 

proud  in  the  knowledge  that  they  have  accomplished  an 
undertaking  never  before  attained. 

Picture,  if  you  will,  broad  thoroughfares  forming 
the  principal  streets  of  a  community  whose  long  lines  of 
low,  two-story  buildings,  and  with  here  and  there  modern 
office  buildings  aud  mercantile  houses  cropping  far  above 
their  lowly  neighbors,  betoken  a  recent  development 
into  cityhood.  Its  smooth,  paved  streets  and  broad, 
well-kept  sidewalks  indicate  a  spirit  of  enterprise,  and 
when,  on  looking  further  one  finds  some  of  the  largest 
and  finest  retail  stores  in  the  West,  he  feels  anew  that 
Sacramento  is  fast  becoming  metropolitan  in  its  way. 
But  on  this  night  its  streets  are  densely  thronged  with 
people  whose  radiant,  expectant  faces  speak  of  some  ap- 
proaching event,  even  were  not  these  streets  arched  and 

Electric  Illumination  of  the  State  Capitol  on  the  Evening  of  September  9,  1895. 

the  Native  Sons  of  the  Golden  West,  which  is  the  mighti- 
est social  organization  in  California,  were  gathered  to 
honor  the  natal  day  of  their  beloved  State.  The  success 
at  the  Fair  had  been  unprecedented,  and  never  before 
had  the  attendance  to  the  celebration  of  the  Native  Sons 
and  Daughters  been  so  large,  or  had  the  "Parlors,"  as  the 
lodges  are  termed,  gathered  in  such  good  cheer  and  mer- 
riment. It  was  a  gala  day  indeed,  with  its  magnificent 
parades  and  sumptuous  receptions,  but  its  crowning 
feature  was  the  "Grand  Electric  Carnival,"  to  the  suc- 
cess of  which  loyal  Sacramentans  had  devoted  weeks  of 
time,  and  spent  thousands  of  dollars.  Nor  were  their 
exertions  in  vain,  for  never  before  has  the  world  wit- 
nessed such  a  sight,  nor  never  again  can  a  community 
experience  the  novelty  and  enthusiasm  of  those  who  are 

bedecked  in  the  most  brilliant  raimeut  of  carnival  col- 
ors, or  were  not  the  buildings,  as  far  as  eye  could  reach, 
simply  ablaze  with  thousands  of  decorative  lights. 
Everywhere,  from  the  miles  upon  miles  of  bunting  upon 
the  streets  to  the  paper  boutonniers  upon  the  lapels  of 
many  coats,  were  present  the  carnival  colors  of  green 
and  yellow  and  red  to  offend  the  aesthetic  taste,  yet  withal 
to  lend  allurement  and  enchantment  to  the  scene. 
Everywhere,  from  the  top  of  the  Maypole,  nearly  two 
hundred  feet  above  the  ground,  to  the  harness  on  the 
horse  of  a  peddler  of  chewing  gum,  were  incandescent 
electric  lamps  seemingly  without  number,  increasing  by 
many  fold  the  brilliance  of  the  colors.  Arches  of  light 
and  arches  of  triumphal  character  spanned  the  streets. 
Yet  others  flashed  out  a  cheering  welcome,  or  told  of  the 



[Vol.  I.  No.  3. 

dawn  of  the  day  of  progress  or  of  a  new  era — "  The  New 

Picture  again,  then,  scenes  with  augmented  crowds, 
which,  though  filled  with  merry-making  and  perchance 
revelry,  are  silent  at  the  first  strain  of  music,  and  with 
much  tip -toeing  and  craning  of  necks,  look  eagerly  down 
the  level  distance  for  the  coming  of  the  now-delayed 
procession.  At  last,  in  lurid  outlines,  the  royal  pageant 
approaches,  slowly  and  majestically,  until  uow  before  us 
is  "  Old  Glory  "  outlined  in  colors  of  fire.  With  one  ac- 
cord the  voices  of  the  people  are  raised  in  loyal  cheer, 
for  in  all  the  splendor  of  carnival  attire,  in  all  the  expec- 
tancy of  wonders  electrically  wrought,  that  grand  old  flag 
appearing  in  the  National  float,  appropriately  leading 
the  procession,  awakened  a  patriotic  sentiment  in  every 

As  to  the  pageant  itself,  any  one  who  is  familiar, 
not  only  with  the  effects  which  may  be  obtained  through 
the  artistic  arrangement  in  decoration  of  allegorical 
floats,  but  also  with  the  extreme  brilliancy  of  electric 
cars  elaborately  illumined  for  trolley  parties,  will  expe- 
rience no  difficulty  in  conceiving  an  idea  of  the  scene. 
In  the  National  float  the  flag  was  7^  by  12  feet  in  size, 
and  the  stars  and  stripes  were  excellently  portrayed  by 
red,  white  and  blue  incandescent  lamps.  The  body  of 
the  float  represented  a  camp  scene  covered  with  natural 
grass  and  flowers  all  illuminated  by  the  subdued  light 
from  incandescent  lamps  artfully  concealed.  At  the 
front  of  the  float  was  the  National  shield  in  red  and 
white  lights,  with  silver  stars  surmounted  by  an  eagle, 
while  stacks  of  muskets  and  a  cannon,  on  either  side  of 
which  were  cannon  balls,  were  placed  upon  the  grass. 
In  the  rear  was  a  grizzly  bear  in  the  attitude  of  an  in- 
truder in  the  camp.  The  float,  which  was  the  concep- 
tion of  Director-General  J.  0.  Coleman,  was  very  taste- 
fully draped  in  flags  and  bunting,  and  was  illuminated 
by  525  16-caudle  power  lamps.  The  float  was  mounted 
on  a  flat  car,  which  was  pushed  by  an  illuminated  trol- 
ley car  containing  a  number  of  Federal  officers  and  offi- 
cials of  the  Sacramento  Electric  Power  and  Light  Com- 

The  State  float  followed  this,  in  the  center  of  which 
was  a  golden  throne  ou  which  sat  "California,"  and 
seated  at  her  feet  was  "  Sacramento."  Aside  from  the 
festoons  of  light  interwoven  amidst  draperies  of  plush 
and  satin  in  blue  and  gold,  the  magnificent  bouquets  of 
cut  flowers,  illuminated  with  miniature  lamps,  constitu- 
ted the  chief  features  of  interest.  As  with  the  National 
float,  the  car  bearing  the  State  float  was  pushed1>y  an 
illuminated  trolley  car  containing  officers  of  the  State  of 

The  Fruit  and  Flowers'  float  bore  the  carnival  colors 
of  cherry-red,  apple-green  and  poppy-yellow.  It  was 
profusely  garlanded  and  bedded  with  the  choicest  of 
fruits,  flowers,  evergreens,  palms  and  ferns.  Queen 
Flora's  throne  was  supported  on  either  side  by  illumina- 
ted wreaths  mounted  on  silvered  lattice  work,  in  front 
of  which  was  a  vase  holding  ten  large  California  poppies 
wrought  in  electric  lights.  On  each  corner  was  a  brass 
post  four  feet  high,  surmounted  by  colored  lights,  and  on 
the  center  of  either  side  was  an  illuminated  shield,  which, 
together  with  other  decorations,  consumed  the  300  lights 
that  were  used  on  the  float.  The  trolley  car  pushing  the 
Floral  float  contained  the  grand  officers  of  the  Native 
Sons  and  Native  Daughters  of  the  Golden  West.  Then 
came  two  illuminated  trolley  cars,  lavishly  decorated 
with  bunting  and  colored  lights,  carrying  members 
of  the  Sacramento  County  Pioneer  Association. 

These  constituted  the  floats  constructed  by  the  Car- 
nival committee,  and  which  were  the  most  artistic.  The 
employes  of  the  railroad  shops  of  the  Southern  Pacific 
followed  with  twelve  floats  of  their  own  design  and  con- 

struction, that  represented  the  various  trades  employed 
in  the  great  shops  of  the  Company.  Among  the  designs 
submitted,  worthy  of  special  mention,  were  the  Electric 
Locomotive,  built  by  the  Machine  Shop ;  the  Beehive, 
by  Car  Shop  No.  5  ;  the  Flaming  Cupola,  built  by  the 
Foundry  and  Pattern  Shop ;  the  Electric  Star,  built  by 
the  Car  Machine  Shop;  the  Electric  Furnace,  built  by  the 
Polling  Mills ;  Franklin's  Kite,  by  the  Boiler  Shop ; 
Electric  Hammer,  by  the  Blacksmith  Shop  ;  Ornamental 
Designs,  by  the  Paint  Shop  ;  Mechanical  Designs,  by  the 
Car  Shop,  and  an  Electric  Fountain,  by  the  Copper  and 
Pipe  Shops. 

The  route  of  the  procession  followed  through  three 
miles  of  streets,  over  which  were  various  electric  arches 
and  signs,  among  which  were  the  following  : 

The  Horse-shoe,  containing  225  white  16-candle 
power  incandescents  ; 

The  Maypole,  containing  510  red,  yellow  and  green 
lamps ; 

The  "  New  Sacramento,"  500  red  lamps  ; 

Progress,  300  yellow  lamps  ; 

Welcome,  400  white  lamps. 

Perhaps  the  most  striking  of  these  was  the  May- 
pole. From  the  summit  of  the  liberty-pole,  185  feet 
high,  were  arranged  six  strings  of  16  candle  power 
lamps  in  multiple,  each  string  containing  85  lamps,  in 
carnival  colors,  which  was  so  arranged  as  to  give  the 
effect  of  spirals  of  different  colors  encircling  the  May 
Pole.  The  colors  started  with  a  red  appearing  first  on 
one  string,  following  as  second  on  the  next  and  third  on 
the  third,  and  so  on,  thus  forming  the  spiral  effect.  The 
lamps  were  operated  at  a  potential  of  115  volts,  and 
were  supplied  from  the  three-phase  incandescent  circuit 
of  the  Sacramento  Electric  Power  and  Light  Company. 

Without  doubt,  the  illumination  of  the  State  Capi- 
tol building  presented  the  most  brilliant  appearance,  and, 
together  with  the  illumination  of  the  grounds,  afforded 
a  scene  surpassing  in  effect  that  of  any  single  similar 
effort  heretofore  attempted.  The  roof  and  dome  of  the 
Capitol  building  were  outlined  with  2000  16  candle  power 
incandescent  lamps,  and,  as  the  bear  of  the  Native  Sous 
of  the  Golden  West  which  surmounted  the  roof  con- 
tained 600  lamps,  and  the  interior  of  the  building- 
was  illuminated  with  600  lamps,  there  were  3200 
lamps  used  in  and  on  the  building.  Surmounting 
all  were  12,  2000  candle-power  arc  lamps  placed 
ou  the  apex  of  the  dome.  In  addition,  the  twenty-four 
trees  facing  Tenth  street,  and  forming  the  foreground  of 
the  Capitol,  were  brilliantly  lighted  with  2000  yellow, 
green,  red  and  white  incandescent  lamps. 

The  methods  of  wiring  utilized  in  effecting  the  illu- 
mination of  the  Capitol  and  grounds  are  interesting, 
as  it  can  be  readily  understood  that  the  installation  of 
such  a  large  number  of  lamps  on  an  ordinary  system 
would  be  impracticable  because  of  the  fact  that  no  sta- 
tion carries  so  large  a  reserve  capacity  as  would  be  nec- 
essary to  meet  such  uuusual  demands.  The  Capitol 
itself,  therefore,  was  lighted  from  the  regular  1080  volt 
incandescent  alternating  system  of  the  Capital  Gas  Com- 
pany, each  circuit  consisted  of  100  volt  multiples  of  16 
candle  power  lamps  in  series  direct  across  the  primaries. 
These  multiples  were  of  vai'ying  numbers  of  lamps.  On 
the  rows  forming  the  eaves  of  the  roof,  for  instance,  27 
lamps  were  placed  in  each  multiple,  while  10  lamps  con- 
stituted a  multiple  on  the  vertical  columns,  and  on  the 
dome  from  20  to  30  lamps  were  placed  in  parallel.  Great 
care  was  necessary  in  effecting  the  installation  to  pre- 
vent the  occurrence  of  grounds,  as  the  roof  of  the  build- 
ing is  entirely  of  metal,  hence  sockets  were  placed  on 
wood  strips  which  were  laid  upon  all  flat  surfaces  or 
temporarily  secured  to  the  curves.  The  illumination  of 
the  trees  was  effected  from  the  railway  circuits  of  the 

Sept.,  1S95.] 



Central  Electric  Railway  Company,  which  is,  as  stated, 
operated  by  power  from  the  American  river,  at  Folsom. 
Series  multiple  wiring  was  used  throughout,  the  circuits 
beiug  made  up  of  five  multiples  of  lamps  in  series,  each 
multiple  carrying  from  nine  to  11  lamps.  There  were 
generally  ten  such  series  multiples  to  each  tree.  The 
lamps  tinted  with  carnival  colors,  together  with  many 
white  lamps,  were  used,  the  only  deviation  from  the 
usual  color  arrangement  being  that  twice  as  many  green 
lamps  as  any  other  color  were  used. 

The  bear  appearing  on  the  roof  the  Capitol  was 
illuminated  by  current  taken  from  the  Folsom  power. 
It  was  about  fifteen  feet  long  by  eight  feet  high,  and  con- 
tained 600  16  candle  power  lamps  wired  in  simple  series 
and  operated  from  the  trolley  circuit. 


The  Oakland,  San  Leandro  &  Haywards  Electric 
Railway  Company  is  one  that  has  always  been  promi- 
nently before  the  public  and  the  electrical  interests,  be- 
cause of  its  enterprise  and  the  many  features  of  superior- 
ity the  system  possesses.  Embracing  in  all  twenty  miles 
of  track,  the  system  begins  at  the  foot  of  Washington 
street  in  Oakland  and  extends  thence  through  the  busi- 
ness portion  of  the  city  to  East  Oakland  and  on  through 
the  towns  of  Fruitvale,  Melrose,  Fitchburg,  Elmhurst, 
San  Leandro  and  Haywards,  terminating  in  a  pleasant 
canyon  at  the  eastern  limits  of  the  last-named  town.  A 
branch  line,  a  mile  in  length,  runs  from  the  main  road 
to  San  Leandro,  and  throughout  practically  the  entire 
line  the  road  parallels  the  Southern  Pacific  system, 
which  before  the  advent  of  the  Haywards  line  had  a 
monopoly  of  the  traffic.  From  the  outset  the  competi- 
tion between  the  steam  and  electric  lines  has  been  very 
keen,  and  it  now  appears  to  have  reached  its  zenith,  as 
the  Southern  Pacific  Company  has  put  on  extra  local 
trains  with  superior  service  and  is  running  at  very  close 
intervals  with  materially  reduced  fares. 

It  is  with  the  intention  of  meeting  this  competition 
all  along  the  line  that  the  electric  road  has  placed  an 
express  service  in  operation,  and  will  at  the  earliest 
opportunity  effect  connections  by  which  passengers  can 
be  landed  through  from  any  point  to  San  Francisco.    At 

The  Haywards  Electric  Locomotive. 

present  the  Southern  Pacific  Company  controls  the 
through  commutation  business  between  Haywards,  San 
Leandro  and  San  Francisco,  but  the  bulk  of  local  traffic 
is  by  the  electric  line,  and  in  addition,  a  new  and  profit- 
able industry  has  been  developed  by  the  carrying  of  farm 
products  to  Oakland  and  the  metropolis.  The  very  pro- 
ductive region  in  and  about  Haywards  has  never  contri- 
buted materially  to  the  income  of  the  Southern  Pacific 

Company  because  the  freight  rates  that  have  prevailed 
have  been  so  high  that  it  has  been  cheaper  to  carry  the 
garden  truck  in  by  team  than  by  rail.  In  order  to  secure 
this  trade  the  Haywards  line  accepted  the  recommendation 
of  Mr.  F.  M.  Leland,  then  General  Manager  of  the  road, 
and  built  the  electric  locomotive  known  as  "No.  100" 
and  shown  in  the  accompanying  illustrations.  This  is 
equipped  with  two  50  horse-power  motors   and  a  series 

The  Haywards  Electric  Locomotive. 

parallel  controller,  and  the  unusual  weight  of  the  loco- 
motive— 21,400  pounds — is  due  to  the  fact  that  under  its 
floor  is  placed  a  layer  of  railroad  iron.  Steam  locomotive 
practices  are  followed  out  to  a  large  extent  as,  for 
instance,  locomotive  driving  box  brasses  are  used  and 
the  locomotive  is  equipped  with  air  brakes. 

The  air  compressor  forms  a  feature  of  interest.  It 
is  operated  by  an  independent  electric  motor  manu- 
factured by  the  Electrical  Engineering  Company  of  San 
Francisco  and  having  a  capacity  of  three  horse-power. 
The  motor  is  mounted  on  a  single  base  with  a  duplex  air 
pump  which  the  former  drives  through  a  single  reduction 
gearing.  Through  an  ingenious  arrangement  of  the 
Electrical  Engineering  Company's  starting  rheostat  and 
a  pressure  valve  of  ordinary  type,  the  entire  mechanism 
is  automatic  in  action  and  requires  practically  no 
attention.  This  compressor  is  due  to  Mr.  G.  Gustavson, 
Master  Mechanic  and  Superintendent  of  the  road,  and  is 
used  with  the  greatest  success.  In  addition  to  the  loco- 
motive, the  freight  or  passenger  trailers  hauled  by  the 
electric  locomotives  are  equipped  with  air  brakes,  as  are 
also  the  32-foot  combination  cars  operated  on  the  main 
line.  The  whistles  are  also  operated  from  the  same 

The  distinctive  feature  of  the  express  service  of  the 
Haywards  Electric  Road  rests  in  the  plan  adopted  of 
running  the  loaded  wagons  on  the  cars  and  carrying 
them  to  destination,  which  can  be  accomplished  quicker 
and  more  cheaply  in  this  way  than  in  any  other 
manner.  The  locomotive  is  in  hard  service  regularly  on 
week  days  and  performs  even  harder  work  on  Sundays 
in  hauling  picnic  trains. 


The  Electrical  JouRNAL,published  at  San  Francisco 
by  Geo.  P.  Low,  is  the  latest  electrical  exchange  to  hand. 
It  is  designed  to  represent  the  electrical  interests  of  the 
Pacific  Coast  and  has  a  large  amount  of  local  information. 
— [Canadian  Engineer,  Toronto,  Ont. 

As  our  Golden  Gate  contemporary  [The  Elect- 
rical Journal,  San  Francisco]  is  a  handsome  paper, 
well  edited,  and  something  after  our  own  style,  we 
predict  and  hope  for  it  a  large  measure  of  success. — [The 
Electrical  Journal,  Chicago. 



[Vol. -I,  No.  3. 

Wf\z  Journal  ot  Electricity 

An  Illustrated  Review  of  the  Industrial  Applications  of  Electricity,  Gas  and  Power. 

EliITEI)    BY 

F.   A.   C.    PERRINE,   D.   Sc,   and    GEO.   P.    LOW. 

Subscription  Payable    in   Advance.      Terms  : — Domestic,    One 

Dollar  per  Year;  Foreign,  Two  Dollars  per  Year. 

This  Rates  for  Advertising  are  Moderate. 

PUBLISHED     IWOf^THLiY     BY    GEO.     P.     LtOW, 

303  California   Street San   Francisco. 



SEPTEMBER,  1895. 

NUMBER   3. 





Without  doubt  the  thousands  of  spec- 
tators who  found  much  to  admire  in  the 
most  elaborate  display  of  lighting  effects 
witnessed  during  the  recent  Electric 
Carnival  pageant  at  Sacramento,  will 
share  the  pangs  of  regret  experienced  by 
the  publisher  who  would  record  such  scenes  in  words  of 
description  and  in  artistic  illustration,  on  learning  that 
despite  the  efforts  of  several  local  photographers  there  is 
not  to  be  obtained  a  single  illustration  of  even  a  single 
float  that  would  make  a  creditable  appearance  or  that  is 
worthy  of  reproduction.  That  such  a  situation  can  exist 
in  an  enlightened  American  city  which  aspires  to 
National  prominence  is  not  only  a  matter  to  be  deplored, 
but  tends  to  lead  to  the  conclusion  that  Sacramento 
affords  a  promising  field  for  an  enterprising  photog- 


IN  A 


The  last  issue  announced  a  change  in 
the  name  of  this  publication  from  that 
of  "  The  Electrical  Journal  "  to  "  The 
Journal  of  Electricity."  This  early 
change  has  been  occasioned  by  the 
almost  simultaneous  publication  of  two 
periodicals  with  the  same  title.  Whatever  may  be  the 
facts  as  regards  the  rightful  ownership  of  the  name  in 
question — "  The  Electrical  Journal  " — we  deem  it  advis- 
able, in  the  interests  of  our  readers  and  of  harmony,  to 
take  this  step  to  prevent  all  further  confusion  which 
might  occur  on  account  of  the  title. 

The  original  idea  of  publication  and  the  adoption 
of  the  name  were  very  much  earlier  than  the  actual 
date  of  the  printing  and  copyright,  and  we  believe  that 
our  plans  were  sufficiently  well  known  to  the  electrical 
fraternity  throughout  the  country  to  have  avoided  this 
coincidence.  From  the  information  we  have  been  able 
to  gather  we  firmly  believe  that  we  were  the  first  to 
adopt  the  title  which  we  now  relinquish.  We  were  not? 
the  prior  in  the  field  ;  and  since  the  two  journals  have 

been  published  we  believe  that  our  methods  and  matter 
will  not  gain  by  being  confounded  with  those  of  our 

We  desire  no  newspaper  controversy  in  regard  to 
the  question  of  the  title.  This  paper  will  continue  to 
staud  upon  its  own  grounds,  and  the  success  it  has 
already  attained  will  not  be  forgotten  because  of  this 
change.  Nor  are  our  plans  altered  in  any  respect  by  the 
announcement  that  it  is  now  to  be  called  "  The  Journal 
of  Electricity,  an  Illustrated  Keview  of  the  Industrial 
Applications  of  Electricity,  Gas  and  Power." 




The  columns  upon  columns  of  com- 
plimentary matter  that  have  appeared 
in  the  lay  press  eulogizing  the  enterprise 
of  the  men  who  have  made  Sacramento 
famous  as  being  the  first  American  city 
to  demonstrate  the  practicability  of  long 
distance  transmission  of  power  at  high  voltage,  have 
told  most  exhaustively  of  the  success  achieved,  but  what 
has  been  said  in  engineering  papers  concerning  the  elec- 
trical distribution  of  power  in  manufacturing  centers, 
and  which  is  now  about  to  be  put  into  practice  in  that 
city,  has  received  little,  if  any,  attention  on  the  part  of 
the  public.  From  Folsom  there  has  been  delivered,  and 
is  today  in  use  in  Sacramento,  a  very  considerable 
amount  of  power,  and  it  is  understood  that  during  the 
coming  winter  an  equal  or  greater  amount  of  electrical 
energy  will  be  delivered  over  the  transmission  lines  of  a 
new  company.  In  addition,  it  is  understood  that  the 
plant  of  the  present  gas  and  electric  company  is  to  be 
brought  to  the  highest  degree  of  efficiency  attainable, 
whether  that  be  in  the  use  of  steam  or  gas  engine  equip- 
ments, in  order  that  it  may  carry  out  its  plan  of  competi- 
tion to  the  fullest  extent,  and  while  no  doubt  the  resi- 
dents and  users  of  power  will  be  greatly  benefited  by 
the  availability  of  power  which  may  be  furnished  in 
either  large  or  small  amounts,  and  always  at  the  lowest 
possible  cost,  electrical  engineers  will  be  especially  in- 
terested in  the  result  of  the  competition  between  electri- 
cal power  derived  from  waterfalls  situated  at  a  consider- 
able distance,  and  the  generation  and  transmission  of 
power  from  coal  over  the  lines  of  the  local  company. 

It  seems  that  the  public  is  at  last  about  to  realize 
that  the  blight  of  high-priced  fuel  has  brought,  or  may 
be  made  to  bring,  the  blessing  of  cheaper  electric  power, 
and  while,  of  late  years,  electrical  engineers  have  not 
doubted  the  technical  feasibility  of  transmitting  power 
over  great  distances,  a  serious  doubt  does  exist,  not  only 
with  engineers,  but  with  capitalists  as  to  the  commercial 
feasibility  of  many  such  projects.  Bearing  ever  in  mind 
the  potent  factor  of  local  conditions,  the  cold,  hard  ques- 
tion that  must  receive  equally  impassionless  considera- 
tion, is,  Which  has  the  greater  earning  capacity,  the  elec- 
trically transmitted  power  of  a  distant  waterfall  or  the 
electric  power  from  a  central  station?  No  one  doubts 
that  both  of  these  systems  are  engineering  successes.  As 
the  business  of  the  two  systems  is  to  deliver  electrical 
energy  to  the  market,  the  problem,  so  far  as  Sacramento 
is  concerned,  resolves  itself  into  the  question,  Which  can 

Sept.,  1895.] 



do  the  work  cheaper,  the  central  station  consuming  coal, 
or  the  transmission  plant  consuming  interest  on  the  ad- 
ditional expenditure  necessary  to  develop  the  Avater 
power,  and  render  its  energy  available  ? 

Unless  consolidation  or  other  combination  should 
occur,  there  is  reason  to  believe  that  Sacramento  is  on 
the  eve  of  a  struggle  for  commercial  supremacy  between 
the  two  electric  systems  which  it  is  so  fortunate  as  to 
possess.  One  side  is  ranged  on  the  vantage  ground  of 
abundant  water  power,  but  its  forces  are  crippled  be- 
cause of  the  heavy  interest  charges  that  must  be  met  ; 
the  opposing  side  is  free  from  bonded  indebtedness,  its 
interest  charges  are  light,  and,  if  need  be,  by  the  substi- 
tution of  gas  engines  for  its  present  steam  plant,  and  by 
effecting  changes  in  its  system  of  distribution,  it  can  ren- 
der service  at  exceedingly  low  rates.  It  is  the  outcome 
of  the  struggle  that  electrical  engineers  are  awaiting  with 
bated  breath,  but  from  it  all  cheaper  and  cheaper  power 
with  greater  and  yet  greater  prosperity  awaits  the  man- 
ufacturing interests  of  the  city. 

This,  then,  is  the  good  fortune  that  in  all  probability 
awaits  the  newer  Sacramento. 


Electrical  engineering  in  the  fields  of 
dynamo  design  and  the  application  of 
electricity  for  lighting  and  motive  power 
electro-chemical  has  become  a  question  of  detail  to  such 
engineering.  an  extent  t]iat  ]itt]e  reniai„s  for  the  in- 
genuity of  one  wishing  to  make  any 
advances  along  any  new  lines.  The  high  frequency  work 
of  Tesla  and  Thomson  presents  wonderful  possibilities, 
but  as  yet  the  application  of  high  frequency  transmission 
exists  only  as  a  possibility,  and  the  experimenting  yet 
to  be  done  requires  a  genius  of  high  order,  aided  by 
an  unusual  amount  of  capital.  Electro-chemistry,  how- 
ever, is  rapidly  advancing  along  the  lines  of  laboratory 
practice  and  technical  workmanship  toward  becoming  a 
true  part  of  the  engineering  profession. 

The  reduction  of  aluminum  bj"  the  means  of  the 
Cowles,  Herault  and  Hall  processes  have  already  been 
reduced  to  a  scientific  basis.  The  electrolytic  refining  of 
copper  has  long  since  passed  through  its  preliminary 
stages,  aud  the  great  works  in  which  thousands  of  tons 
of  copper  are  refined  every  year  by  means  of  electro- 
lysis attest  its  superiority  over  furnace  refining  methods 
heretofore  in  use.  But,  though  bleaching  by  means  of 
salts  obtained  from  electro-decomposition  was  one  of 
the  earliest  attempts  of  the  electro-chemist,  no  wide 
introduction  of  the  process  has  been  made  up  to  the 
present  time.  Bleaching  salt  may  undoubtedly  be 
obtained  by  electrolysis,  but  the  details  of  the  plant 
necessary  for  bleaching  fabrics  with  complete  success 
have  not  been  worked  out.  The  same  is  undoubtedly 
true  of  the  electrical  tanning  of  hides  and  the  electrical 
production  of  disinfecting  fluids.  Gradually,  little  by 
little,  we  are  learning  what  is  necessary  to  advance  these 
applications  of  electrolysis  from  the  experimental  to  the 
commercial  stage. 

In  general,  the  electrician  attacking  the  problem  is 
deficient  in  his  knowledge  of  chemistry,  while  chemists 

of  sufficient  ability  rarely  have  enough  knowledge  of 
the  electrical  faults  in  their  systems.  A  new  training  is 
therefore  needed  for  the  engineer  to  enter  upon  the  field 
of  electro-chemistry,  but  to  men  who  combine  the  knowl- 
edge of  chemical  manipulation  with  a  thorough  training 
in  electrical  engineering  not  only  are  these  fields  open, 
but  a  vast  number  of  other  problems  are  presented  which 
await  solution  and  promise  fortune  for  their  solver.  It 
must  have  struck  every  man  who  read  Mr.  Keith's 
paper  on  electro-metallurgy  of  gold  and  its  discussion 
before  the  British  Institution  of  Electrical  Engineers, 
that  the  paper  claimed  discoveries  in  chemistry  which 
were  but  barely  criticised  by  the  eminent  electrical 
engineers  who  took  part  in  the  discussion.  Whether 
the  electrical  calculations  were  true  or  not  depended 
upon  the  truth  of  certain  chemical  theories,  the  knowl- 
edge of  which  was  wanting,  and  the  criticisms  were  con- 
sequently of  but  little  value,  either  as  approving  or  con- 
demning the  process. 

The  most  recent  advances  in  electro-chemistry 
involve  still  more  the  underlying  theories  of  chemical 
action.  The  synthesis  of  chemical  compounds  has  been 
for  many  years  the  dream  of  the  chemist,  and,  though 
the  chemists  have  stated  the  possibilities  of  such  syn- 
thesis, little  advance  has  been  made  by  any  truly  chemi- 
cal process.  Within  the  last  few  years  we  have  been 
astonished  by  the  immediate  introduction  of  two  electro- 
chemical processes  accomplishing  synthesis.  The  first 
of  these  is  the  manufacture  of  carborundum  by  Mr. 
Acheson.  This  grinding  powder,  which  has  proved  itself 
to  be  superior  to  emery,  is  now  so  well  introduced  that 
the  company  manufacturing  it  has  contracted  for  one 
thousand  horse-power  at  Niagara  Falls. 

The  later  discovery  of  the  synthesis  of  calcium 
carbide  by  means  of  the  electric  arc,  while  being  simply 
an  accidental  discovery,  nevertheless  opens  far  wider 
possibilities  and  is  the  more  attractive  discoveiy  to  both 
the  chemist  and  electrician.  The  simple  immersion  of 
this  material  in  water  produces  acetylene  gas,  while 
recent  experiments  indicate  that  a  large  number  of 
hydro-carbon  compounds  can  be  simply  and  economically 
manufactured  by  similar  processes.  Moissan,  by  means 
of  his  electrical  furnace,  has  not  only  fused  carbon  and 
many  metallic  oxides,  producing  by  these  means 
diamonds  and  other  gems,  but  has  lately  effected  a 
synthesis  of  hydro-cyanic  acid,  again  presenting  wide 
possibilities  to  the  electro-chemist. 

Not  only  does  this  field  of  electro-chemistry  present 
an  attractive  branch  of  research,  but  also  the  electrical 
generation  and  transmission  of  immense  powers  at  low 
cost  admits  of  the  possible  commercial  application  of 
electro-chemical  processes,  which  up  to  the  present  time 
have  been  hindered  by  the  necessarily  expensive  means 
of  generating  great  quantities  of  energy. 

A  prophecy  of  what  will  be  in  the  future  of  electro- 
chemistry would  be,  indeed,  idle,  but  the  indications  of 
the  field  to  prospective  students  and  experimenters  is 
right  and  proper.  More  and  more  the  advance  of  the 
world  is  taking  place  by  the  applications  of  scientific 



[Vol.  I,  No.  3. 

methods,  aud  no  field  of  study  requires  more  thorough 
training  than  electro-chemistry  does  in  the  science  of 
electricity  aud  the  science  of  chemistry. 

It  may  seem  a  difficult  statement  to 

support,  but  it  is  nevertheless  true  that 

on  central       electricians  as  a  rule  pay  too  little  atten- 

station  tiou  to  the  va]ue  0f  electricity  as  a  means 

economy.  of  the  transmission  of  power  in  their  own 
plants.  It  has  only  been  within  a  very 
few  years  that  the  machine  shops  of  the  electrical  manu- 
facturers have  been  equipped  with  electric  motors,  even 
where  such  power  was  daily  run  to  waste  in  the  testing 
of  dynamos  on  lamp  loads,  aud  to-day  a  general  inspec- 
tion of  our  best-equipped  lighting  and  power  plants  will 
show  great  disregard  of  the  saving  to  be  obtained  by  the 
use  of  small  electric  motors  in  the  place  of  small  steam 

Perhaps  because  it  is  difficult  to  ascertain  the  power 
consumed  in  feed  pumps,  blast  fans,  hoisting  engines  and 
other  small  motors,  often  used  by  a  large  plant  in  great 
numbers,  it  is  taken  for  granted  that  the  steam  they 
use  is  only  an  inconsiderable  quantity.  But  when  we 
reflect  on  the  fact  that  a  ten  horse-power  engine,  running 
under  favorable  conditions  of  load,  will  consume  as  much 
steam  per  hour  as  will  be  required  fur  thirty  or  forty 
horse-power  delivered  by  the  main  engine  of  a  well- 
equipped  plaut,  we  are  bound  to  come  to  the  belief  that, 
aside  from  steam  leaks  and  pipe  condensation,  a  number 
of  small  engines  about  a  plant  may  produce  a  very 
appreciable  difference  in  the  annual  coal  bill.  The 
auxiliary  engines  of  a  generating  plant  rarely  run 
under  favorable  conditions  of  load,  and  the  elements 
of  steam  leaks  and  pipe  condensation  are  by  no  means 
inconsiderable  items.  Feed  pumps  and  blast  engines 
must  have  ample  capacity  for  the  duty  required  at  the 
full  load  of  the  station,  while  the  maximum  duty  is 
rarely  if  ever  required,  and  as  a  consequence  the  engines 
driving  them  run  under  the  worst  possible  condition  of 
economy  ;  the  packing  of  valves  and  pistons  being  con- 
tinually watersoaked  are  almost  always  in  a  leaky  condi- 
tion, while  the  condensation  in  the  large  steam  pipes 
with  which  they  must  be  fitted,  generally  amounts  to 
much  more  than  the  steam  required  for  furnishing  power. 

Aside  from  these  actual  steam  losses,  such  connections 
are  a  continual  menace  to  the  plant  itself,  and  in  more 
than  a  few  cases  the  breaking  of  an  insignificant  steam 
pipe  has  occasioned  troubles  affecting  the  whole  plant. 

Several  of  the  best  English  engineers  have  called 
attention  to  the  fact  that  such  losses  might  be  largely 
diminished  by  the  substitution  of  electric  motors  for  all 
kinds  of  auxiliary  power  in  use  about  a  central  station, 
but  unfortunately  for  the  best  plaut  economy,  the  idea- 
does  not  seem  to  have  taken  root  deeply  iu  this  country. 
The  question  as  to  what  is  to  be  done  when  the  main 
engines  are  shut  down  may  be  answered  in  the  case  of  a 
large  plant,  that  the  main  engines  are  never  shut  down, 
aud  even  in  stations  where  the  engines  are  shut  down 
while  the  boilers  are  still  under  steam,  it  yet  holds  that 
there   will  be  greater  economv  obtained    from  a  single 

engine  driving  a  generator  for  the  various  motors  iu  use 
than  by  the  operation  of  many  steam  motors. 

Steam  boilers,  feed  pumps  and  other  auxiliary  engines 
are  time  honored  institutions.  We  know  that  they  will 
do  the  work  day  in  and  day  out,  and  we  know  that  they 
are  used  in  steam  plants  to  the  thousands  of  horse-power 
while  one  is  counting  on  the  fingers  the  installations  of 
electrical  apparatus  for  such  service.  Where  lies  the  ad- 
vantage and  the  great  need  for  so  strict  an  economy  ? 
Aside  from  the  fact  that  every  undertaking  must  be  made 
to  pay  a  maximum  net  income,  there  remains  for  the 
electrical  engineer  the  continual  exploration  of  new  fields 
of  service. 

The  economical  generation  of  electricity  may  solve 
the  perplexing  problem  of  the  power  for  town  manufac- 
tures. Were  it  possible  for  central  stations  to  deliver 
electricity  at  the  terminals  of  the  motors  situated 
throughout  a  manufacturing  district  at  fifty,  sixty  or 
even  eight y  dollars  a  horse-power  per  annum,  there 
would  be  few  factories  in  any  of  our  cities  that  could 
afford  to  maintain  their  steam  engines  aud  boilers.  Some 
of  our  present  central  stations  are  contracting  for  city  arc 
lights  at  approximately  ninet}7  dollars  per  horse-power 
per  annum,  and  the  charge  includes  the  interest  and  de- 
preciation on  the  lamps,  besides  the  expense  of  carbons 
and  trimmers.  But  to  supply  a  manufacturing  city  with 
power  for  its  factories,  it  is  necessary  to  generate  the 
power  much  more  economically  than  can  be  done  by  the 
factories  with  their  own  steam  plants.  Iu  the  first  place, 
the  ease  of  the  transmission  of  electricity  makes  possible 
the  location  of  the  generating  plant  in  the  most  advan- 
tageous position. 

Condensing  water  and  cheap  coal  haudliug  may  be 
obtained  where  either  or  both  are  impossible  to  factory 
engines.  But  though  these  are  items  of  original  advan- 
tage, the  competition  between  the  power  from  a  central 
station  and  from  a  local  plant  must  yield  a  profit  to  the 
central  station  which  can  only  be  assured  b}r  an  unheard 
of  economy  iu  operation.  It  is  in  the  favor  of  plants  for 
the  transmission  of  power  by  the  means  of  electricity 
that  such  economies  are  a  possibility. 

Not  every  city  is  fortunately  located  in  reference  to 
water-power,  but,  on  the  other  hand,  very  few  manufac- 
turing cities  depending  on  steam  power  are  so  situated 
that  the  greatest  economy  of  steam  generation  and  coal 
handling  may  be  practiced  by  the  majority  of  power 
users.  This  admits  a  considerable  margin  of  profit  to  a 
central  station  for  the  distribution  of  power,  provided  the 
greatest  economies  are  practiced  at  the  generating  sta- 
tion. Dr.  Emory  has  pointed  out  that  water  power  is 
not  necessarily  a  cheap  power  on  account  of  the  great  ex- 
pense involved  in  the  hydraulic  plant,  and  if  the  power 
developed  by  water  must  be  transmitted  to  a  great  dis- 
tance, it  is  unquestionable  that  iu  man}-  cases  a  cheaper 
power  could  be  distributed  to  a  district  from  a  steam 
generating  station.  This  most  obvious  field  for  the  trans- 
mission of  energy  has  been  little  attempted.  But  a 
future  advance  in  the  transmission  of  energy  may  be 
profitable  where  electricity  is  generated  by  a  steam  plant, 
and  sold  to  the  users  of  power  throughout  large  manu- 
facturing- cities. 

Sept.,  1S95.] 




The  Practical  Management  ok  Dynamos  ami  Motorsi 
by  Francis  B.  Crodker,  Member  A.  I.  E.  E,,  Professor 
id  Eleojriual  Engineering  Columbia  College,  and  Schtyi.ek  S.,  D.  St.,  Bast  President  A.I.  E.  E ",  Electrical  Expert  of 
the  Board  of  Electrical  Control,  New  York  City,  etc. ;  206  pages, 
12  mo.  cloth,  09  figures,  circuit  diagrams,  etc.  Third  edition,  re- 
vised and  enlarged.  Published  by  the  D.  Van  Nostrand  Com- 
pany, New  York,  1894.     Price,  Sfl.00. 

The  dynamo  attendant  who  has  for  years  laboriously 
collected  bits  of  information  about  dynamos  and  motors, 
and  has  perchance  arranged  a  scrap  book  that  he  may 
"  dig  up  "  knowledge  concerning  the  couuectious  of  this 
or  that  machine,  or  that  on  the  occurrence  of  trouble  he 
may  find  a  way  to  apply  a  remedy,  will  welcome  the 
third  edition  of  this  work,  the  title  of  which  tells  just 
what  it  is.  It  is  not  easy  to  think  of  a  disease  that  a 
dynamo  or  motor  is  heir  to  that  is  not  diagnosed  and 
prescribed  for  in  a  clear,  comprehensive  way',  and  in  a 
than  per  that  is  satisfying.  The  plan  of  first  conveying 
an  understanding  of  the  normal  functions  of  machines 
is  adhered  to,  in  doing  which  numerous  circuit  diagrams 
are  given,  together  with  many  illustrations  and  descrip- 
tions of  practical  detail  peculiar  to  the  dynamo  room. 
Knowing  the  normal  state,  any  abnormal  condition  will 
be  readily  perceived,  from  which  is  obtained  the  symp- 
tom of  trouble  that,  through  Crocker  and  Wheeler's 
book,  will  quickly  suggest  a  cure.  It  is  not  a  book  deal- 
ing with  generalities,  in  typical  cases  or  iu  scientific- 
terms.  It  deals  only  with  conditions  as  found  in  the 
dynamo  rooms  of  central  stations  and  isolated  plants, 
and,  what  is  equally  significant,  it  discusses  these  condi- 
tions in  plain  words,  whether  the  theme  be  the  proper 
splicing  of  belting,  the  making  of  efficiency  tests,  the 
uses  of  the  equalizer  bar  or  the  problem  of  running 
alternators  in  parallel.  Considerable  space  is  also  given 
to  the  consideration  of  machines  requiring  especial  direc- 
tions, such  as  the  Thomson-Houston,  Brush,  Wood, 
Sperry  and  Excelsior  ate  dynamos,  all  connections, 
details  and  peculiarities  of  which  are  shown. 

The  clearness,  thoroughness  and  genuiue  merit,  to- 
gether with  its  low  cost,  make  the  work  one  that  should 
become  the  text  book  of  every  person  who  has  to  do  with 
the  actual  care  and  operation  of  dynamos  and  motors. 


By  Lieut.   VV.  Stuart-SmitB,  I".   S.  N. 

Many  experiments  have  recently  been  made  to  de- 
termine to  what  extent  electricity  can  be  utilized  as  an 
accelerator  of  plant  growth,  these  experiments  covering 
the  use  of  earth  currents  which  act  directl}'  as  a  stimu- 
lant to  the  plaut  roots,  and  the  effect  of  the  light  from 
powerful  arcs  acting  upon  the  stems  and  leaves.  The 
results  obtained  by  both  these  methods  have  been  so 
fully  described  iu  the  technical  and  daily  press  that  outy 
a  brief  mention  of  them  will  be  made  in  this  paper,  the 
object  of  which  is  to  give  a  probable  reason  for  the  great 
variation  in  plant  growth  from  year  to  year  when  there 
is  but  little  apparent  difference  iu  the  climatic  conditions, 
and  also  to  offer  a  possible  explanation  of  the  action  of 
light  iu  producing  chemical  decomposition. 

For  accelerating  growth  by  the  stimulating  effects  of 
a  current,  the  experiments  have  been  made  by  placing 
bare  wires  in  the  ground,  located  in  such  a  manner  that 
the  current,  in  passing  from  one  to  the  other,  would  make 
considerable  use  of  the  interlacing  roots,  which,  on  ac- 
count of  the  sap,  no  doubt  have  a  considerably  higher 

conductivity  than  the  moist  soil.  The  conductivity  of 
the  sap  is  probably  much  higher  than  that  of  the  sur- 
rounding moist  earth,  owing  to  the  many  contained  ele- 
ments which  are  extracted  from  the  soil.  Tests  in  this 
direction  have  been  made  by  Prof.  C.  D.  Warner  at  the  ex- 
perimental station  at  Amhurst,  Mass.,  and  "  roots  of  cer- 
tain vegetables  and  tops  of  others  were  found  to  be 
greatly  enlarged  under  this  process.  In  fact,  all  plants 
were  found  to  be  stimulated  by  a  current  of  certain 
strength.  The  physiological  effect  of  electricity  upon 
plants,  although  not  yet  definitely  understood,  is  proba- 
bly similar  to  that  experienced  by  animal  tissues." 

If  the  results  of  these  experiments  be  confirmed,  it 
may  point  to  a  possible  value  of  ordinary  earth  currents 
in  aiding  vegetable  growth.  Such  currents  are  known  to 
exist,  and  at  times  they  become  so  severe  as  to  interfere 
witli  the  action  of  telegraph  aud  other  electric  lines  us- 
iug  grouuded  wires.  They  are  particularly  heavy 
during  so-called  magnetic  storms,  but  these,  being 
of  short  duration,  can  hardly  bo  expected  to  have  much 
effect  on  plant  life.  It  is  possible,  however,  that  care- 
fully kept  records  will  show  that  over  a  large  area  dur- 
ing some  years  the  earth  currents  may  be  steadily  much 
above  the  normal,  while  during  other  seasons  they  may 
be  much  below.  If  this  is  true,  an  examination  of  these 
and  crop  records  might  possibly  show  heavy  crops  cor- 
responding with  heav}'  average  earth  currents,  and  vice 
versa.  It  is  the  writer's  recollection  that  some  corres- 
pondence has  been  found  between  crops  and  sun  spots, 
and  if  this  rests  on  good  authority,  earth  currents  may 
be  the  cause,  as  magnetic  disturbance  on  the  earth  cer- 
tainly does  correspond  with  activity  in  the  sun. 

The  favorite  method  with  experimenters  is  to  make 
use  of  the  light  from  an  electric  arc  which  is  known  to 
be  rich  in  actinic  rays.  Many  experimenters  have  en- 
tered this  field,  and  the  result  of  their  work  is  to  prove 
bej'ond  a  doubt  that  bj7  extending  the  time  during  which 
plants  are  under  the  influence  of  light,  much  can  be 
done  in  the  way  of  accelerating  their  growth,  and  even 
causing  fantastic  growths.  By  regulating  the  distance 
of  the  plants  from  the  source  of  light,  gradations  of  forc- 
ing can  be  accomplished,  and  with  plants  close  to  power- 
ful uncovered  ares  the  tops  can  be  forced  to  such  abnor- 
mal growth  that  the  roots  are  unable  to  supply  the  requi- 
site moisture,  and  the  plaut  dies.  All  this  is  the  result 
of  the  action  of  the  actinic  rays  iu  producing  decomposi- 
tion of  carbonic  acid,  thus  supplying  the  material  nec- 
essary for  plant  formation.  An  obvious  extension  of 
these  experiments  is  to  provide  screens  which  will  absorb 
the  short  invisible  waves  in  a  greater  or  less  degree,  and 
which  can  be  regulated  in  such  a  manner  that  various 
portions  of  the  space  under  cultivation  cau  be  supplied 
with  actinic  rays  in  accordance  with  the  demand  as  de- 
termined by  examination  of  the  growing  plants.  • 

In  hot-houses  or  confined  spaces  where  the  compo- 
sition of  the  atmosphere  can  be  regulated,  the  supplying 
of  greater  or  less  quantities  of  carbonic  acid,  moisture, 
etc.,  as  well  as  regulating  the  actinic  rays,  will  permit  of 
a  much  wider  control,  and  the  possibilities  of  control 
will  reach  a  maximum,  if,  in  addition  to  the  regulation  of 
light  aud  carbonic  acid  above  ground,  the  roots  are  stim- 
ulated to  greater  activity  by  the  use  of  regulated  earth 
currents  as  above,  care  being  taken  to  provide  the  soil 
with  such  constituents  as  the  various  plants  require  iu 
addition  to  the  carbon  received  from  the  atmosphere. 
Perhaps  the  greatest  benefit  will  be  derived  by  those 
plants  which  require  to  be  raised  from  the  seed  each  year, 
as  perennial  plants  which  are  systematically  subjected 
to  enforced  growth  may  become  finally  weakened  by 
the  process.  Nevertheless,  if  the  roots  cau  be  properly 
stimulated  to  keep  up  the  supplies  needed  by  the  accel- 
erated top,  it  is  possible  that  the  strength  can  be  main- 



[Vol.  I.  No.  3. 

taiued  and  even  increased  to  such  an  extent  that  many 
times  the  normal  size  natural  to  the  bush  or  plant  can 
be  attained. 

This  leads  again  to  the  subject  to  discuss  which  this 
paper  was  written,  viz.,  the  variation  of  crop  growth 
from  year  to  year  with  but  very  little  apparent  difference 
in  climatic  conditions.  The  experiments  made  conlirm 
what  has  long  been  well  known,  viz.,  that  actiuic  rays 
are  requisite  for  plant  growth,  their  office  being  to  de- 
compose carbonic  acid,  from  which  the  supply  of  carbon 
is  obtained.  Every  photographer  knows  that  from  day 
to  day  the  amount  of  exposure  necessary  to  make  a  good 
negative  is  subject  to  wide  variation,  but  probably  com- 
paratively few  of  those  who  makes  pictures  are  aware 
that  such  variation  extends  over  entire  seasons,  and 
these  for  many  mouths  at  a  time  as  much  as  four  or  five 
times  the  normal  exposure  is  necessary,  while,  at  other 
times,  for  many  months  perhaps,  not  more  than  one-fifth 
the  normal  exposure  is  required.  Nevertheless,  such  is 
the  case,  and  it  is  demonstrated  that  under  conditions 
that  are  the  same,  as  .far  as  the  eye  cau  detect,  that  is, 
clear,  blue  sk3r,  etc.,  the  actinic  power  of  sunlight,  as  re- 
ceived at  the  earth's  surface,  may  vary  as  much  as  1000 
per  cent,  for  periods  extending  over  as  many  months  as 
are  required  for  a  season's  growth  of  crops.  Since  ac- 
tinic power  of  light  is  necessary  for  the  best  growth  of 
plants,  it  is  at  once  seen  such  wide  variations  must  pro- 
duce corresponding  variations  in  vegetable  growth. 

It  is  not  the  purpose  of  this  paper  to  discuss  the 
causes  producing  such  variations  in  the  actinic  power  of 
light.  It  may  be  caused  by  some  absorbent  in  the 
earth's  atmosphere,  or  by  some  nebulous  mass  coming 
between  the  earth  and  sun  of  such  extreme  attenuation 
as  to  have  no  effect  on  the  longer  waves  of  the  spectrum 
aud  yet  be  capable  of  absorbing  the  actinic  rays,  or, 
which  is  more  probable,  it  may  be  due  to  the  sun  itself, 
the  light  having  more  actinic  power  during  periods  of 
great  activity,  such  as  exists  during  the  regular  recurring- 
sun  spots.  It  was  many  years  ago  suggested  by  some 
indefatigable  collector  and  comparer  of  statistics  that 
crops  seemed  to  bear  some  relation  to  sun  activity,  but 
no  explanation  was  attempted.  The  camera  furnishes 
means  by  which  the  activity  of  the  light  from  year  to 
year  can  be  readily  recorded,  and  meteorological  stations 
would  do  well  to  make  such  observations  a  part  of  their 
regular  work,  and  at  the  same  time  carry  on  a  syste- 
matic study  of  earth  currents.  A  study  of  such  records 
might  make  it  possible  to  closely  predict  the  condition 
of  the  crops  for  a  coming  season. 

Since  the  action  of  light  in  producing  chemical  de- 
composition is  of  the  utmost  importance  in  plant  growth, 
some  attempt  to  explain  how  light  acts  to  produce  such 
decomposition  may  not  be  out  of  place  in  this  connection. 
Manifestly  this  action  cannot  be  produced  by  any  heat- 
ing effect  caused  by  the  absorption  of  the  light  rays 
since  the  rays  at  the  red  end  of  the  spectrum,  by  the  ab- 
sorption of  which  most  heat  would  be  produced,  have  no 
effect  on  the  most  sensitive  photographic  surface,  where- 
as the  shortest  rays  at  the  other  end  of  the  spectrum 
have  a  vigorous  action  in  producing  decomposition.  In 
what  manner  do  short  waves  act  to  produce  chemical 
decomposition?  If  a  string  is  vibrated  in  front  of  a 
properly  proportioned  resonator,  the  volume  of  sound 
produced  will  be  magnified  many  times. 

In  the  practical  work  of  transmitting  electricity 
over  long  lines  by  means  of  alternating  currents,  it  was 
soon  found  that  where  a  line  had  been  built  in  such  a 
manner  that  it  was  believed  that  10,000  or  20,000  volts 
would  not  break  down  the  insulation-  yet  the  insulation 
did  break  down  in  a  most  unaccountable  manner,  heavy 
glass  insulators  being  pierced  by  the  disruptive  action  of 

the  current.  A  study  of  the  conditions  showed  that  with 
a  long  line  having  the  proper  capacity,  etc.,  the  wave 
period  of  the  line  might  correspond  either  with  the  fun- 
damental wave  period  of  the  dynamo  or  one  of  the  har- 
monics, in  which  case  there  would  be  strong  resonance 
effect,  aud  where  the  wave  rebounded  at  the  end  of  the 
line  the  electromotive  force  would  be  many  times  that 
originally  impressed  upon  it  with  the  result  that  rupture 
of  the  insulation  would  take  place. 

Now  it  sieems  to  the  writer  that  something  akin  to 
this  must  occur  wheu  light  produces  chemical  decompo- 
sition and  that  there  is  a  true  resonance  effect  of  suffi- 
cient power  to  break  down  the  force  of  chemical  affinity. 

The  atoms  composing  the  molecules  of  substances 
have  vibration  periods  different,  perhaps,  for  every  sub- 
stance ;  yet  in  some  these  will  correspond  with  the 
vibration  periods  of  the  shorter  waves  of  the  spectrum. 
Where  such  substances  are  acted  upon  by  light,  we  may 
suppose  that  when  the  atoms  reach  the  end  of  their 
paths  and  begin  to  return,  they  are  acted  upon  by  the 
actinic  vibrations  of  the  ether,  and  this,  recurring  with 
each  vibration  the  power  required  to  arrest  the  motion 
of  the  atoms  at  the  ends  of  their  paths  is  rapidly  aug- 
mented until  finally  they  pass  beyond  the  limits  of  sta- 
bility and,  the  force  of  interatomic  attraction  being 
overcome,  the  molecule  goes  to  pieces  and  chemical 
decomposition  takes  place  by  the  action  of  ether  vibra- 
tions through  the  agency  of  a  true  resonance  effect. 
This  breaking  down  of  the  .molecule  will  occur  with  a 
smaller  resonance  the  more  unstable  the  substance,  that 
is,  the  less  the  chemical  affinity  of  the  atoms  composing 
the  molecule ;  or  in  other  words  the  greater  the  tendency 
of  some  atoms  to  pass  beyond  the  limits  of  the  controlling 
attraction  of  the  other  atoms  composing  the  molecule 
and  within  the  limits  of  attraction  of  other  atoms  with 
which  they  more  readily  vibrate  in  unison.  Stability  or 
unstability  of  molecules  probably  depends  upon  the 
union  of  atoms  having  more  or  less  agreement  in  the 
times  and  extent  of  their  vibration,  a  group  of  atoms 
vibrating  in  approximately  the  same  time  and  with  the 
same  amplitude,  probably  being  much  more  stable  than 
a  group  in  which  the  atoms  vibrate  in  very  different 
periods  with  widely  varying  amplitudes.  With  a  group 
in  which  the  paths  and  periods  correspond  it  is  readily 
seen  that  the  atoms  may  always  remain  close  together, 
and  thus  continually  exert  upon  each  other  a  powerful 
attraction  tending  to  hold  the  group  together,  but  if  the 
periods  and  paths  greatly  differ  beats  will  occur,  and 
while  at  one  time  they  will  be  vibrating  close  together, 
after  a  brief  period  they  will  be  vibrating  at  opposite 
extremities  of  their  paths,  and  the  attractive  force  will 
be  very  weak.  At  such  times  a  small  resonance  effect, 
acting  upon  either  the  atoms  of  long  or  those  of  short 
period,  would  drive  them  beyond  the  range  of  attraction 
of  the  other  and  produce  chemical  decomposition. 

If  the  atoms  set  free  by  the  decomposition  do  not 
find  other  atoms  with  which  they  can  vibrate  more  in 
unison,  they  may  reunite  with  those  from  which  they 
were  liberated  and  reform  the  decomposed  substance. 
As  an  example  it  may  be  noted  that  silver  salts,  when  not 
in  the  presence  of  organic  matter,  will  not  blacken  under 
the  influence  of  light.  In  the  presence  of  organic  sub- 
stances the  atoms  set  free  unite  readily  with  some 
elements  of  the  organic  matter  and  bring  free  atoms  in 
a  nascent  state  have  in  themselves  great  decomposing 
power  if  their  affinity  for  the  elements  of  the  organic 
matter  is  slrong ;  i.  e.,  if,  as  they  are  projected  (by 
resonance  effect)  beyond  the  influence  of  the  atoms  with 
which  they  were  previously  vibrating,  they  find  them- 
selves close  to  atoms  of  other  molecules  with  which  they 
tend  to  vibrate  in  unison.  ■• 

Sept.,  1895.] 



There  is  probably  a  considerable  rauge  in  the  lower 
spectrum  where  the  wave  periods  are  such  as  to  be 
capable  of  producing  resonance  in  different  substances. 

It  is  not  necessary  for  stability  or  unstability  that 
the  atoms  composing  a  molecule  should  have  either 
different  periods  or  amplitudes  of  vibration  as  these 
conditions  may  occur  with  precisely  the  same  periods  and 
amplitudes  for  all  atoms.  This  will  be  readily  seen  if 
we  consider  two  atoms  together  at  any  point  of  then- 
paths  and  vibrating  in  the  same  direction,  the  same  dis- 
tance and  in  the  same  time.  They  are  evidently  always 
in  a  position  to  exert  a  maximum  attraction  upon  each 
other,  and  the  condition  is  that  of  extreme  stability.  If 
they  are  together  at  any  point  of  their  paths  and  are 
vibrating  in  opposite  directions,  the  distance  apart  will 
soon  reach  a  maximum  and  the  attraction  will  be  a 
minimum.  Such  substances  are  unstable.  If  the  two 
atoms  vibrate  in  paths  inclined  to  each  other  at  any 
angle  between  these  limits  of  0°  and  180°  the  stability 
will  be  greater  or  less  as  the  angle  is  small  or  great. 
Obviously  in  the  first  case  resonance  will  not  tend  to 
produce  decomposition,  yet,  as  the  amplitudes  of  vibra- 
tions of  all  atoms  will  be  increased,  the  volume  of  the 
substance  will  be  increased  or  the  action  of  the  actinic 
rays  will  be  to  produce  expansion  of  the  mass  in  pre- 
cisely the  same  mauner  as  heat  acts  by  increasing  the 
amplitude  of  vibration  and  hence  the  volume  of  the 
mass.  This  can  be  tested  by  using  an  instrument  such 
as  Edison's  tassimeter  and  Hashing  the  short  rays  of 
the  spectrum  upon  it,  care  being  taken  to  eliminate  the 
heat  rays. 

The  wave  lengths  of  the  different  parts  of  the  spec- 
trum can  be  measured,  aud  by  determining  what  waves  are 
capable  of  producing  actinic  resonance  in  different  sub- 
stances it  may  be  possible  to  determine  the  natural 
vibration  periods  of  various  atoms,  aud  ultimately  the 
dimensions  of  the  atoms. 

Another  thought  which  came  here  is  the  possibility 
of  determining  whether  all  the  so-called  elements  are  in 
reality  composed  of  one  primary  substance.  If  it  could  be 
shown  that  ether  vibration  of  the  same  period  produces  a 
maximum  resonance  effect  in  all  substances,  it  would  be 
strong  evidence  that  the  ultimate  atoms  composing  all 
substances  are  the  same.  As  to  the  other  so-called  ele- 
ments they  may  have  molecules  composed  of  primary 
atoms  so  grouped  that  their  relations  cannot  be  altered. 

For  instance,  suppose  some  molecules  were  each 
composed  of  two  primary  atoms  vibrating  in  unchangiug 
relation,  i.  e.,  suppose  they  are  close  together  at  one 
poiut  of  their  path  and  maintain  this  distance  unchanged 
in  all  points  of  their  paths.  Manifestly  the  attraction 
between  them  will  be  a  maximum  at  all  times,  and  this 
might  be  so  strong  that  no  outside  influence  could  vary 
the  distance  apart.  Such  a  combination  would  evidently 
constitute  an  undecomposable  substance  and  appear  as 
an  element. 

Similarly  three  atoms  might  be  so  combiued  to  form 
another  apparent  element  and  four  atoms  might  form  a 
group  of  allied  apparent  elements;  for  instance,  if  the  four 
were  regularly  placed  with  reference  to  each  other  they 
might  Constitute  a  molecule  of  oxygen,  a  slightly  different 
arrangement,  say  two  groups  of  two  each,  might  con- 
stitute sulphur  and  auother  combination  consisting  of  a 
group  of  three  and  one  singly  might  constitute  another 
element  of  the  same  family.  The  number  of  atoms  and 
the  grouping  would  undoutedly  control  the  valency  of 
the  substance.  Various  forms  of  the  same  substance 
might  be  produced  by  slight  possible  variations  of  the 
groupings  of  the  atoms  constituting  a  molecule.  For 
instance,  if  four  atoms  regularly  placed  wita  a  given 
distance  between  them  constituted  oxygen,  then  ozone 
might  be  produced  by  a  slight  increase  or  decrease  in 

distance  apart  of  the  atoms  so  as  to  slightly  vary  the 
attraction  between  them  aud  their  combined  attraction 
on  groups  composing  other  elements.  Molecules  of  de- 
composable substances  would  be  composed  of  two  or 
more  such  stable  groups  vibrating  in  paths  which  made 
greater  or  less  angles  with  others,  so  that  the  application 
of  a  force  which  would  cause  them  to  move  further 
along  in  their  piths  would  produce  a  separation  and 
ultimately  decomposition,  by  bringing  one  or  the  other 
of  the  stable  groups  within  the  strong  influence  of  some 
other  group.  Two  or  more  stable  groups  united  to  form 
a  molecule  of  decomposable  substance  could  never  vib- 
rate parallel  to  each  other  and  in  the  same  direction,  in 
ther  words  the  angle  between  their  paths  could  never 
be  zero. 

The  ideas  here  expressed  may  be  more  clearly  rep- 
resented by  means  of  the  accompanying  diagram  : 

Suppose  0  to  be  the  origin  towards  which  all  the 
atoms  of  a  simple  molecule,  or  all  the  elements  of  a 
compound  molecule  tend  to  vibrate.  If  two  atoms  0  A 
aud  0  B  vibrate  always  parallel  to  each  other,  in  the 
same  period,  aud  with  the  same  amplitude,  manifestly 
the  attractive  force  acting  between  them  will  remain 
absolutely  unchanged  whatever  the  period  or  amplitude 
may  be.  They  will  form  an  absolutely  stable  molecule 
and  appear  as  an  ultimate  element.  Similarly  the 
three  atoms  vibrating  in  the  direction  0  D  would  form 
another  absolutely  stable  molecule  and  appear  as  another 

If  the  molecules  vibrating  in  0  A  aud  0  D  have  a 
mutual    control  r>r  o-r.i,  other's  motion  they  will  form  a 

ELfieriucmr  in  Chemical  Decomposition. 

molecule  of  a  compound  substance,  but  iu  this  case  their 
paths  must  make  with  each  other  an  angle  ^4    0  D. 

This  compound  molecule  will  be  instable  equilibium 
if  its  constituent  molecules  do  not  vibrate  beyond  certain 
limits,  say  those  represented  by  the  full  lines,  but  if  a 
resonance  effect  projected  them  to  the  points  A'  and  Dl 
the  distance  between  them  would  be  increased  and  the 
mutually  exerted  force  decreased.  If  no  other  substance 
was  present  they  would  return  to  their  former  stable 
state,  when  the  cause  producing  the  resonance  was 
removed,  but  in  the  presence  of  other  substances  there 
would  be  a  redistribution  of  molecules  and  new  com- 
pounds be  formed.  Manifestly  if  the  angle  A  0  D  was 
very  small  a  very  considerable  increase  in  the  amplitude 
would  but  slightly  increase  the  distance  apart  of  the 
molecules,  and  hence  produce  but  little  diminution  in 
the  inter-molecular  force  of  attraction.  The  substance 
formed,  though  decomposable  by  very  strong  forces, 
would  still  be  very  stable.  As  the  angle  increased  the 
stability  would  become  less  and  less  until  finally  if  the 
group  0  D  was  vibrating  in  a  direction  0  C,  in 
opposition  to  O  A,  the  stability  would  be  very  slight 
and  a  very  small  increase  in  the  amplitude  of  vibration 
or  the  approach  of  another  molecule  which  vibrates  at  a 
smaller  angle  with  either  0  A  or  0  D  would  overcome 
the  force  uniting  0  A  and  0  D  and  decomposition  would 
take  place. 

If  the  molecules  in  0  A  aud  0  D  vibrated  in 
different  periods  or  had  different  amplitudes  or  both, 
then  they  might  vibrate  iu  the  same  direction  and  still 
unite  to  form  compound  substances.     An  ether  wave  of 



[Vol.  I,  No. 

a.  certain  period  would  then  affect  one  more  than  the 
other  and  cause  a  resonance  effect  tending  to  break 
down  the  compound  molecule.  It  seems  manifest  that 
the  natural  vib.-atiou  period  of  all  atoms  and  molecules 
closely  correspond  with  the  periods  of  the  ether  waves 
near  ihe  violet  end  of  the  spectrum. 
Berkeley,  Calif.,  Sept.  13,  '95. 

"AS    OTHERS    SEE    TJS." 


"What  we  feared  has  come  to  pass.  Wo  predicted  a 
month  ago  that  the  similarity  in  name  and  appearance 
of  The  Electrieal  Journal,  (San  Francisco)  and  the  Elec- 
trical Journal,  (Chicago)  would  prove  "a  constant  source 
of  annoyance."  We  pointed  out  to  our  young  contem- 
poraries that  a  change  in  name  on  the  part  of  one  of 
them  was  desirable  or  at   least  that  they  should  make  a 

geographical   distinction    in  their  titles [but]    the 

Electrical  Journal  of  Chicago  manifested  an  acrimonious 
determination  to  retain  the  name  selected  by  the  new 
San   Francisco  review.      This  course  is  ill-advised  and 

will  result  in  confusion "Electricity"  of  London 

reviews  the  first  number  of  The  Electrical  Journal  (San 
Francisco)  and  says:  ''  The  Editors  are  Dr.  Perrine  and 
Mr.  G.  P.  Low;  the  aims  are  'honesty,  breadth  and 
helpfulness.'  Naturally,  the  National  School  of  Elec- 
tricity is  regarded  favorably."  There  you  are;  the  organ 
of  the  National  School   of  Electricity  is  mixed  up  with 

the  new  electrical  review  of  the  Pacific  Slope What 

could  be  more  confusing  ? — Western  Electrician,  Chicago. 

"  The  Electrical  Journal  "  is  a  new  journal  pub- 
lished in  this  city.  Two  numbers  have  made  their  ap- 
pearance, and  are  very  creditable  specimens.  According 
to  an  announcement  made  in  the  August  number,  the 
name  of  the  publication  is  to  be  changed  to  the  The 
Journal  of  Electricity.  The  Journal  is  edited  by  F. 
A.  C.  Perrine,  D.  Sc,  and  George  P.  Low.  It  is  devoted 
to  the  development  and  exposition  of  the  electrical  in- 
terests of  the  Goast.  The  leading  article  in  the  August 
number  is  a  learned  and  well-written  article  on  "  Steep 
Gradients  on  Electric  Roads,"  by  Lieutenant  W.  Stuart- 
Smith,  U.  S.  N.,  the  well-known  electrical  engineer  of 
this  city. — San  Francisco  Report. 

We  note  the  advent  of  The  Electrical  Journal  pub- 
ited  by  our  friends,  Dr.  F.  A.  C.  Perrine  and  George  P. 
Low,  and  published  monthly  in  San  Francisco.  The 
newcomer  candidly  admits  that  "  our  newsy  friend,  the 
Electrical  Review,  is  entitled  to  the  distinction  of  being 
'  the  oldest  weekly  ',"  and  states  as  its  motto  that  The 
Electrical  Journal  is  to  be  known  as  "  the  newest  electric 
cal  publication  in  America."  We  wish  the  new  venture 
success.  Judging  from  the  excellence  of  its  book  re- 
views, we  opine  it  will  pay  special  attention  to  this  de- 
partment.— Electrical  Review  (N.  Y.).. 

The  Electrical  Journal,  a  recent  publication  devoted 
to  electrical  interests,  came  to  our  desk.  We  thank  Mr. 
Geo.  P.  Low,  and  wish  him  every  success.  This  paper 
should  receive  the  support  of  every  underwriter,  for  it 
contains  matter  exceptionally  valuable  to  our  professsion. 
Mr.  Low  has  given  able  service  to  this  brauch  of  under- 
writing, and  his  paper  will  undoubtedly  reflect  the  abil- 
ity of  which  its  editor  is  possessed.  The  subscription 
price  is  one  dollar  per  year. — Rambling  Notes,  San  Fran- 

Another  promisiug  publication  in  magazine  form 
appears  for  its  share  of  advertising  patronage  and  to  aid 
in  disseminating  electrical  information  through  the  West. 
The  Electrical  Journal  is  published  monthly  in  San  Fran- 
cisco, Cal.  It  has  a  good  appearance,  and  its  principles, 
as  outlined  in  the  first  issue,  se3in  sound. —  Scientific 
Machinist,  Cleveland,  O. 

The  Pel  ton  water  wheel  is  what  may  be  termed  an 
impulse  reaction  wheel,  the  power  of  which  is  derived 
from  the  pressure  afforded  by  a  head  of  water,  supplied 
by  a  line  of  pipe,  discharged  upon  it  through  a  small 
nozzle,  the  size  of  said  nozzle  being  proportioned  to  the 
amount  and  head  of  water  available,  and  to  the  power 
required.  The  manner  of  utilizing  this  pressure  is  the 
distinguishing  feature  of  the  invention  and  the  secret  of 
ts  success. 

The  plane  of  the  wheel  is  vertical,  turning  upon  a 
horizontal  axis,  the  bearings  of  which  are  mounted  and 
fixed  upon  a  wooden  or  metal  frame,  to  which  also  the 
uozzle  is  attached,  making  the  machine,  as  a  whole,  self- 
contained.  The  bearings  are  accessible  at  all  times  for 
examination  and  lubrication,  aud  are  easily  protected 
from  water  and  grit.  Over  the  wheel,  but  not  touching 
it  anywhere,  is  placed  a  cover  for  withholding  the  sling 
of  the  water  from  the  wheel,  and  directing  it  vertically 
downward  to  the  tail-race,  whence  all  waste  is  carried 
away.  It  has  a  number  of  iron  buckets  or  cups 
fastened  to  its  periphery,  each  provided  with  a  wedge 
dividing  the  jet  (which  is  applied  taugentially )  into  two 
parts,  one  turning  to  the  right,  the  other  to  the  left, 
(shown  in  section  in  Fig.  3.),  the  direction  of  both  being 
almost  completely  reversed  before  the  water  leaves  the 
bucket.  To  facilitate  the  escape  of  the  spent  water  and 
to  utilize  all  of  the  head,  the  stream  is  usually  applied 
to  the  lower  side  of  the  wheel.  The  object  in  this,  as  in 
other  wheels,  is  to  receive  the  water  without  shock,  to 
discharge  it  without  velocity,  aud  to  apply  the  energy 
thus  liberated  to  turning  the  wheel  in  the  most  efficient 
manner,  f 

The  extreme  simplicity  of  these  wheels  renders  them 
strong  and  durable,  not  liable  to  get  out  of  order,  and 
euables  them  to  be  run  with  a  minimum  of  wear. 
Breakage  seldom  occurs  ;  the  wear  is  confined  to  the 
large  shaft  bearings  and  to  the  vane  surfaces  over  which 
the  water  passes.  There  are  no  running  water  joints  to 
preserve,  and  the  nozzle  is  of  the  simplest  and  most 
efficient  form,  the  cylindrical  jet  being  commonly  used. 
The  path  of  the  water  in  the  bucket  is  short,  reducing 
friction  to  a  minimum.  If  the  water  carries  abrasive 
materials,  the  effect  is  sometimes  seen  on  the  wetted  sur- 
faces, but  the  wear  is  slight,  and  never  detrimental  to 
efficiency.  Then  again,  all  the  wheels  above  two  feet  in 
diameter  have  the  buckets  bolted  ou,so  that  one  or  more 
may  be  easily  and  quickly  replaced  without  disturbing 
the  installation.  This  is  an  advantage  which  is  every- 
where appreciated,  especially  in  localities  far  removed 
from  industrial  centers. 

The  tendency  of  modern  machine  practice  is  to  in- 
troduce direct  connections  between  the  motor  and  the 
machine  to  be  driven,  thus  simplifying  the  parts,  reduc- 
ing first  cost  and  maiutenauce,  and  economizing  space. 
The  construction  of  the  Pelton  wheel  enables  this  to  be 

"Being  an  abstract  of  the  report  of  the  Franklin  Institute,  through  its 
Committee  on  Science  and  the  Arts,  on  the  invention  of  Lester  A.  Pelton. 

fin  the  Comstock  mines  at  Virginia  City,  Nevada,  are  located  six  wheels, 
each  weighing  220  pounds,  developing  12o  horse-power  each  with  a  stream 
five-eighth  inch  diameter,  and  a  head  of  1,680  feet.  They  are  forty  inches  in 
diameter,  are  made  of  phosphor-bronze,  and  run  at  a'speed  of  900  revolu- 
tions per  minute.  In  one  of  the  famous  Comstock  mines  at  Virginia  Cily, 
Nevada,  is  a  thirty-six  inch  Pelton  wheel,  made  of  a  solid  steel  disc,  with 
phosphor-bronze  buckets  securely  riveted  to  the  rim.  It  is  located  at  the 
Sutro  Tunnel  level  of  the  California  and  Cuusolidated  Virginia  shaft,  1,640 
feet  below  the  surface.  In  addition  to  the  head  afforded  bv  the  depth  of  the 
shaft,  the  pipe  is  connected  to  the  line  of  the  Gold  Hill  Water  Company, 
which  carries  a  head  of  460  feet,  giving  the  wheel  a  vertical  head  of  2,100 
feet,  equivalent  to  a  pressure  of  '.ill  pounds.  The  water,  after  passing  over 
the  wheel,  is  carried  out  through  the  tunnel,  four  miles  in  ength.  The 
wheel  runs  at  1,150  revolutions,  which  gives  it  a  peripheral  velocity  of  10,804 
feet  per  minute,  or  about  120  miles  per  hour.  The  construction  of  the  wheel 
amply  provides  for  the  centrifugal  strain  given  by  the  velocity  of  the  water, 
running  without  load,  when  it  would  attain  the  enormous  "speed  of  21,608 
feet  per  minute,  equal  to  about  240  miles  per  hour. 

Sept.,  1895.] 



done  in  all  eases  where  the  head,  which  controls  the 
speed  of  the  buckets,  is  so  related  to  the  rotative  speed 
as  to  give  a  wheel  of  reasonable  dimensions.  The  min- 
imum diameter  depends,  lo  a  certain  extent,  upon  the 
quantity  of  water  to  be  used ;  if  this  is  large,  it  may  be 
necessary  to  use  more  than  one  jet  on  the  wheel,  or  to 
use  two  or  more  wheels  on  the  same  shaft,  to  obtaiu  the 
recpiired  speed.  -The  application  of  several  jets  to  a 
wheel  does  not  impair  the  efficiency  when  it  is  carried 
out  according  to  well-known  rules.  The  cases  and  foun- 
dations are  light  aud  simple,  there  are  no  expensive  pen- 
stocks or  draft-tubes,  no  inconveuient  means  of  trans- 
mission, no  heavy  stonework. 

Turbines  have  a  distinctive  advantage  under  very 
low  heads,  because  of  the  large  quantity  of  water  which 
they  can  use,  but  under  high  pressure  the  speed  becomes 
excessive  or  destructive.  A  free  jet  or  tangential  wheel 
may  run  to  the  limit  fixed  by  the  strength  of  the  mate- 
rial without  injury,  there  being  no  wear  except  in  the 
bearings.  The  construction  of  these  wheels  indicates 
that  a  high  efficiency  may  be  obtained  when  running 
with  a  full  or  reduced  water  supply,  and  such  has  been 
found  to  be  the  case.  Buckets  are  designed  for  a  maxi- 
mum diameter  of  stream,  without  reference  to  the  head, 
hut  the  only  objection  to  a  very  much  smaller  stream 
would  be  the  disproportion  of  weights  and  friction  sur- 
faces, an  ojectiou  which  is  of  very  little  practical  impor- 

bodily  around  the  shaft.  This  motion,  which  is  very 
sensitive,  is  made  to  open  or  close  a  butterfly  valve  in 
the  service  pipe.  Safety  stops  are  provided  at  full  open 
and  full  shut,  to  prevent  the  governor  from  binding  the 
valve  and  possibly  breaking  something.  This  method  is 
advantageous  in  electric  lighting,  where  there  is  a  de- 
mand for  close  governing. 

Nothing  contributes  so  much  to  the  prosperity  of 
mining  and  manufacturing  as  cheap  power.  Scores  of 
the  largest  producing  and  most  profitable  mines  ou  the 
Pacifit  Coast  could  not  be  worked  to-day  but  for 
this,  as  most  of  our  heaviest  mining  operations  are  based 
upon  handling  a  large  amount  of  low-grade  ore  in  a  most 
economical  way.  Another  fact  indicating  the  change 
wrought  by  the  introduction  of  these  wheels  is  the  high 
price  that  low-grade  mines  are  commanding  when  so  sit- 
uated that  water  power  could  be  availed  of;  these  mines, 
a  few  years  ago  could  hardly  be  given  awa}T.  Where 
the  power  developed  by  the  wheel  cannot  be  applied  di- 
rectly to  the  machinery  to  be  operated,  electrical  trans- 
mission can  cover  the  intervening  space,  and  so  in  time 
these  easily  established  links  "will  connect  many  of  the 
great  industrial  establishments  with  these  water  powers 
now  by  this  wheel  made  economically  available. 

The  remarkable  efficiency  of  the  Pelton  wheel  is  a 
surprise  to  all  who  see  it  in  operation  for  the  first  time. 
That  a  wheel  so  small  as  to    almost   escape  observation 

Pi,.-.  1  Fio\2.  io\  3. 

Figures  1,  2  and  3.— Illustrating  the  Action  of  a  Jet  op  "Water  Striking  Various  Surfaces. 

tance.  This  method  is  adopted  when  the  quantity  of 
water  varies,  the  minimum  stream  being  often  ouly 
twenty-five  per  cent,  of  the  maximum.  This  can  be 
done  with  no  appreciable  loss  of  efficiency,  in  strong  con- 
trast with  the  turbine,  with  its  variation  of  twenty  per 
cent.,  more  or  less,  under  varying  gates. 

In  many  cases  of  use  in  the  mountains  there  is  no 
need  for  governing  devices  :  ou  stamp-mills,  for  instance, 
when  such  are  necessary,  the  method  used  will  depend 
on  the  water  supply.  If  a  liberal  use  of  water  is  allow- 
able, a  nozzle  is  used  having  a  ball  and  socket  joint, 
which  permits  the  stream  to  be  partly  or  entirely  de- 
flected below  the  buckets.  The  centrifugal  friction  gov- 
ernor has  been  used  to  a  very  great  extent,  the  balls  act- 
ing on  a  double-geared  bevel  friction  wheel,  which  opens 
or  closes  a  butterfly  valve. 

When  a  constant  speed  can  be  obtained  from  a  source 
outside  of  the  wheel  itself,  as  from  an  independent  motor, 
the  differential  governor  is  available.  This  consists  of 
four  miter  gear  wheels  in  mesh,  each  forming  the  side  of 
a  square ;  two  opposite  gears  being  loose  on  the  shaft 
and  driven  in  opposite  directions  by  pullies  and  belts  ; 
the  remaining  two  running  free  on  studs  which  project 
from  a  hub  fastened  to  the  same  shaft.  So  long  as  the 
pulleys  run  at  the  same  speed  there  will  be  a  simple  ro- 
tation of  the  gears  on  their  axes;  but  if  one  runs  faster 
than  the  other,  the  gears  on  the  studs  will  be  revolved 

should  be  capable  of  driving  the  large  amount  of  ma- 
chinery that  is  often  attached  to  it  is  a  perpetual  won- 
der even  to  those  long  accustomed  to  its  use. 

These  wheels  are  made  in  sizes  from  four  inches  in 
diameter,  and  weighing,  with  case,  twenty  pounds,  for 
driving  sewing  machines,  dental  apparatus,  and  the  like, 
to  wheels  of  five,  six,  eight,  ten  and  in  some  cases  even 
twenty  feet  in  diameter.  Wheels  of  such  large  diameter 
are  not  for  the  purpose  of  increase  of  power,  but  to  re- 
duce speed  so  as  to  make  a  direct  connection  to  the 
shafts  of  the  machinery  they  are  to  operate,  as  in  the 
case  of  pumps,  compressors,  etc.  By  applying  three, 
four  or  five  streams  to  a  wheel  of  ten  to  fifteen  feet  in 
diameter,  from  3000  to  5000  horse  power  can  be  obtained 
from  a  single  wheel  under  a  head  of  150  feet.  This 
illustrates  the  extreme  flexibility  of  the  system  and  its 
application  to  varying  conditions,  Units  of  power, 
speed,  etc. 

In  considering  the  conditions  necessary  to  a  high 
efficiency  in  the  jet  wheel,  it  will  be  found  that  the  main 
conditions  are  as  follows  :  (1)  The  jet  should  enter  the 
bucket  without  shock  and  flow  over  easy  curves  until  its 
direction  is  reversed ;  Ql)  The  surface  over  which  the 
water  passes  should  be  small,  to  reduce  skin  friction  ; 
(3)  The  speed  of  the  wheel  should  be  such  that  the  water 
will  leave  the  bucket  without  velocity. 

Fig.  1   shows  the  action  of  a  jet  of  water  striking  a 



[Vol.  I  No.  3. 

flat  plate  at  right  augles.  It  will  be  seen  that  the  water 
divides  and  shows  a  tendency  to  form  a  wedge  of  still 
water.  This  is  what  may  be  termed  "  dead  "  water, 
that  is,  water  which  has  lost  its  impelling  force.  In  a 
wheel  having  this  form  of  vane,  there  is  a  tendency  to 
form  such  a  wedge  on  each  vane  at  every  revolution  ; 
there  can  be  no  smooth  flowing  of  the  stream,  but  a  con- 
tinual turbulence  resulting  in  great  loss  of  energy,  and 
the  amount  of  this  will  be  greater  than  the  loss  of  part 
of  the  energy  contained  in  the  water  represented  by  the 
wedges.  It  will  be  seen,  also,  that  the  direction  of  dis- 
charge precludes  a  complete  stoppage  of  the  water,  the 
highest  theoretical  efficiency  being  fifty  per  cent.,  exclud- 
ing the  losses  from  friction,  turbulence  etc.  In  the 
simple  curved  buckets  shown  in  Fig.  2  will  be  found 
the  same  condition  as  to  a  wedge  formation  as  was 
shown  on  the  flat  plate,  the  amount  of  water  being  even 
greater.  There  is,  however,  a  reversal  of  the  stream 
which  allows  it  to  be  almost  completely  checked.  This 
is  an  important  advantage,  as  may  be  seen  in  a  compar- 
ison of  the  efficiencies  obtained. 

Fig.  3  shows  a  third  form,  in  which  the  wedge  has 
been  made  a  part  of  the  bucket  itself,  thus  avoiding  the 
loss  due  to  the  water-wedge  and  to  turbulence.  Impact 
has  been  reduced  to  a  minimum,  and  the  bucket  forms 
part  of  an  impulse  wheel.  This  is  the  Pelton,  which  has 
shown  a  higher  efficiency  than  any  other  jet  wheel,  and 
which  is  now  replacing  the  older  forms.  In  wheels  hav- 
ing flat  radial  vanes  or  buckets,  and  a  tangential  applica- 
tion of  the  stream,  the  angle  of  impingement  varies  as 
the  vanes  pass  through  the  jet,  but  there  is  at  all  times 
an  impact,  resulting  in  a  loss.  In  contrast  with  this  is 
the  impulse  wheel,  in  which  the  water  enters  the  vanes 
or  buckets  without  shock,  and  is  led  in  the  proper  path, 
there  being  no  coercion  of  the  water,  but  a,  smooth,  reg- 
ular flow.  In  the  impact  wheel  there  is  a  blow  struck, 
while  in  the  impulse  there  is  a  push. 

To  make  such  tests  of  this  wheel  as  would  be  con- 
vincing and  sa-tisfactory,  the  committee  charged  with 
this  investigation  found  to  be  impracticable.  In  lieu 
thereof  the  committee  has  found  it  necessary  to  rely 
upon  the  corroborative  results  of  tests  made  by  men 
esteemed  by  the  committee  as  fully  competent  to  do  such 

In  the  test's  of  this  wheel  made  by  Mr.  Boss  E. 
Browne,  at  the  University  of  California,  "  the  diameter 
of  the  wheel  was  fifteen  inches,  the  width  of  the  bucket 
1.5  inch,  and  the  efficiencies  shown  under  a  fifty-foot 
head  were  as  follows  : 

"  With  a  seven-sixteenth  nozzle,  82.6  per  cent.;  with 
a  three-eighth  nozzle,  82.5  per  cent.  The  efficiency  was 
determined  under  as  low  a  head  as  eight  feet,  still  show- 
ing an  efficiency  of  73  per  cent.  It  is  proper  to  state 
that  the  wheel  with  which  the  above  tests  were  made 
was  constructed  in  the  workshop  of  the  University,  and 
did  not  conform  wholly  to  the  manufacturer's  standard. 
The  size  of  the  bucket  was  too  small,  and  did  not  do 
full  justice  to  the  wheel,  owing  to  the  difficulty  of  shap- 
ing the  curves  accurately.  It  is  claimed  that  tests,  with 
larger  wheels  have  given  larger  efficiencies,  and  I  have 
no  reason  for  doubting  the  claim." 

From  all  that  has  preceded,  the  conclusion  is  reached 
that  the  Pelton  water  wheel  possesses  all  the  advantages 
of  simplicity  of  construction,  economy  of  installation 
and  maintenance,  adaptability  to  extreme  heads  of  water, 
of  transportability,  of  close  and  sensitive  automatic  reg- 
ulation and  of  high  speeds,  which  belong  to  other  wheels 
of  its  class  that  have  preceded  it,  but  that  in  point  of 
efficienc3'  it  has  excelled  all  others. 

The  Institute,  therefore,  deems  the  Pelton  water 
wheel  worthy  of  the  Elliott  Cresson  Medal,  and  hereby 
awards  the  same   to  Lester  A.  Pelton,  the  inventor. 

THE     SCIENCE     OF     GOOD     LIGHT. 

Many  retail  stores  are  dark  and  gloomy  looking, 
and  what  a  contrast  they  are  to  the  brilliantly  lighted 
ones,  writes  Frank  T.  Green  in  the  Pacific  Druggist  and 
Physician.  The  peculiar  part  is,  continues  the  writer, 
that  the  owners  of  these  same  dark  stores  pay  just  as 
heavy  bills  for  light  as  the  former.  It  is  the  color  of  the 
surroundings  that  makes  the  great  difference.  The 
world  associates  dark  interiors  which  lack  richness, 
with  gloom,  and  light  surroundings  with  cheerfulness. 
The  writer  asserts  there  are  some  colors  which  are  diffi- 
cult to  illuminate,  foremost  among  which  are  those  ap- 
proaching black.  A  few  years  ago  it  was  quite  the  fash- 
ion to  have  the  fittings  of  stores  ebonized  and  decorated 
with  narrow  tracings  and  lines  of  gold.  A  Japanese 
effect  was  aimed  at,  but  the  bull's-eye  of  gloom  was 
struck.  One  of  the  most  trying  shades  to  properly  illu- 
minate is  terra-cotta.  It  is  difficult,  if  not  impossible, 
for  the  color  seems  to  absorb  every  ray  cast  upon  it. 
The  shadows  behind  the  cornices  are  heavy  ones,  and 
even  the  high  lights  emit  but  a  feeble  glow,  reminding 
one  of  reflected  firelight.  Such  a  color  for  a  library,  ac- 
companied by  rich  draperies,  might  be  admissible,  but 
in  a  store  it  is  a  most  trying  one  after  nightfall.  Creams, 
whites,  light  grays  and  pinks  are  always  cheerful,  and 
the  shadows  warm  looking.  Besides,  with  the  empire 
patterns  now  in  vogue,  the  paler  tints  harmonize  pleas- 

How  many  of  us  have  noticed  the  glare  of  a  white 
store  at  night.  Every  ray  gets  its  full  value,  for  it  is 
reflected  without  absorption.  Those,  especially,  who 
have  dark  fittings  in  natural  wood  need  light  floors, 
walls  and  ceilings  to  offset  the  effect.  The  colors  should 
harmonize,  however,  and  the  contrasts  should  not  be  too 

People  do  not  like  to  enter  a  black  place  at  night, 
and  in  passing  stores  if  one  takes  the  time  to  observe, 
the  bright  effects  can  often  be  ascribed  to  cleanliness  and 
color,  and  not  always  to  the  number  of  electric  lights  or 
gas  burners  as  would  at  first  seem. 


That  electricity  can  easily" outstrip  sound  in  a  foot 
race,  is  well  known,  but  as  good  an  illustration  of  it  as 
was  ever  furnished,  occurred  at  the  time  of  the  last 
powder  explosion  at  Pinole,  observes  a  California  con- 
temporary. At  the  instant  when  the  great  blow-up 
occurred,  the  railroad  telegraph  operator  at  Pinole,  and 
at  Sixteenth  st.,  Oakland,  were  talking  over  the  wire. 
The  Pinole  operator  broke  the  thread  of  the  conversa- 
tion to  rap  on  the  key — ''Powder  works  blown  up!" 
When  he  received  that  the  Oakland,  operator  had  felt 
no  shock,  and  he  thought  the  explosion  must  have  been 
a  small  one,  but  after  waiting  about  sixty  seconds  the 
concussion  of  the  atmosphere  came  along,  and  it  was 
violent  enough  to  satisfy  him  that  the  blast  was  no 
small  affair. 

The  American  Institute  of  Electrical  Engineers  has 
issued  a  neat  vest-pocket  pamphlet,  which  has  been  pre- 
pared to  meet  the  demand  for  information  regarding  the 
work  of  the  Institute,  and  how  to  join  it.  It  also  con- 
tains a  catalogue  of  membership,  and  its  mission  is  for 
circulation  among  non-members  to  whom  it  will  be  sent 
gratuitously  upon  application  to  Ralph  W  Pope,  Secre- 
tary, 26  Cortlaudt  street,  New  York  City. 

The  appointment  of  Dr.  F.  A.  C.  Perrine  by  the 
Advisory  Council  as  Local  Secretary  of  the  Institute  for 
San  Francisco  and  vicinity  has  been  announced. 

Sept.,  1895.] 



^Kq  ^rade. 

In    responding    to    advertisements  in  this  publication,  please 
mention  The  Journal  of  Electricity. 


A  feature  of  the  Electric  Carnival  which  excited  the 
wonderment  of  visitors  and  the  interest  of  electricians 
was  the  enormous  sign  advertising  Euhstaller's  Steam 
Beer  and  which  was  swung  across  K  Street.  This  sign 
contained  1010,  16  candle-power  lamps  ;  there  being  505 
on  each  side.  It  was  fifty-one  feet  nine  inches  in  length 
with  a    maximum    height  of  twelve   feet  three  inches, 

the  total  weight  being  2150  pounds,  which  it  is  claimed 
makes  it  the  heaviest  Hash  sign  yet  constructed. 
Considerable  difficulty  was  experienced  in  effecting 
suitable  anchorage  to  the  roofs  of  the  buildings  sup- 
porting the  sigu,  and  the  method  finally  adopted 
consisted  of  carrying  the  anchor  lines  to  other  buildings 
for  more  rigid  support.  The  wording  of  the  sign,  which 
appears  in  the  accompanying  illustration,  was  so 
arranged  that,  by  means  of  carbon  break  switches  operated 
by  an  electric  motor,  the  words  appeared  in  their  respec- 
tive colorings  consecutively,  then  flashing  on  the  entire 

The  contract  for  the  construction,  erection  and 
operation  of  this  sign  was  awarded  to  Frank  Lyman, 
electrical  contractor  of  421  J  street,  Sacramento,  whose 
handiwork  was  also  shown  in  the  construction  of  the 
decorative  circuits  of  the  State  Capitol  and  surrounding 
grounds,  the  May  Pole,  The  Native  Sons'  Bear,  and  many 
mercantile   displays. 


The  Electric  Carnival  presented  many  opportunities 
for  the  exercise  of  the  highest  art  in  electro-decorative 
work,  prominent  among  which  were  the  magnificent 
floats  designed  and  constructed  through  the  efforts  of 
the  Carnival  Committee.  The  electrical  effects  in  the 
three  principal  pieces,  viz.:  "The  National,"  "State"  and 
"Fruit  and  Flower"  floats,  which  are  described  elsewhere 
in  this  issue,  were  installed  by  Messrs.  Scott  &  Black, 
electrical  contractors  of  303  J  street,  Sacramento.  This 
firm  is  one  of  the  leading  wiring  concerns  of  the  capital 
city,  and  it  is  safe  to  state  that  the  bouquets,  sprays, 
wreaths  and  razzle-dazzles  placed  on  the  floats  by  them 
formed  the  daintiest  and  most  fascinating  features  of  the 
Carnival  Parade. 

Among  the  other  works  installed  by  Messrs.  Scott  & 
Black  were  the  Arches  at  7th  and  J  streets,  and  4th  and 
K  streets,  the  illuminated  sign  "Welcome,"  and  of  the 
mercantile  displays,  those  placed  about  the  establish- 
ments of  Hale  Bros.  &  Co.,  Hall,  Luhrs  &  Co.,  Shaw, 
Ingram,  Batcher  &  Co.,  Waterhouse  &  Lester  and  at 
the  Sutter  Club  are  deserving  of  special  mention  because 
of  their  artistic  workmanship. 


Messers  C.  B.  Kaufman  &  Co.  have  secured  store- 
rooms on  the  ground  floor  at  525  Mission  Street,  San 
Francisco,  where  they  have  started  in  business  as  a 
general  railway  supply  house.  The  firm  has  in  stock, 
ready  for  immediate  shipment,  railway  supplies,  both 
steam  and  electric,  of  all  descriptions,  from  tie-plates  and 
rails  to  trolley  harps,  hangers  and  insulated  wires.  Mr. 
Kaufman  has  been  connected  with  the  well-known 
electric  railway  supply  firm  of  Reger  &  Atwater  for  some 
time  past,  and  his  many  friends  will  be  pleased  to  learn 
of  his  new  departure. 


An  attractive  feature  of  the  California  State  Fair  at 
Sacramento  was  the  Tower  of  Light  erected  near  the 
center  of  the  pavilion  by  the  Capital  Gas  Company  and 
which  is  shown  in  the  accompanying  illustration.  It  was 
a  substantial  structure  built  of  gas  piping  and  contained 
four  rows  of  lights  as  shown  in  the  engi-aving,  the  lower 
one   containing  on  one  side  the  initials  "C.  G.  Co.,"  and 

on  the  other  sides  respectively,  wrere  the  words  "  Light," 
"Heat,"  and  "Power."  The  two  middle  tiers  were 
brilliantly  illuminated  with  Wellsbach  burners  and  the 
upper  tier  with  incandescent  electric  lamps.  The  photo- 
graph from  which  the  illustration  was  taken  was  made 
b}r  Varney,  the  leading  Sacramento  photographer,  and 
presents  an  excellent  specimen  of  night  photography, 
the  light  furnished  being  from  the  tower  alone. 



[Vol.  I,  No.  3. 

^Qfiorts  of  the  Jffonth. 


San  Diego,  Cal. — Chas.  D.  Long  has  applied  for  a  franchise 
for  a  line  of  telephone  poles  and  wires  from  Descanso  to  the  Pine 
Valley  Quartz  Mill. 

Great  Falls,  Mont. — The  Lewistown  and  Great  Falls  Tele- 
phone Company  has  been  incorporated,  with  Gold  T.  Curtis,  S. 
S.  Hobson  and  J.  F.  Armington  as  trustees,  and  $10,000  capital. 

Seattle,  Wash. — The  changing-over  of  the  exchanges  of  the 
Sunset  Telephone  and  Telegraph  Company  from  multiple  switch- 
boards to  the  express  system,  which  has  been  in  progress  since 
last  May,  is  practically  completed. 

Jackson,  Cal. — A  franchise  has  been  granted  the  Capital 
Telephone  and  Telegraph  Company  for  all  streets,  alleys,  avenues 
and  public  grounds  and  ways  of  all  unincorporated  cities,  towns 
and  villages  within  Amador  County. 

Eureka,  Cal. — The  Sunset  Telephone  and.  Telegraph  Com- 
pany is  building  a  new  pole  line  for  metallic  service  from  this 
place  to  Fortuna.,  Rohnerville  and  Alton,  and  the  circuits  to  Areata 
and  Fernrtale  will  be  the  next  to  be  made  metallic. 

Santa  Cruz,  Cal. — The  Popular  Telephone  Company  has 
wired  the  city  for  125  subscribers,  and  orders  have  been  taken  for 
enough  more  to  make  200  subscribers  when  the  new  exchange 
opens.  About  4000  feet  of  50-pair  lead-covered  cable  has  been 
run,  and  Columbia  instruments  will  be  used.  The  installation 
was  made  under  the  supervision  of  H.  N.  Snyder. 


San  Francisco. — In  the  suit  of  Mary  L.  Keller  vs.  the 
Market  Street  Railway  Company,  Justice  Carroll  held  that  a 
passenger  must  demand  a  transfer  at  the  time  of  paying  fare, 
otherwise  the  company  is  not  required  to  issue  same. 

San  Francisco. — On  August  23d  the  Bank  of  California 
brought  suit  in  the  Superior  Court  against  C.  C.  Butler,  Behrend 
Joost,  Fabian  Joost,  J.  A.  Buck  and  N.  Ohlandtto  recover 
$15,000  alleged  to  be  due  on  a  promissory  note  given  by  the  S.  S. 
Construction  Company  to  the  San  Mateo  and  San  Francisco 
Railroad  Company.  By  the  latter  company  it  was  assigned  to 
the  plaintiff. 

Stockton,  Cal. — The  Boai-d  of  Directors  of  the  San  Joaquin 
County  Hospital  has  declined  to  accept  the  Doak  Gas  Engines 
and  the  electric  lighting  plant  unless  the  Doak  Company  will 
furnish  an  indemnity  bond  to  cover  any  possible  damages  that 
may  be  recovered  from  the  county  by  the  Union  Gas  Engine 
Company,  which  has  begun  suit  against  Doak  for  alleged  in- 
fringement of  its  patent. 

San  Francisco,  Cal. — The  City  and  County  Attorney,  in  re- 
sponse to  a  request  from  the  Board  of  Supervisors,  has  rendered 
the  opinion  that  such  board  does  not  hold  the  power  to  impose  a 
municipal  license  upon  telegraph  companies  operating  interstate 
lines,  but  that  this  is  not  intended  to  apply  to  telegraph  com- 
panies operating  wholly  within  this  State  if  there  are  any  such 
doing  business  in  this  city. 


Honolulu,  H.  I. — The  Hawaiian  Electric  Company,  operat- 
ing arcs,  incandescent  and  power  circuits,  is  supplementing  its 
works  by  the  addition  of  an  ice  plant. 

Cripple  Creek,  Col. — J.  W.  Bailey  has  purchased  two  40- 
kilowatt  General  Electric  generators,  direct  connected  to  ideal 
engines  to  be  used  for  lighting  his  gold  extraction  plant ;  also  an 
electrolytic  dynamo. 

Weaverville,  Cal. — There  are  four  electric  lighting  plants  in 
Trinity  County,  viz. :  At  the  Brown  Bear  Mine,  Deadwood;  La 
Grange  Mine,  Oregon  Gulch  Mountain ;  Cis  Fse  Mine,  Junction 
City,  and  in  Weaverville. 

Salt  Lake  City,  Utah. — The  city  wiring  for  the  Citizens' 
Electric  Light  Company  is  practically  "completed,  and  satisfactory 
progress  is  being  made  at  the  new  power  house.  The  four  boilers 
have  been  placed  and  the  engine  is  now  being  erected. 

Salt  Lake  City,  Utah. — Two  large  generators  have  been  or- 
dered to  relieve  the  machines  of  the  Salt  Lake  and  Ogden  Gas 
and  Electric  Company,  and  which  will  ultimately  be  used  in  con- 
nection with  the  Big  Cottonwood  transmission. 

San  Jose,  Cal. — -The  Electric  Improvement  Company  expects 
to  have  15  miles  of  gas  mains  laid  and  to  have  a  new  gas  plant 
that  will  furnish  gas  for  $2  or  less  per  thousand  feet,  erected  and 
in  full  operation  in  less  than  a  year. 

Martinez,  Cal.— Johnson  Bros,  have  submitted  a  proposition 
to  the  Board  of  Trustees  offering  to  furnish  fiftv  incandescent 
lights  for  one  year  for  $1 .85  each  per  month  ;  thirty  lights  for  six 
months  at  $2.25  each  per  month ;  seven  arc  lights  for  a  year  at 
$11  per  month,  or  for  six  months  at  $12  per  month. 

Chico,  Cal. — Dr.  H.H.Clark  is  negotiating  with  Surveyor 
McGavin  for  the  purchase  of  the  latter's  water  right  on  Chico 
creek,  with  which  to  operate  the  new  electric  light  plant. 

Flagstaff,  Ariz. — The  Flagstaff  Electric  Light  Company, 
having  received  its  franchise, has  begun  construction,  and  expects 
to  furnish  lights  by  October  1st.  Its  Directors  are  D.  Babbitt,  D. 
M.  Riordan,  Chas.  Canall,  T.  A.  Riordan  and  F.  W.  Sisson. 

Denver,  Col. — A  50-kilowatt  General  Electric  incandescent 
dynamo  direct  connected  to  an  Ideal  engine,  and  one  25-kilowatt 
General  Electric  generator,  similarly  connected,  have  been 
bought  by  the  Northern  Finance  Company  for  the  Felhauser 

Berkeley',  Cal. — Now  that  the  new  charter  has  been  adopt- 
ed, the  Board  of  Trustees  has  more  funds  on  hand  for  street 
lighting  purposes,  and  will  supplement  the  present  arc  lights  by 
'61  candle-power  incandescents,  about  100  of  which  will  first  be 

Spokane,  Wash. — J.  B.  Fisken  has  resigned  the  general  man- 
agership of  the  Washington  Water  Power  Company,  controlling 
the  Edison  Illuminating  Company  and  various  street  railway  sys- 
tems of  this  city,  and  has  been  appointed  superintendent  of  the 
Consumers'  Light  and  Power  Company. 

San  Jose,  Cal. — The  contract  for  lighting  the  city  by  arc- 
lamps  for  the  year  beginning  October  1st  has  been  awarded  to  the 
San  Jose  Light  and  Power  Company,  its  bid  being  $8.90  per  lamp 
per  month,  against  the  bid  of  $8.94  per  lamp  per  month  submitted 
by  the  Electric  Improvement  Company. 

San  Francisco,  Cal. — The  Edison  Light  and  Power  Com- 
pany has  reduced  the  prices  of  supplies  to  consumers  as  follows: 
Sixteen-candle-power  incandescent  Edison  lamps,  from  25  cents 
to  20  cents  each  ;  Edison  key-sockets,  from  20  cents  to  16  cents  ; 
Edison  keyless  sockets,  from  18  cents  to  13  cents. 

San  Francisco,  Cal. — A  new  2x400  kilowatt  Edison  multipo- 
lar generator,  direct  connected  to  a  triple  expansion  marine  type 
engine,  has  been  installed  in  Station  C  of  the  Edison  Light  and 
Power  Company,  which  now  contains  five  2x200  kilowatt  genera- 
tors and  one  2x100  kilowatt  generator  of  the  type  defined. 

Palouse,  Wash. — The  new  electric  light  plant  will  be  located 
in  the  roller  flour  mill,  where  surplus  water-power  is  available. 
The  projectors  have  secured  an  option  on  the  dynamos  of  the  old 
plant  and  expect  to  furnish  incandescent  light  at  about  fifty  per 
cent,  of  the  rate  formerly  asked. 

Phcsnix,  Ariz. — The  sale  of  the  Gardiner  electric  light  plant 
to  the  Phoenix  Light  and  FuelConipany  has  been  consummated, 
the  purchase  price  being  $10,000.  Tne  Phoenix  power  house  is  to 
be  enlarged  and  the  plants  consolidated  and  increased  by  the  ad- 
dition of  new  steam  and  electric  machine^. 

Santa  Ana,  Cal. — The  City  Trustees  have  rejected  the  bid 
of  CM.  Holmes  of  the  Santa  Ana  Gas  and  Electric  Company  for 
lighting  the  city  for  one  year,  because  the  bid  was  so  worded  that  it 
was  obligatory  upon  the  city  to  purchase  the  electric  plant  for 
$6,000  if  the  city  refused  to  renew  the  contract  at  its  expiration. 

Riverside,  Cal. — The  City  Trustees  would  like  to  bring  in 
power  for  the  proposed  municipal  lighting  plant  from  a  water- 
power  eighteen  miles  distant,  but  do  not  see  their  way  clear  to  do 
so  and  furnish  the  125  arc  lights  and  the  incandescent  system 
desired  with  the  $45,000  that  has  been  voted  for  the  municipal 

Victora,  B.  C. —  Mr.  Hutchinson,  superintendent  of  the 
new  municipal  electric  light  plant,  has  rendered  a  report  on  a 
5-hour  test  of  the  steam  plant  iu  the  station,  as  follows:  Coal 
used,  1450  lbs. ;  coal  per  hour  used,  290  lbs. ;  average  horse-power 
developed  158.39;  coal  used  per  horse-power  per  hour,  1.83  lbs. ; 
one  boiler  was  used. 

Los  Angeles,  Cal. — The  Board  of  Supervisors  has  adopted 
an  ordinance  imposing  a  license  tax  on  electric  lighting  com- 
panies as  foliows :  Plants  operating  500  lights  or  less,  $2  per 
month;  those  operating  500  lights  and  less  than  1000  lights,  $10 
per  month;  those  operating  1000  and  over,  $15  per  month.  The 
above  includes  both  arc  and  incandescent  lights. 

San  Francisco,  Cal. — A  committee  of  the  Union  for  Prac- 
tical Progress  has  addressed  a  letter  to  the  Board  of  Supervisors 
asking  that  a  special  election  be  held  to  determine  whether  or  not 
the  people  should  own  their  own  water  works,  gas  works  and 
electric  lighting  plants,  either  by  buying  the  existing  works  from 
present  owners  at  an  appraised  valuation  or  by  constructing  new 

Flagstaff,  Ariz. — This  place  is  being  wired  for  electric  lights, 
and  the  new  plant  will  be  installed  in  the  old  school  house  as  soon 
as  the  engine  and  dynamo  arrive  from  the  East.  Incandescent 
lighting  sendee  will  be  rendered  on  "flat"  rates  of  $1.10  per 
month  for  11  o'clock  lamps  and  $1.50  per  month  for  lights  burn- 
ing until  1  A.  m, 

Santa  Ana,  Cal. — The  Santa  Ana  Gas  and  Electric  Company 
proposes  to  move  its  plant  at  once  from  this  city  to  Olive,  where 
water  power  is  available,  provided  it  receives  the  contract  for 
lighting  the  city  with  forty-arc  lamps.  It  will  require  about 
50,000  feet  of  wire  to  "locate  "the  new  lamps,  and  about  80,000 
feet  to  connect  with  Olive. 

Sept.,  1895.] 



San  Francisco,  Cal. — The  Pacific  Coast  office  of  the  West- 
inghouse  Electric  and  Manufacturing  Company  reports  the  sale 
of  the  following  apparatus  during  the  month:  1  00-K.  W.,  A.  C. 
generator  with  switchboard, apparatus  and  converters  complete; 
1  20— light  arc  plant  complete  ;  l-2Lo  horse-power,  125  volt 
generator;  1  60-light,  125-volt  generator;  Isolated  meter 
orders  aggregating  610  lamps. 

Forest  Grove,  Or  — The  commissioners  appointed  to  pre- 
pare estimates  of  tire  cost  of  buying  the  electric  light  plant  and 
putting  in  wells  and  pumps  to  be  operated  in  connection  with  it, 
have  reported  that  the  total  cost  of  the  proposed  improvement 
will  be  $30,000.  The  cost  of  the  electric  light  plant  complete  is 
estimated  at  $12,000.  The  report  was  adopted  by  the  Common 
Council,  which  at  once  passed  an  ordinance  calling  for  an  elec- 
tion to  vote  upon  the  issuance  of  city  bonds  to  cover  the  proposed 

Spokane,  Wash. — The  Consumers'  Light  and  Power  Com- 
pany having  been  awarded  a  franchise  bv  the  Council  over  the 
Mayor's  veto,  has  ordered  the  entire  plant  for  its  new  electric 
light  and  power  system,  which  will  cost  about  $100,000.  Contract- 
ors are  at  work  blasting  out  for  the  foundation  of  the  new  power 
house,  which  will  be  situated  at  the  west  end  on  the  north  side  of 
the  island  to  which  the  flume  under  the  Washington  street  bridge 
will  be  extended.  The  monocyclic  system  is  to  be  used,  and  it  is 
expected  that  service  will  be  given  before  the  close  of  the  year. 


Auburn,  Cal. — Messrs.  Hartley  and  Reynolds  have  secured 
the  franchise  previously  described  for  an  electric  road. 

Modesto,  Cal. — The  Herald  calls  attention  to  the  advisabil- 
ity of  building  an  electric  railway  from  this  city  to   Couiterville. 
Santa  Barbara,  Cal. — The   Santa  Barbara   Street    Railway 
Company  is   rebuilding  its   Garden-street   horse-car  track  for  an 
electric  line. 

Los  Angeles,  Cal. — The  Kuhrts  street  line  of  the  Consoli- 
dated Company  was  opened  on  August  21  for  traffic  and  the 
running  of  cars. 

Alameda,  Cal. — The  Alameda  Electric  Railway  Company  is 
having  constructed  a  2800  gallon  sprinkling  car,  for  which  salt 
water  will  be  used. 

Portland.  Or. — C.  E.  Smith,  Graham  Class  and  others  have 
secured  a  franchise  for  an  electric  road  on  First  street  over  the 
present  horse-car  line. 

Sacramento,  Cal. — An  application  has  been  filed  for  a  fran- 
chise to  carry  "  fruit,  vegetables  and  other  freight''  over  the 
electric  line  on  V  street. 

Oroville,  Cal. — The  project  of  building  an  electric  road 
between  Oroville  and  Butte  City  to  Palermo  and  Biggs  is  being 
revived  by  Messrs.  Hatch,  Rock  and  Treat. 

Phoenix,  Ariz.- — Surveying,  grading  and  cross  sectioning  is 
being  done  on  the  new  electric  line  that  will  run  from  First  and 
Washington  street  to  Dennis  and  Brill's  Additions. 

Oroville,  Cal. — Newspapers  are  advocating  the  building  of 
an  electric  road  to  run  from  Oroville  to  Palermo,  thence  across 
the  river,  passing  through  the  large  orchard  tracts  to  Biggs,  and 
then  Gridley. 

San  Bernardino,  Cal. — The  Pacific  Improvement  Company 
(Southern  Pacific  Company)  has  bought  the  Southern  California 
Motor  Road,  running  hence  to  Riverside.  The  purchase  price 
was  $107,100. 

Alameda,  Cal. — In  order  to  equalize  the  wear  on  car  wheels 
from  curves,  the  Alameda  Electric  Railroad  sends  each  car  on  the 
main  loop  one  way  around  the  circle  one  day  and  the  reverse 
during  the  next  day. 

Chelan,  Wash. — It  is  stated  that  J.  F.  Baker,  of  the  First 
Chelan  Bank  intends  to  build  an  electric  railway  between  the 
foot  of  Lake  Chelan  and  the  Columbia  river.  The  dynamos  will 
be  driven  by  water  power. 

Castle  Rock,  Wash. — The  Mount  St.  Helens  Railway  Com- 
pany has  been  incorporated  to  build  an  electric  railway  from 
here  to  the  mining  region  of  Skamania  county.  Milton  Santee, 
B.  A.  Deetz  and  L.  G.  Biglow  are  the  promoters. 

Redlands,  Cal  — LSusiness  men  a,re  agitating  the  question  of 
calling  an  election  for  voting  bonds  for  the  construction  of  an 
electric  road  from  Smiley  Heights  to  the  Lugonia  School,  with  a 
branch  line  up  Citrus  avenue  for  two  miles. 

Redlands,  Cal. — A  scheme  is  on  foot  to  consolidate  the 
street-car  systems  of  San  Bernardino  with  that  of  motor  roads 
leading  to  the  principal  resorts  of  the  vailey,  and  convert  the 
whole  into  electric  roads.  Power  can  be  cheaply  obtained  from 
the  Redlands  Electric  Company,  and  negotationsto  that  end  are 
now  in  progress,  with  strong  probabilities  of  complete  success. 

Oakland,  Cal. — E.  P.  Vandercook  has  secured  a  franchise  for 
an  electric  road  from  East  Oakland  to  the  county  line  beyond 
Livermore,  via  Haywards  and  Dublin,  and  with  a  spur  to  Pleas- 
anton.  The  line  will  be  thirty-three  miles  in  length,  w'hich  is 
twelve  miles  shorter  than  the  present  steam  route  to  Livermore, 
and  the  maximum  grade  will  be  5  per  cent.  It  is  stated  that 
construction  will  be  begun  within  sixty  days. 

Oakland,  Cal.— Engineers  are  surveying  the  route  of  the 
proposed  Vandercook  electric  line  from  Oakland  to  Livermore, 
and  it  is  stated  that  graders  and  tracklayers  will  be  at  work  by 
October  1st.  Practically,  all  rights  of  way  have  been  secured  and 
the  maximum  grade  will  not  exceed  (i  per  cent. 

San  Diego,  Cal.— Geo.  B.  Kerper,  purchaser  of  the  cable 
road  and  who  proposes  to  convert  it  into  an  electric  system,  ex- 
pects to  erect  various  places  of  amusement  at  the  Pavilion  on' 
University  Heights.  Power  will  probably  be  purchased  from  the 
San  Diego  Gas  and  Electric  Light  Company. 

Concord,  Cal. — The  construction  of  aii  electric  railway  over 
the  Piedmont  hills  to  Walnut  Valley,  and  thence  along  the  loop 
connecting  with  the  California  and  Nevada  Railroad,  is  promised 
by  Gen.  J.  A.  Williamson,  of  Washington,  D.  C.,  who  with  his 
associates  owns  14,000  acres  of  land  in  the  Moraga  tract,  which 
the  proposed  road  will  open  up 

San  Francisco.— J.  B.  Stetson,  Lovell  White  and  others 
interested  in  the  North  Pacific  Coast  Railway  have  had  surveys 
and  estimates  made  for  the  construction  of  a  railroad,  to  extend 
from  Mill  Valley  station  in  Marin  County  to  the  summit  of  Mount 
Tamalpais,  a  distance  of  about  four  miles.  The  road  will  pro- 
bably circle  the  mountain. 

Los  Angeles,  Cal. — D.  M.  McGarry  has  applied  for  a  fran- 
chise for  a  new  street  railway  to  be  known  as  the  Los  Angeles 
Belt  Railway,  which  will  start  at  Seventh  and  Broadway  and 
going  east  to  San  Pedro,  south  to  Ninth  street,  east  across  the 
river  to  Boyle  avenue,  North  to  Chicago,  north  to  Brooklyn,  west 
to  Bridge,  west  to  Aliso,  west  to  Los  Angeles,  south  to  First  and. 
San  Pedro  and  west  to  the  starting  point. 

Los  Angeles,  Cal. — The  Los  Angeles  Traction  Company 
commenced  operations  on  September  1st  by  opening  its  electric 
road  running  from  the  Santa  Fe  Depot  at  La  Grange  Station  up 
Third  street  to  Hill,  to  Eighth  street,  to  Pearl,  to  Eleventh,  to 
Georgia  Bell,  to  Sixteenth,  to  Bush  and  to  the  city  limits  at 
Hoover  street,  making  a  distance  of  about  four  and  a  half  miles. 
Los  Angeles,  Cal. — The  Board  of  Directors  of  the  Pasadena 
and  Los  Angeles  Electric  Railway  has  accepted  the  property  from 
Contractor  Clark,  and  has  paid  him  lor  the  same  an  amount  in 
the  neighborhood  of  $400,000,  in  stocks  and  bonds  of  the  Com- 
pany. When  its  extensions  are  completed  the  road  and  its  con- 
nections will*  extend  from  a  junction  with  the  Mt.  Lowe  road 
to  Santa  Monica. 

Santa  Barbara,  Cal.— An  eighteen  months'  franchise  has 
been  granted  to  the  Santa  Barbara  Consolidated  Electric  Rail- 
way Company,  and  N.  F.  Ashton  states  that  work  will  be  begun 
at  once  on  the  new  electric  road.  It  is  stated  that  as  the  manage- 
ment was  obliged  to  .wait  until  the  preliminaries  required  by 
law  were  complied  with  under  the  fifty  years'  franchise,  con- 
struction could  not  be  begun  for  some  time  10  come ;  hence  to 
hasten  the  beginning  of  operations  the  short-term  franchise  was 
granted  by  the  Common  Council. 

Portland,  Or.-S.  Z.  Mitchell,  W.  T.  Nelson  and  Fred  V. 
Holman  have  incorporated  the  Portland  Western  Railway  Com- 
pany, to  acquire  and  operate  railway  lines  as  follows:  the  railway 
formerly  owned  by  the  Barnes'  Heights  &  Connell  Mountain 
Railway  Company;  a  railway  having  its  termini  at  Portland  and 
Hillsboro;  a  railway  beginning  at  Mount  Cavalry  cemetery,  near 
Portland,  and  terminating  at  Hillsboro;  to  build  railways  in  any 
town  or  city  of  Oregon  ;  to  acquire  and  operate  telegraph  and 
telephone  lines  and  power  houses. 

Los  Angeles,  Cal. — The  Los  Angeles  Consolidated  Electric 
Railroad  was  sold  on  August  19th  to  Captain  A.  M.  Payson,  man- 
ager of  the  Pacific  Rolling  Mills,  as  representative  of  the  holders 
ol  $1,500,000  of  bonds,  or" one-half  of  the  face  value  of  the  issue. 
There  were  two  bids.  General  Manager  Fred.  W.  Wood  states 
that  the  new  owners  will  spend  between  $250,000  and  $500,000  in 
improving  the  system.  The  entire  plant  will  be  operated  from 
one  station,  which  will  necessitate  the  placing  of  additional  boil- 
ers, engines  and  1000  horse-power  direct  connected  generators. 
The  capacity  of  the  plant  will  be  from  2500  to  3000  horse-power. 
None  of  the  existing  lines  will  be  abandoned,  but  all  cable  lines 
and  the  Ninth  street  horse-car  lines  will  be  equipped  with  elec- 
tric traction,  which  will  doaway  with  the  three  cable  power-houses 
nowr  operated.  The  reconstruction  of  the  system  has  been  be- 
gun, and  will  be  prosecuted  diligently. 

San  Francisco,  Cal. — In  changing  the  Union  street  cable 
system,  the  tracks  on  Jackson  and  Washington  streets  are  to  be 
used  jointly  by  the  Market  street  Railway  and  the  Presidio  and 
Ferries  Railway  (Union  street  cable  line),  and  the  cost  of  recon- 
struction will  be  divided  between  the  two  corporations.  The 
Market  Street  Railway  Company,  after  having  equipped  the  Post 
street  cable  line  and  the  Montgomery  street  horse-car  line  with 
the  trolley,  will  operate  these  lines  as  a  continuous  line,  reaching 
the  ferry  over  the  Washington  and  Jackson  street  roadbed.  The 
Union  street  cars  will  take  power  from  the  Market  street  sys- 
tem. The  Jackson  and  Washington  street  branch  will  be  the 
first  portion  of  the  Union  street  line  to  be  equipped  with  electri- 
city, after  which  will  follow  the  main  cable  line  on  Union  street 
to  the  Presidio,  and  then  to- the  Harbor  View  extension,  which  is 
at  present  operated  as  a  steam  road. 



[Vol.  I,  No.  3. 


Redlands,  Cal. — The  use  of  electric  motors  for  operating 
well  pumps  is  becoming  very  general  in  this  vicinity. 

Riverside,  Cal, — Dr.  Lyman  Gregory  has  made  a  verbal  offer 
to  furnish  water  power  from  the  San  Jacinto  Mountains  to  oper- 
ate the  proposed  municipal  electric  lighting  plant. 

San  Bernardino,  Cal. — Rev.  Boren,  Jr.,  and  H.T.Shirley 
have  tiled  an  appropriation  of  7000  inches  of  water  from  the  Santa 
Ana  River  for  the  purpose  of  developing  power  for  an  electric 
power  house. 

Butte,  Mont. — An  English  syndicate  has  purchased  the  Clip- 
per group  of  mines  and  will  put  in  an  electric  power  plant  at 
Pony  and  transmit  the  power  to  the  mine,  where  a  200  or  250- 
stamp  mill  will  be  erected. 

Fresno,  Cal  — The  San  Joaquin  Electric  Power  Company  has 
secured  a  franchise  for  its  pole  lines  in  this  city  in  consideration 
of  supplying  to  the  city,  free  of  charge  forten  years,  two  2000  can- 
dle-power arc  lamps. 

Mesa,  Ariz. — A.J.  Chandler,  of  the  Consolidated  Canal  Com- 
pany, will  have  GOO  horse- power  in  electric  power  ready  for  deliv- 
ery in  Mesa,  shortly.  The  water  power  will  be  obtained  from  a 
bluff  one  and  one-half  miles  from  here. 

Redding,  Cal. — Geo.  P.  Himes,  acting  for  Wm.  M.Fitzhugh, 

of  San  Francisco,  has  located  two  'water  rights  at  the  junction  of 
the  Pitt  and  McC'loud  Rivers,  and  states  that  it  is  proposed  to 
erect  thereat  a  plant  for  electrical  transmission  of  power. 

Nogales,  Ariz. — The  Boleo  Company,  operating  extensive 
copper  mines  at  Santa  Rosalia,  Lower  California,  is  installing 
an  extensive  General  Electric  plant  for  lighting  its  works,  and 
running  all  its  machinery.  The  plant  is  being  forwarded  via 

Phescott,  Ariz. — Articles  of  incorporation  have  been  tiled  by 
the  Arizona  Water  Storage  Company,  formed  for  the  purpose  of 
developing  water  to  be  used  for  irrigation,  mining,  power,  etc. 
Capital  stock,  $5,000,000.  Incorporators,  B.  Burr,  L.  Marchant, 
Wm.  E.  Hazeltine. 

Los  Angeles,  Cal. — Chas,  Storey,  Engineer  of  the  City  Hall, 
has  rendered  a  report  to  the  Board  of  Public  Works  concerning 
an  electric  lighting  plant  for  the  City  Hall.  The  building  should 
be  re-wired,  and  a  500-light  dynamo  with  additional  steam  equip- 
ment will  be  necessary. 

Salt  Lake  City,  Utah.-— The  copper  wire  for  the  Big  Cotton- 
wood transmission  of  seventeen  miles  to  this  city,  and  consisting 
of  214  miles  of  wire  in  three  sizes,  has  been  made  by  the  John  A. 
Roebling's  Sons'  works  in  Trenton.  The  total  weight  of  this 
shipment  is  218,000  pounds. 

Visalia,  Cal.- -The  surveyors  of  the  Kaweah  Electric  Power 
Company  have  finished  the  location  and  cross  section  of  the  ditch 
from  the  Kaweah  River  to  the  site  of  the  proposed  plant,  but 
some  time  will  be  required  to  make  the  necessary  maps,  diagrams 
and  calculations  before  ground  is  broken.,  Brazil. — The  local  electric  lighting  company  has 
increased  its  plant  by  the  addition  of  a  120-kilowatt  General  Elec- 
tric alternator  and  Pelton  water  wheel.  The  present  plant  con- 
sists of  three  120-kilowatt  direct  connected  equipments,  hence  the 
total  capacity  when  the  new  machine  has  been  placed  will  be  420 

Santa  Ana,  Cal. — The  action  of  the  Board  of  Trustees,  in 
calling  a  special  election  to  vote  on  a  proposition  to  incur  a  bond- 
ed indebtedness  in  the  sum  of  $18,000  for  the  erection  of  a  muni- 
cipal electric  lighting  plant,  has  brought  out  a  proposition  from 
C.  M.  Holmes  offering  to  sell  the  entire  electric  light  plant  of  the 
Santa  Ana  Gas  and  Electric  Company  for  $6,000. 

Park  City,  Utah.— The  drainage  water  from  the  Ontario 
Mine,  which  has  for  years  been  a  great  burden,  has  been  utilized 
for  an  electric  lighting  plant,  and  now  drives  a  3-phase  65-kilo- 
watt  generator  by  means  of  a  Pelton  water  wheel.  The  current 
is  conveyed  to  this  city,  a  distance  of  three  miles,  and  is  used 
for  lighting  the  company's  mills  and  mine  works. 

Salt  Lake  City,  Utah.— The  Salt  Lake  &  Ogden  Gas  and 
Electric  Light  Co.  proposes  to  furnish  arc  lamps  for  street  light- 
ing at  the  following  rates :  Fifty  to  seventy  arc  lights  for  two 
years  contract,  $11  per  light  per  month;  three  years,  $10.50;  for 
100  arc  lights  two  years,  $10.50 ;  three  vears,  $10 ;  five  vears,  $9  50 ; 
for  150  arc  lights,  two  years,  $10;  three  years, "  $9.50;  five 
years,  $9. 

Santa  Rosa,  Cal. — Local  capitalists  are  considering  a  trans- 
mission project  by  which  electric  power  will  be  delivered  here 
from  a  canyon  forty  feet  higher  than  the  Russian  River,  and 
which  is  situated  near  Healdsburg.  The  plant,  it  is  estimated, 
will  generate  from  2000  to  5000   horsepower,  and  it  is  expected 

that  with  additional  turbines  and  canals  running  out  of  the  initial 
dam  at  least  8000  horse-power  can  be  derived. 

Fresno,  Cal. — Between  150  and  200  men  are  at  work  for  the 
San  Joaquin  Electric  Company  on  the  North  Fork.  The  Canal 
will  lie  completed  by  October  1st,  and  the  flumes  are  about 
finished.  The  reservoir  will  probably  be  finished  by  October 
15th,  and  work  on  the  pole  line  will  be  begun  as  soon  as  the  poles 
arrive  from  Mendocino  County.  J.  S.  Eastwood,  chief  engineer 
of  the  company,  states  that  the  plant  will  ba  in  operation  earlier 
than  February. 

Santa  Cruz,  Cal — It  is  announced  that  Fred.  W.  Swanton, 
manager  of  the  Santa  Cruz  Electric  Light  and  Power  Company, 
has  made  terms  with  Henry  Cowell  for  the  purchase  of  his  water 
rights  on  the  San  Lorenzo  River,  and  that  an  electric  power  trans- 
mission will  be  placed,  if  sufficient  co-operation  from  the  citizens 
can  be  secured.  Measurements  taken  show  that  400  horse-power 
is  available  during  August,  and  for  six  months  in  the  year  the 
water-power  of  the  river  is  equal  to  1000  horse-power.  The  length 
of  transmission  is  three  and  one-half  miles. 

Nevada  City,  Cal. — One  hundred  men  are  at  work  on  the 
flume  of  the, Nevada  County  Electric  Power  Company,  and  are 
placing  therein  from  25,000  to  20,000  feet  of  lumber  per  day.  All 
polesand  cross  arms  are  on  the  ground,  and,  with  the  line,  will 
be  erected  at  once  The  generator  lias  been  shipped  from  Pitts- 
field,  Mass.,  by  the  Stanley  Electric  Manufacturing  Company,' 
and,  without  doubt,  the  plant  will  be  finished  as  previously  an- 
nounced. The  pole  line  will  run  from  the  power  house  to  Sargent's 
ranch,  thence  to  W.  G.  Richards'  ranch,  and  from  there  to  the 
Deer  Creek  mines,  thence  to  >own  Talk  and  on  to  Grass  Valley. 
A  branch  will  be  run  up  Deer  Creek  to  supply  other  mines  in  that 

Fresno,  Cal. — The  reservoir  for  the  San  Joaquin  Electric 
Power  Company  will  consist  of  a  natural  basin  covering  eight 
acres,  so  conditioned  as  to  necessitate  the  building  of  a  dam  on  one 
side  only,  which  can  easily  be  done  by  throwing  up  an  embank- 
ment twenty-three  feet  high  and  ninety  feet  wide  at  the  base,  and 
twelve  feet  in  width  at  the  top. '  The  reservoir  thus  formed  will 
contain  28,000,000  gallons,  and  will  be  at  an  elevation  of  1410  feet 
above  the  powerhouse.  Three  General  Electric  three-phase  gen- 
erators of  340  kilowatts  each,  and  each  being  direct  connected  to 
a  Pelton  water  wheel,  will  be  used,  and  on  each  shaft  is  to  be 
placed  a  6000-pound  fly  wheel  to  act  as  an  auxiliary  for  the  gov- 
ernor, which  is  to  be  of  the  Pelton  differential  type.  The  dyna- 
mos will  deliver  current  at  700  volts,  which  will"  be  transformed 
up  to  11,000  volts,  and  transmitted  to  Fresno,  thirty-four  miles 
distant,  with  a  loss  of  ten  per  cent.  Six  No.  3  B.  &  S.  bare  copper 
wires  will  be  used,  supported  by  forty-foot  redwood  poles,  12x12 
at  the  base,  and  0x6  at  the  top,  standard  double  petticoat  porce- 
lain insulators  being  used.  The  sub-station  will  be  located  ad- 
joining the  Sperry  Flouring  Mills  in  Fresno.  The  entire  plant, 
which  includes  seven  miles  of  ditching  and  considerable  flume 
work,  will  cost  not  to  exceed  $200,000,  and  it  is  claimed  will  be  in 
operation  by  February  1st,  1896. 


Los  Angeles,  Cal.— The  new  City  Jail,  soon  to  be  erected, 
will  contain  quarters  to  be  used  as  the  operating  room  for  the 
Police  Patrol  system. 

Mare  Island,  Cal. — The  Boudreaux  dynamo  brush,  or  its 
equivalent,  is  considered  as  the  standard  in  specifications  for  sup- 
plies issued  by  the  Navy  Department  at  this  place. 

San  Jose,  Cal. — Bids  for  an  electric  elevator  proposed  to  be 
placed  in  the  City  Hall  were  received  from  the  Crane  Elevator 
Company  of  Chicago,  and  the  Cahill  &  Hall  Elevator  Company 
of  San  Francisco,  the  figures  being  $27,000  and  $29,090,  respec- 

Oakland,  Cal. — Charles  F.  McDermott,  residing  at  Phghth 
and  Center  streets,  is  perfecting  an  electric  submarine  torpedo, 
the  invention  of  Dr.  Gross  of  Chicago,  and  which  is  claimed  to  be 
actuated  and  exploded  by  electrical  means.  A  public  exhibition 
is  promised  soon. 

Pasadena,  Cal. — Articles  of  incorporation  of  the  California 
Light  and  Fuel  Company  have  been  filed.  Its  object  is  to  acquire, 
construct,  operate,  sell  and  otherwise  dispose  of  gas  works,  gas, 
electric  lights,  fuel  and  power  works,  etc.,  and  to  acquire  and  dis- 
pose of  water .  Principal  place  of  business,  Los  Angeles .  Directors : 
T.  S.  C.  Lowe,  J.  M.  0.  Marble,  L.  P.  Lowe,  W.  G.  Cochran  and 
H.  C.  Brown.     Capital  stock,  $300,000. 

Seattle,  Wash. — Arrangements  have  been  entered  into  be- 
tween the  various  electric  companies  whereby  three-fifths  of  the 
poles  on  the  principal  streets  will  be  taken  down  and  removed, 
and  only  the  60-foot  poles  of  the  Union  Illuminating  Company 
and  the  80-foot  poles  of  the  Sunset  Telephone  and  Telegraph 
Company  will  be  allowed  to  remain. 

R.     M.    WOOD    CO.     PRINT.    314-316     BATTERY    CT   , 

THE  JOOfylfllt  OF  EliEGTRlCITY. 

Vol.  I. 

OCTOBER,    1895. 

No.  4. 

F.  Mullander  and  Sidney  Sprout. 

N"  EDITORIAL  which  appeared 

in    a    recent  number   of  the 

Journal   of   Electricity   com- 

'    J  *  plained     that    without  doubt 

**f '  the    thousands  of   spectators 

^r       WT^  wno  iount^  much  to  admire  in 

the  elaborate  display  of  light- 
ing effects  witnessed  during  the  Electrical  Carnival 
Night  pageant  at  Sacramento,  would  regret  to  learn  that 
"  despite  the  efforts  of  several  local  photographers,  there 
is  not  to  be  obtained  a  single  illustration  of  even  a  single 
float  that  would  make  a  creditable  appearance,  or  that 
is  worthy  of  reproduction." 

This  is  a  situation  that  excites  but  little  surprise 
in  view  of  the  paucity  of  information  concerning  the 
taking  of  night  photographs  by  aid  of  the  electric  light, 
and  it  does  not  follow  that  the  inability  of  a  photogra- 
pher to  picture  night  effects  is  a  reflection  against  his 
professional  ability  for  many  reasons,  foremost  among 

Copyrighted  1895,  by  Geo.  P.  Low 

which    is,    of    course,    the 
necessity  for  experience  in 
this  work,  and,  above  all, 
a  perfect    co-operation    of 
effort  between  the  photog- 
rapher and  the  electrician. 
It  is  the   purpose   of  this 
article  to  give,  as  far  as  is 
possible,    such    details    of 
practical  experience  as  will  enable  work  of  the  char- 
acter   defined    to   be    undertaken  intelligently   by  any 
pains-taking  photographer ;   but  success  cannot  be  at- 
tained, nor  can  the  results  herein  portrayed  be  accom- 
plished, without  perfect  unanimity  and  accord  of  action 
on   the  part  of  both   the  photographic  and  electrical 

It  is  a  matter  well  known  in  photographic  circles  that 
night  photography  did  not  become  an  established  art,  so 
far  as  the  perfect  delineation  of  high  lights  and  obscure 
details  are  concerned,  until  the  spring  of  1894,  when  the 
night  photographs  of  scenes  of  the  California  Midwinter 
International  Exposition  were  taken  by  I.  W.  Taber,  the 
San  Francisco  photographer,  and  it  was  at  the  hands  of 
the  writers  of  this  article  —  one  of  whom  is  the  chief 
view  artist  of  the  photographer  named,  the  other  being 
the  Assistant  Electrical  Engineer  of  the  Midwinter  Ex- 
position, that  the  results  herein  given  were  accomplished. 
The  idea  of   making   exhaustive  researches   in   the 

All  Rights  Reserved. 



[Vol.  I,  No.  4. 

sphere  of  night  photography  by  electric  light  was  due  to 
the  desire  of  the  Manager  of  the  San  Francisco  Examiner 
to  develop  a  new  and  striking  feature  in  the  way  of 
illustrating  the  portfolio  of  views  of  the  Midwinter  Fair 
that  was  then  under  preparation  by  that  paper.  The 
first  efforts  made  in  the  way  of  night  photography  were 
far  from  satisfactory,  as  has  been  the  experience  of  every 
photographer  that  has  ever  attempted  work  of  this 
nature,  and  the  discouraging  results  may  be  summed  up 
in  the  statement  that  the  high  lights  caused  halation  of 
the  plate  to  such  an  extent  that  all  detail  was  lost. 
Composite  photographs  taken  instantaneously  by  day- 
light, but  with  under  exposure,  and  then  exposed  again 
by  night  from  the  same  sitting,  were  then  experimented 

from  this  plate  were  not  genuine,  and  the  firm  determin- 
ation to  secure  bona  fide-  photographs  that  would  be  ab- 
solutely free  from  fraud  of  any  kind,  led  to  the  suppress- 
ion of  the  prints,  and  none  were  ever  distributed. 

It  soon  became  evident  that  original  research  alone 
could  solve  the  problem,  and  an  analysis  of  the  situation 
led  to  the  conclusion  that  it  would  be  necessary  to  so  time 
the  various  features  of  the  subject  that  all  details  would 
be  given  equal  exposures,  or,  in  other  words,  that  the 
features  of  the  subject  should  be  graduated  into  lights 
and  shades,  varying  from  high  lights  to  obscure  details, 
and  that  different  periods  of  exposure  should  be  made 
for  each  such  feature,  so  that  the  effect  on  the  plate 
would  be  the  same  as  though  all  features  were  lighted  in 

Figure  1 — A  View  of  the  Tower  prom  the  Main  Arch  of  the  Agricultural  Building,  Mid- 
winter Fair,  Illustrating  the  Impracticability  of  Photographing  a  Beam  of  Light  with 
a  Wide  Angle  Lens.     (Copyright  1894,  by  I.  W.  Taber.) 

on  with  no  better  success,  and  the  photographs  thus  de- 
rived, one  of  which  is  shown  in  Figure  4,  bore  the  unmis- 
takable marks  of  "  faking."  In  this  photograph  an 
instantaneous  exposure  was  made  about  5  o'clock  in  the 
afternoon,  when  the  camera  was  left  standing  until  9 
o'clock  p.  m.,  and  then  exposed  for  the  illuminated  effects 
for  15  minutes.  No  assistance  was  rendered  in  the  elec- 
trical department  in  the  way  of  turning  off  lamps  or 
regulating  the  direction  of  the  search  light,  but  as  the 
latter  would  form  an  indispensable  feature  in  any  night 
photograph  of  the  Court  of  Honor,  the  beam  of  the 
search  light  was  "  faked  "  on  to  the  negative  by  means 
familiar  to  every  photographer.  The  general  aspect  of 
the  photograph  is  one  of  twilight,  just  after  the  starting 
up  of  the  lighting  circuit,  but  the  knowledge  that  prints 

perfect  equality.  It  was  at  this  point  that  the  services 
of  the  Electrical  Engineering  Department  were  brought 
into  demand,  and  work  was  commenced  on  a  basis  that 
is  believed  to  have  been  new  and  entirely  original.  All 
photographs  of  the  Midwinter  Fair  were  taken  on  Seed 
plates  No.  26,  that  varied  in  size  from  8  x  10  inches  to 
18  x  22  inches.  No  non-halation  plates  were  used,  ex- 
cept experimentally,  as  it  was  found  that  ordinary  single 
coated  plates  are  far  superior  to  the  non-halation  plates, 
for  the  reason  that  the  latter  will  not  bring  out  details  to 
a  satisfactory  degree.  Both  wide  angle  and  rectilinear 
lenses,  as  will  appear,  were  used,  and  throughout  all  the 
work,  almost  without  exception,  the  camera  was  operated 
with  an  F16  stop. 
The  successful  development  of  plates  of  night  photo- 

Oct.,  1895.] 



graphs  can  only  be  accomplished  through  the  careful 
use  of  a  solution  of  red  prussiate  of  potash  to  reduce 
the  halation  wherever  necessary.  This  solution  consists 
of  the  following  ingredients :  Red  prussiate  of  potash, 
I  ounce;  hypo,  2  ounces;  water,  16  ounces.  The  action 
of  this  solution  is  analogous  to  that  of  planing  a  board, 
and  if  it  is  flooded  over  an  entire  plate  it  will  reduce 
the  film  proportionately.  To  check  halation  it  is  ap- 
plied to  the  parts  affected  with  a  bit  of  cotton,  which 
outs  away  the  high  lights  of  the  film,  and  when  these 
high  lights  have  been  reduced  sufficiently,  further  reduc- 
tion must  be  checked  by  putting  the  plate  to  wash  in 
water.  Halation  may  often  be  checked  if  not  pre- 
vented while  developing  the  plate  by  application  of  a  so- 
lution of  bromide  of  potassium,  consisting  of  one  part  of 
bromide  to  10  parts  of  water.     When  it  is  noticed  that 

posure  the  high  lights  spread,  increasing  in  size  with  the 
increased  length  of  exposure,  forming  halation  that  be- 
comes impossible  to  reduce.  With  arc  lamps  the  rays 
are  sometimes  so  intense  as  to  actually  burn  holes 
through  the  films,  possibly  owing  to  the  focusing  of  its 
heat-rays,  as  in  a  sun-glass,  and  to  treat  such  troubles  is 
manifestly  impossible,  as  there  is  no  film  to  be  affected. 
An  occurrence  of  this  nature  is  shown  very  prettily 
in  the  view  of  the  State  Capitol  Building,  as  illumi- 
nated on  the  9th  of  September  last,  which  is  repro- 
duced in  Figs.  6  and  7,  from  a  photograph  taken  by  Mr. 
A.  Peterson.  In  this  a  Seed  27  plate  was  used,  and 
the  first  illustration  shown  was  printed  from  the  plate 
as  it  appeared  after  ordinary  developing,  and  the 
second  illustration  is  from  the  same  plate,  after  hav- 
ing been  treated  with  red  prussiate  of  potash  for  the 

Figure  2— The  Liberal  Arts  Building,  Electric  Fountain  and  Dome  op  the  Agricultural 
Building,  Midwinter  Fair.     (Copyright  1894,  by  I.  W.  Taber.) 

certain  lights  are  coming  up  too  sharply  on  the  plate, 
the  touching  of  these  parts  by  a  bit  of  cotton  wet  with 
the  bromide  solution  will  check  the  development.  An 
illustration  of  the  effectiveness  of  this  may  be  seen  in 
the  photograph  from  which  the  illuminated  caption  at 
the  head  of  this  article  was  taken,  in  which  the  lights 
from  the  interior  of  the  Vienna  Prater  were  coming  up 
so  strongly  as  to  lose  all  details  of  the  building,  but 
through  the  prompt  use  of  the  bromide  solution  the  de- 
velopment of  the  high  lights  was  checked  with  the  satis- 
factory results  shown. 

In  photographing  high  lights  the  tendency  is  to  turn 
the  film  into  a  perfectly  hard,  black  substance,  from  the 
excess  of  light,  just  as  nitrate  of  silver,  when  exposed 
to  the  sun,  will  turn  black.  Under  proper  exposure  the 
film  should  turn  only  to  a  gray  color,  but  with  over-ex- 

purpose  of  cutting  down  the  high  lights.  The  exposure 
was  of  1\  minutes'  duration,  which  resulted  in  a  severe 
burning  of  the  plate  about  the  arc  lights  in  the  dome, 
but  it  is  evident  that  this  has  been  very  successfully  re- 
duced, except  at  the  point  of  focus  of  the  heat-rays  of 
the  arc-lamps,  which,  as  stated,  have  burned  holes 
through  the  films.  It  would  be  difficult  to  obtain  a  more 
satisfactory  photograph  without  the  assistance  of  the 
electrician  controlling  the  lights. 

An  illustration  showing  forcibly  the  futility  of  endeav- 
oring to  accomplish  night  photography  without  the 
assistance  of  the  proper  parties  controlling  the  lighting 
effects  is  given  in  Figure  12,  which  is  a  reproduction 
from  a  photograph  taken  of  an  illuminated  arch  thrown 
across  Market  street,  San  Francisco,  last  Fourth  of  July. 
In  this  instance  an  exposure  of  20  minutes  was  made 



[Vol.  I,  No.  4. 

with  the  stop  wide  open,  and  the  plate  was  not  treated 
in  any  way.  The  lamps  upon  the  arch  were  of  different 
colors,  which  explains  the  varying  degree  of  brightness. 
The  street  traffic  was  perhaps  larger  than  is  usual  on 
evenings,  but  of  course  does  not  appear  distinctly  on  the 
photograph,  even  though  a  26  plate  was  used.  The 
streaks  running  along  in  the  center  of  the  street  are  from 
the  signal  lights  of  the  passing  cars,  while  the  bright, 
continuous  streaks  are  from  the  headlights  of  passing 
cars.  These,  of  course,  could  have  been  prevented  by 
capping  the  camera  during  the  passing  of  each  car,  but 
it  was  deemed  advisable,  for  the  sake  of  illustration,  not 
to  interfere  with  the  continuous  exposure. 

A  similar  experiment  in  night  photography  is  given  in 
Figure  11,  showing  a  canopy  of  incandescent  light  oper- 

services  of  the  electrical  department  thus  became  indis- 
pensable, and  the  first  view  taken  after  these  were  se- 
cured is  reproduced  in  Figure  3,  showing  the  Adminis- 
tration and  Agricultural  Buildings,  and  with  the  search 
light  on  the  Observatory  on  Strawberry  Hill.  In  addition 
to  the  usual  lights,  the  buildings  and  the  tower  were 
illuminated  for  five  minutes  each  by  the  small  search 
light  placed  in  the  turret  of  the  Mechanical  Arts  Build- 
ing. The  time  of  exposure  was  as  follows  :  9  p.  m.,  ex- 
posure began  ;  9:01  p.  m.,  arc  lamps  shut  off;  9:15  p.m., 
tower  lights  shut  off;  9:30  p.  m.,  camera  capped  —giving 
a  full  exposure  of  30  minutes  for  the  buildings,  incandes- 
cent and  search  lights. 

The  night  view  of  the  Liberal  Arts  Building,  shown 
in  Figure  2,  was  taken  with  the  following  exposures : 

Figure  3— The  Court  of  Honor  andSthe  Administration  and  Agricultural  Buildings  of  the 
■    Midwinter-  Fair,   with-  Seargh   Light  Thrown   Upon   the   Observatory  on   Strawberry 
Hill.     (Copyright  1894,  by  I.  W.  Taber.) 

ated  during  the  recent  water  carnival  at  Santa  Cruz,  Cal., 
together  with  fire  works.  This  exposure  was  started  at 
9:30  p.  m.  and  stopped  at  9:50  o'clock,  when  all  incandes- 
cent lamps  were  turned  off,  but  later  in  the  evening  the 
camera  was  uncapped  and  exposed  for  30  minutes  during 
a  display  of  fire  works.  The  halation  appearing  was 
caused  by  the  calcium  lights  being  turned  directly  upon 
the  camera,  and  no  efforts  were  made  to  remove  the 
rings  thus  formed. 

Reverting  to  the  Midwinter  Fair,  in  order  that  the 
proper  exposure  may  be  given  to  bring  out  each  feature 
of  every  subject,  regardless  of  whether  such  feature  con- 
sisted of  high  or  low  lights,  the  plan  was"adopted  of 
issuing  orders  to  the  dynamo  room  to  start  up  or  shut 
down  specified  exterior  lighting  circuits  at  such  times 
during  the  evening  as  had  been   predetermined.     The 

The  building  and  decorative  incandescent  lamps,  one 
hour;  search  light  on  the  building,  fifteen  minutes;  elec- 
tric fountain,  five  minutes;  arc  lamps,  one  minute. 

In  rather  painful  contrast  to  this  illustration  is  that 
presented  in  Figure  5,  which  is  a  reproduction  from  an 
amateur  effort  of  night  photography  with  the  same  sub- 
ject. This  merits  criticism  from  many  points,  but  clearly 
all  detail  was  under  exposed,  while  the  high  lights  were 
over  exposed.  Again,  it  is  evident  from  examination  of 
the  lower  right  hand  corner  of  the  photograph  that  the 
developer  was  not  flowed  evenly  over  the  plate,  aud  that 
the  portion  of  the  plate  which  evidently  was  omitted 
from  the  initial  flow  shows  better  detail  than  the  main 
portion  of  the  plate.  This,  in  turn,  indicates  over-de- 
velopment —  as  over-development  always  brings  out  ha- 
lation  it  makes  the  hard  lights  harder.     The  severe 

Oct.,  1895.] 



burning  given  the  plates  by  the  arc  lamps  has  caused 
such  halation  that  no  reduction  could  have  saved  them. 
Here  may  be  mentioned  the  fact  that  a  peculiarity  of 
negatives  produced  iu  photographing  arc  lamps  are  the 
bright  rays  or  streaks  of  light  emanating  therefrom,  and 

Figure  4 — A  Composite  Day  and  Night  Photogsaph  op  the  Sub- 
ject Presemtbd  in  Figure  3. — A  suppressed  "fake .1"  photo- 
graph.    (Copyright  1894,  by  I.  W.  Taber.) 

which  are  always  of  the  same  inclination.  No  satis- 
factory explanation  of  these  rays  has  been  advanced, 
but  the  writers  believe  that  inasmuch  as  the  camera  will 
reproduce  details  that  the  eye  canuot  detect,  these  rays 
have  an  actual  existence  but  are  not  sensible  to  the  hu- 
man eye.  By  treatment  of  the  plate  they  may  be  consid- 
erably reduced,  but  not  eliminated,  provided  the  plate  is 
not  too  far  over-exposed. 

The  first  night  photograph  taken  was  that  reproduced 
in  Figure  8,  the  subject  being  the  Tower,  the  Court 
and  the  Manufacturers'  Buildings,  which  was  given  an 
exposure  of  thirty  minutes  under  ordinary  conditions  — 
that  is,  with  all  lights,  both  arc  and  incandescent,  oper- 
ating as  usual  and  the  search  light  playing  in  all  direc- 
tions. In  this  connection  it  may  be  well  to  state  that 
the  favorite  subjects  illuminated  by  the  search  light 
were  the  simple  cross  on  Lone  Mountain,  the  Prayer- 
book  Cross,  and  the  Observatory  on  the  top  of  Straw- 
berry Hill.  In  this  instance,  the  Cross  on  Lone  Mount- 
ain formed  the  subject  most  appropriate  to  the  photo- 
graph, and  fortunately  it  suited  the  humor  of  the  man 
controlling  the  search  light  to  illuminate  this  cross  more 
than  the  other  subjects.  Upon  developing  the  negative, 
however,  rays  of  light  extended  in  all  directions,  but 
these,  with  the  exception  of  one  ray  in  the  direction  of 
Strawberry  Hill,  which  the  photograph  shows  faintly, 
were  cut  down  in  the  manner  hereafter  described. 

It  is  clear  from  an  analysis  of  the  photograph,  if  not 
of  the  illustration,  that  the  high  lights  were  so  strong 
that  all  of  the  fine  detail  of  the  buildings  and  grounds 
were  practically  lost,  as  were  also  all  of  the  geometrical 
forms  which  were  outlined  in  incandescent  lamps  on  the 
tower.  To  have  made  the  exposure  proper  to  avoid 
halation  would  have  been  to  lose  all  of  the  details  about 

the  buildings,  and  conversely,  iu  order  to  bring  out  the 
details  in  the  buildings  and  grounds,  halation  resulted, 
as  is  evident. 

The  beauty  of  the  view  presented  in  Figure  1,  show- 
ing the  tower  from  within  the  main  arch  of  the  Agricul- 
tural Building,  was  noted  towards  the  close  of  the  Fair, 
and  several  attempts  were  made  to  photograph  it,  but 
none  of  which,  even  the  one  here  reproduced,  was  per- 
fectly satisfactory.  The  conditions  presented  were  try- 
ing in  that  the  subject  contained  objects  both  near  and 
distant,  which  afforded  considerable  difficulty  in  focus- 
ing, and  necessitated  the  use  of  a  wide  angle  lens.  This 
alone  would  not  have  been  a  material  difficulty  were  it 
not  for  the  fact  that  we  have  thus  far  found  it  impossible 
to  photograph  the  beam  of  a  search  light  when  using  a 
wide  angle  lens,  the  reason  probably  being  that  the  rays 
are  so  diffused  as  to  dissipate  their  actinic  effects.  The 
night  on  which  this  photograph  was  taken  was  excep- 
tionally favorable  iu  that  the  atmosphere  was  sufficiently 
hazy  to  bring  out  the  beam  of  the  search  light  very 
strongly,  but  despite  this  it  was  but  faintly  brought  out 
in  the  photograph.  The  interior  of  the  arch  was  illum- 
inated by  two  arc  lamps,  and  the  times  of  exposure  are 
as  follows :  9  p.  m.,  camera  uncapped  ;  9:10  p.  m.,  arc 
lamps  extinguished  ;  9:15  p.  m.,  the  arch  arc  lamps  ex- 
tinguished ;  9:30  p.  m.,  tower  "  blinkers  "  extinguished  ; 
10  p.  m.,  tower  incandescents  extinguished  ;  10:30  p.  m., 
camera  capped,  after  giving  the  beam  of  the  search  light 
an  exposure  of  one  and  a  half  hours.  No  more  striking 
example  of  the  inability  of  a  wide  angle  lens  to  photo- 
graph a  beam  of  light  can  be  given  than  that  shown  by 
comparison  of  Figures  1  and  3.  The  photograph  from 
which  Figure  3  is  reproduced,  and  which  was  taken 
with  a  rectilinear  lens,  was  exposed  thirty  minutes,  while 

Figure  5— The  Liberal  Arts  Building  and^Electric  Fountain 
Under  Ordinary  Exposure,  Illustrating  the  Bearing  of 
Over-Development  Upon  Halation.  (Copyright  1S94,  by  J. 
N.  and  D.  Creighton.) 

the  photograph  shown  in  Figure  1,  taken  with  a  wide 
angle  lens  with  a  superior  beam  of  light,  was  exposed  for 
one  and  a  half  hours. 

The  superb  photograph  from  which  the  caption  of  this 
article  was  made,  and  which  shows  a  general  night  view 



[Vol.  I,  No.  4. 

of  the  Midwinter  Fair  grounds,  was  taken  from  Straw- 
berry Hill,  the  exposure  being  started  at  9  p.  m.  From 
previous  observations  it  has  been  found  that  a  consider- 
able portion  of  the  Fair  grounds,  particularly  that  of  the 
Midway  nearest  Strawberry  Hill,  would  appear  as  ex- 
cessively lighted  or  not  lighted  at  all,  according  to 
whether  the  lights  therein  were  turned  on  or  off.  In 
the  former  instance  halation  would  hot  only  destroy  all 
detail,  but  would  ruin  the  photograph,  and  as  the  bring- 
ing out  of  this  portion  of  the  Fair  grounds  was  desirable, 

Figure  6 — The  Illumination  op  the  State  Capitol  Building 
at  Sacramento,  Reproducing  a  Print  made  prom  a  Plate 
Before  the  Reduction  op  High  Lights  and  Halation. 

the  arc  lamps  lighting  it  were  shaded  from  the  camera 
by  means  of  pieces  of  card  board  attached  to  the  lamps 
on  the  sides  nearest  the  camera  so  as  to  obscure  all  the 
direct  rays  of  light.  These  lamps  were  left  burning 
throughout  the  entire  exposure  with  the  result  that  the 
thoroughfares  and  buildings,  being  well  illuminated,  are 
excellently  reproduced.  As  stated,  the  exposure  started 
at  9  p.  m.,  and  at  9:05  all  arc  lamps  around  the  Court  were 
turned  off.  The  "  blinkers,"  as  the  changeable  lights  in 
the  tower  were  termed,  were  run  until  9:30,  but  the 
buildings  and  incandescents,  together  with  the  search 
light  and  Firth  wheel,  which  were  kept  stationary,  were 
allowed  to  run  until  10  o'clock,  when  the  camera  was 
capped.  The  electric  fountain  was  played  nightly  for 
twenty  minutes  from  10  o'clock,  and  on  this  particular 
evening  it  had  been  arranged  that  at  the  close  of  its  play 
all  jets  of  the  fountain  would  be  operated  under  white 
light  for  five  minutes  additional,  during  which  the 
camera  was  uncapped.  It  may  be  noted  that  the  plate 
from  which  this  photograph  was  taken  was  not  treated 
in  any  way  except  by  the  application  of  red  prussiate  of 
potash,  and  that  the  night  was  windy  and  generally  dis- 

An  excellent  specimen  of  night  photography  was  se- 
cured recently  at  Glen  Una,  the  home  and  prune  ranch 
of  Mr.  Frank  Hume  near  Los  Gatos,  Cal.,  and  which  is 
shown  in  Figure  9.  The  subject  is  situated  in  the 
midst  of  a  grove  of  scrub  oaks,  which  being  very  thick, 
and  it  being  10  o'clock  at  night,  rendered  the  subject 
very  dark.  The  exposure  was  commenced  at  10  p.  m., 
and  stopped  at  10:30,  the  only  light  being  that  of  a  single 

2000  candle  power  arc  lamp,  and  that  of  incandescent 
lamps  concealed  in  the  Japanese  lanterns  shown.  No 
people  appeared  during  this  exposure,  but  instead,  at  its 
conclusion  the  people  were  grouped  as  shown,  and  an 
additional  exposure  of  five  minutes  was  made. 

The  photograph  reproduced  in  Figure  10  shows  the 
interior  of  the  electric  fountain,  the  striking  feature  of 
which  is  the  manner  in  which  the  rays  of  light  from  the 
horizontal  reflectors  were  brought  out.  This  was  the 
result  of  an  accident.  Several  unsuccessful  attempts 
had  been  made  upon  this  subject,  and  it  was  finally  con- 
cluded to  make  a  time  exposure  of  five  minutes,  upon 
the  expiration  of  which  time  a  flash  light  would  be  used, 
but  when  the  cap  was  removed  the  flash  light  was  acci- 
dently  set  off,  filling  the  room  with  smoke  which  brought 
out  the  rays  so  much  stronger  that  the  exposure  was 
continued  ten  minutes  longer  in  order  that  the  full  effect 
might  be  secured.  The  plate  was  not  treated  in  any 
way,  and  the  lesson  thus  learned  has  since  been  of  ser- 
vice many  times  in  bringing  ont  lighting  effects  that 
would  otherwise  have  been  impossible. 

Considering  the  remarkable  results  that  were  attained 
in  the  way  of  night  photography  at  the  Midwinter  Fair, 
regret  will  always  be  felt,  perhaps  by  millions,  that  simi- 
lar efforts  were  not  undertaken  during  the  late  World's 
Fair  at  Chicago,  and  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  the  officials 
of  the  Atlanta  Exposition  now  in  progress  will  embrace 

Figure  7 — The  Illumination  of  the  State  Capitol  Building 
at  Sacramento,  Reproducing  a  Print  made  from  a  Plate 
After  the  Reduction  of  High  Lights  and   Halation. 

the  opportunity  presented  for  further   research  in   the 
realms  of  night  photography. 


The  Electrical  Journal  changes  its  name  with  the  Sep- 
tember number,  the  third  issue,  to  The  Journal  of  Elec- 
tricity. It  is  one  of  the  best  technical  papers  coming  to 
the  reviewer's  table,  and  contains  much  valuable  knowl- 
edge for  the  student  as  well  as  the  practical  electrician. 
The  different  departments  are  well  edited,  and  The  Jour- 
nal under  the  taanagemeut  of  Mr.  George  P.  Low  has 
from  the  start  secured  an  enviable  advertising  patron- 
age.    The  Overland  Monthly,  San  Francisco. 

Oct.,  1895.] 




By  Lieut.  W.  Stuart-Smith,  U.  S.  N. 

The  writer  was  recently  consulted  regarding  the  pos- 
sibility of  utilizing  electricity  for  the  separation  of  the 
free  gold  from  black  sand,  and,  after  some  thought,  con- 

tude,  and  the  reaction  between  these  and  the  magnetic 
field  will  cause  the  gold  to  be  separated  from  the  sand. 

A  small  generator  only  would  be  required,  and  if  only 
the  larger  and  heavier  particles  of  gold  could  be  separ- 
ated, it  would  seem  that  the  sand  could  be  worked  at  con- 
siderable profit,  as  the  labor  expended  on  the  sand  itself 
would  be  simply  that  required  to  shovel  it  into  a  hopper. 

Figure  8 — Night  Photography.     The  Tower,  Court  and  Liberal  Arts  Building  of  the 
Midwinter  Fair.     (Copyright  1894,  by  I.  W.  Taber.) 

ceived  the  idea  of  a  magnetic  separator,  similar  in  prin- 
ciple to  those  in  use  for  concentrating  iron  ores. 
Evidently  a  direct  current  cannot  be  used,  since  the 
metal  to  be  separated  is  not  capable  of  being  influenced 
by  constant  magnetism. 

The  gold  exists  in  a  free  state,  consisting  of  very  thin 
flakes,  each  of  which  may  be  considered  as  constituting 

The  Journal  of  Electricity  (September) — The  right 
to  priority  of  claim  to  the  title  of  The  Electrical  Journal 
which  was  raised  by  the  papers  of  that  name  published 
respectively  here  and  iu  Chicago,  has  been  settled.  Both 
papers  came  out  at  the  same  time  and  each  claimed  the 
name.     The  Journal  here  has  at  last  decided  to  stop  the 

Figure  9 — Night  Photography.    In  the  Grove  at  Glen  Una, 
Time,  10  p.  m. 

a  closed  circuit.  If,  then,  the  magnets  be  energized  by 
an  alternating  current  of  high  frequency,  and  the  sand 
containing  the  gold  be  passed  in  front  of  the  poles  in  a 
thin  stream,  or  be  blown  against  the  poles  by  a  gentle 
air  blast,  the  rapidly  changing  magnetism  will  generate 
in  the  contained  metal  currents  of  considerable  magni- 

Figure  10 — Night  Photography'.  Under  the  Electric  Fountain 
at  the  Midwinter  Fair. — A  suggestion  for  bringing  out  light 
rays.     (Copyright  1894,  by  I.  W.  Taber.) 

controversy,  and  appears  under  the  name  of  The  Jour- 
nal of  Electricity,  a  name  as  fitting  and  in  keeping, 
moreover,  with  its  purposes.  It  is  edited  by  George  P. 
Low  and  F.  A.  C.  Perrine,  two  well-known  men  in  elec- 
trical circles.  The  September  number  has  a  prosperous 
appearance. — Engineer  and  Contractor,  San  Francisco. 



[Vol.  I,  No.  4. 


While  marvelous  advances  have  been  made  in  develop- 
ing telephone  exchanges  to  a  high  standard  of  excellence, 
there  yet  remains  details  which,  though  forming  indis- 
pensable adjuncts,  have  received  but  little  if  any  atten- 

Figure  11 — Night  Photography.  The  Santa  Cruz  Water 
Carnival,  Showing  Halation  Circles  and  Film  Burn- 
ings.    (Copyright  1894,  by  I.  W.  Taber.) 

tion,  and  which  stand  to-day  where  they  were  a  decade 
since.  Prominent  among  these  details  is  the  magneto, 
whieh,  except  in  the  invention  of  improved  features  such 
as  gearing  so  arranged  as  to  automatically  cut  the  mag- 
neto circuit  in  or  out,  as  the  case  may  be  upon  turning 
the  crank  handle,  is  to  all  intents  the  same  device  as  was 
in  use  long  before  the  invention  of  the  telephone.  It  is 
universally  conceded  that  the  magneto  itself  is  not  a 
satisfactory  appliance  in  telephone  exchanges,  particu- 
larly those  of  large  proportions,  yet  despite  this  it  is 
used  almost  exclusively,  the  only  improvement  applied 
being  that  it  is  driven  by  some  motive  power  such  as  an 
electric  motor.  Some  exchanges  in  the  large  cities  are 
to-day  operating  dozens  of  small  telephone  magnetos 
which  are  driven  by  counter  shafting  and  belting  and  re- 
quire much  attention. 

For  several  years  the  local  telephone  system  connect- 
ing various  departments  of  the  Edison  Light  and  Power 
Company  of  San  Francisco,  which  is  operated  through  a 
local  exchange  in  the  office  of  the  company,  was 
equipped  with  a  single  ordinary  magneto  driven  by  an 
electric  motor,  the  latter  in  turn  being  operated  from  the 
Edison  underground  circuit.  Except  for  the  noise  and 
requiring  occasional  attention,  the  service  was  withal 
satisfactory,  but  nevertheless  it  is  believed  that  it  could 
be  improved  upon,  and  accordingly  the  apparatus  shown 
in  the  accompanying  illustration  was  installed. 

As  is  evident  from  the  cut,  an  Edison  slow-speed  fan 
motor  having  a  rated  capacity  of  one-twelfth  of  a  horse- 
power is  used,  and  by  placing  two  collector  rings  on  the 
other  end  of  the  armature  shaft  from  that  on  which  the 
commutator  is  located,  and  by  connecting  each  ring  re- 
spectively to  diametrical  points  of  the  armature  wind- 
ing, the  motor  becomes  a  motor-generator,  transforming 
the  direct  current  it  receives  into  an  alternating  current 
available  at  the  collector  rings  and  of  a  rate  of  alterna- 
tion depending  upon  the  speed  of  the  armature.  The 
electro-motive  force  of  the  alternating  current  is  at  all 

times  equal  to  the  electro-motive  force  of  the  direct  cur- 
rent applied  to  the  motor  and  the  rate  of  alternation  is, 
of  course,  twice  the  speed  of  the  armature. 

In  the  present  instance,  there  being  no  110-volt  motor 
available,  a  25-volt  motor  was  used,  and  the  voltage  of 
the  regular  incandescent  service  is  cut  down  to  25  volts 
by  the  interposition  of  incandescent  lamps  in  series  with 
the  motor.  From  the  brushes  bearing  upon  the  collector 
rings,  leads  are  taken  through  a  small  double  pole  jaw 
switch  to  the  primary  of  the  small  transformer,  clearly 
shown  in  the  illustration.     This  primary  consists  of  No. 

24  cotton-covered  magnet  wire,  and  the  secondary  wind- 
ing has  three  times  the  length  of  the  same  size  of  wire. 
The  transformer,  therefore,  builds  up  the  potential  from 

25  volts  to  75  volts,  and  as  the  speed  of  the  motor  is 
1550  revolutions  per  minute,  the  rate  of  alternation  is 
3100  per  minute. 

It  is  found  in  practice  that  the  ringing  of  a  single  500- 
ohm  bell  checks  the  speed  of  the  motor  by  about  150 
revolutions  per  minute,  while  the  speed  of  the  motor  is 
checked  by  about  500  revolutions  per  minute  by  throw- 
ing a  dead  short  circuit  upon  the  secondary  of  the  trans- 
former. Iu  no  other  way  than  by  checking  the  speed  of 
the  armature  is  a  load  manifested,  and  obviously  under 
most  adverse  conditions,  i.  e.,  a  short  circuit,  can  the 
conditions  imposed  be  sufficiently  severe  to  cause  burn- 
ing out  or  other  injury.  The  bells  rung  from  this  de- 
vice are  vibrated  more  strongly  than  from  a  magneto. 

Under  usual  conditions  a  110-volt  motor  of  the  form 
described  or  otherwise,  as  may  be  desirable,  would  be 
used,  in  which  event  the  transformer  would  be  so  wound 
as  to  step  down  from  110  volts  to  approximately  75 
volts,  under  which  conditions  the  energy  consumed  run- 
ning at  no  load,  but  exciting  the  transformer,  would  be 
approximately  85  watts,  while  under  full  load  the  con- 
sumption will  be  150  watts. 

Figure  12 — Night  Photogpaphy.      An  Illuminated  Arch 
Under  Normal  Exposure  and  Ordinary  Development. 

The  entire  outfit  complete  may  be  erected  at  slight 
cost,  and  will  operate  from  ten  to  fifteen  calls  simultane- 
ously with  satisfaction.  When  equipped  with  self-oiling 
bearings  and  with  carbon  brushes  the  apparatus  runs 
noiselessly  and  will  not  require  attention  oftener  than 
once  a  month,  if  then.  The  arrangement  is  due  to  Mr. 
F.  E.  Smith,  the  chief  electrician  of  the  Edison  Light 
and  Power  Company  of  San  Francisco. 

We  have  at  last  received  a  copy  of  the  first  issue  of 
our  new  contemporary,  The  Electrical  Journal  (San 
Francisco).  The  venture  has  received  no  little  attention 
in  the  United  States,  and  it  is  with  interest  that  we  turn 
over  its  pages.  The  articles  are  good.—  Electricity, 

Oct.,  1895.] 



Qleotro  'Jnsuranoe. 


A  fire  recently  occurred  in  one  of  San  Francisco's  new 
office  buildings,  which,  though  quickly  suppressed, 
caused  damage  to  the  amount  of  about  $1000.  At  first 
sight  it  was  said  that  the  fire  was  caused  by  electric 
light  wires,  but  after  making  a  thorough  examination  it 
was  reported  that  though  the  conduit  tubing  and  wire 
insulation  was  burned  away,  yet  the  fire  was  due  to 
causes  other  than  the  electric  installation.  Nevertheless, 
the  examination  disclosed  a  peculiarly  vicious  state  of 
affairs  in  connection  with  the  wiring,  which  it  seems  to 
the  writer  worth  while  calling  attention  to. 

The  iron  columns  supporting  the  floors  are  cased  with 
closely-fitting  tiling,  considerable  space  being  enclosed 
which  is  valuable  as  channel  ways  for  wires,  pipes,  etc. 

not  occur  owing  to  the  high  temperature  of  the  sur- 
rounding space.  With  the  reduced  conductivity  the 
passage  of  the  calculated  safe  current  would  cause  a  very 
considerable  increase  of  temperature,  which  in  itself 
would  further  lower  the  conductivity  and  cause  a  still 
further  rise  of  temperature. 

It  will  be  seen,  therefore,  that  while  a  calculation 
shows  that  the  conductivity  could  not  have  been  more 
than  45%  of  that  for  which  estimate  was  made,  it  was 
in  reality  less  than  45%  by  an  amount  that  cannot  even 
be  guessed  at.  While  it  is  reported  that  the  electric  in- 
stallation was  not  the  cause  of  the  fire,  yet  it  is  readily 
conceivable  that  the  wire  might  have  been  heated  to 
redness.  This  case  shows  how  thoroughly  thoughtless- 
ness may  undo  intention. 


The  annual  meeting  of  the  Electrical  Committee  of  the 
Underwriters'  Electric  Association  is  to  be  held  in  New 
York  City  during  the  week  beginning  December  9th,  in 

Dispensing  with  Magnetos  in  Telephone  Exchanges. 

In  one  of  these  wires  were  placed,  enclosed  in  plain  in- 
terior conduit  tubing,  and  in  the  same  space  was  placed 
a  steam  pipe  carrying  steam  of  100  pounds  per  gauge. 
The  space  was  closed,  so  as  to  be  practically  a  dead  air 
space,  and  the  temperature  must  have  been  closely  ap- 
proximating to  that  of  the  steam.  Steam  of  100  pounds 
pressure  has  a  temperature  of  338°  F.,  and  therefore  the 
wires  must  have  had  approximately  this  temperature 
when  no  current  was  passing. 

Wires  are  figured  for  a  safe  carrying  capacity  at  75° 
F.,  and  for  every  degree  above  this  the  resistance  in- 
creases .21%  of  1.  In  this  case  the  difference  was  263°, 
or  the  total  increase  of  resistance  was  263  times  .21%  or 
55%.  It  follows,  therefore,  that  considering  only  the 
temperature  due  to  the  steam,  the  carrying  capacity  was 
reduced  to  45%  of  the  calculated  amount,  but  this  rep- 
resents by  no  means  the  actual  carrying  capacity  of  the 
wire.  The  rules  for  safe  carrying  capacity  are  based 
upon  the  possibility  of  the  heat  generated  being  freely 
radiated,  and  in  this  case  it  is  evident  that  this  could 

view  of  which  it  has  been  deemed  wise  to  adopt  some 
plan  by  which  all  interested  in  the  subject  of  rules  for 
electric  light  and  power  wiring,  whether  members  of  this 
Association  or  not,  can  have  an  opportunity  to  make 
suggestions  for  the  committee  to  consider. 

It  has  seemed  probable  that  some  points,  which  might 
with  advantage  have  been  discussed,  were  lost  because 
there  were  no  written  memoranda  on  the  subject  to 
bring  the  matter  to  the  attention  of  the  committee,  and, 
as  a  result,  forms  have  been  printed  for  the  use  of  those 
interested  on  which  may  be  designated  any  features  of 
the  present  requirements  which  may  be  deemed  objection- 
able, or  which  it  is  believed  could  be  amended,  or  on 
which  suggestions  regarding  the  formulation  of  new 
rules  to  cover  points  not  now  touched  upou.  These 
blanks  may  be  obtained  upon  application  to  C.  M.  God- 
dard,  Secretary,  55  Kilby  street,  Boston,  or  Geo.  P.  Low, 
member  of  the  committee,  303  California  street,  San 
Francisco,  and  must  be  filled  out  and  mailed  to  Mr. 
Goddard  on  or  before  December  1st. 



[Vol.  I,  No.  4. 

1&f{*  Journal  of  SEtettrititg* 

An  Illustrated  Review  of  the  Industrial  Applications  of  Electricity,  Gas  and  Power 


F.   A.   C.    PERRINE,   D.   Sc,   and -GEO.   P.    LOW. 

Subscription   Payable   in   Advance.      Terms  : — Domestic,    One 

Dollar  per  Year;  Foreign,  Two  Dollars  per  Year. 

The  Rates  for  Advertising  are  Moderate. 

PUBLISHED    JVIOflTHLtY    BY    GEO.    P.    L«OW, 
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[Entered  as  Second-Class  Matter  at  the  San  Francisco  Postoffice.] 


OCTOBER,  1895. 



The  importance  of  a  satisfactory  head- 
light for  a  bicycle  is  well  recognized  both 
an  idea         by  those  who  have  attempted  to  use  anv 


builders.  one  °f  tne  standard  headlights,  and  by 
those  who  have  been  so  unfortunate  as 
to  encounter  a  "  scorcher "  riding  at 
night  without  a  lantern.  Most  bic3Tclists  prefer  to  ride 
entirely  without  a  light  for  the  reason  that  the  lanterns 
on  the  market  are  not  capable  of  giving  a  sufficient 
amount  of  illumination  to  materially  aid  the  rider  in 
picking  his  way,  though  there  is  no  doubt  that  for  pedes- 
trians some  visual  notice  of  the  coming  of  so  noiseless  a 
vehicle  is  important. 

The  photometric  tests  presented  in  another  column 
show  an  extraordinary  small  amount  of  candle  power  of 
the  standard  oil  lanterns  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  the  en- 
tire light  from  the  flame  is  concentrated  in  one  direction 
by  means  of  lenses  and  reflectors.  The  burden  of  the 
additional  weight  of  a  battery  for  an  electric  light,  which 
is  far  more  satisfactory,  is  in  general  too-great- to  receive 
unqualified  endorsement  at  the  hands  of  enthusiasts  that 
are  constantly  striving  to  attain  lighter  weight  in  bicy- 

In  casting  around  for  a  feasible  method  for  an  improved 
illuminant  for  bicycle  lanterns,  one  is  struck  with  the 
fact  that  for  a  given  amount  of  weight  and  bulk  there  is 
nothing  that  will  exceed  acetylene  gas.  The  tubes  of  a 
bicycle  frame,  which  may  be  readily  connected  together, 
contain  a  volume  of  about  sixty-five  cubic  inches,  and 
are  sufficiently  strong  to  withstand  an  internal  pressure 
of  2000  pounds  per  square  inch,  using  a  factor  of  safety 
of  about  seven.  If  an  arrangement  could  be  made  for 
charging  these  tubes  with  a  burning  mixture  of  acety- 
lene and  carbon  mon-oxide  to  a  pressure  not  exceeding 
600  pounds  to  the  square  inch,  sufficient  gas  might  be 
stored  to  furnish  a  burner  giving  about  twelve  candle 
power  for  a  period  of  at  least  four  hours.  Burners  con- 
taining reducing  valves  for  burning  the  gas  unHer  these 
conditions  are  on  the  market,  and  in  use  in  the  Pintsch 

gas  systems  which  illuminate  the  standard  railway 
trains.  The  difficult}'  of  charging  is  one  which  might 
readily  be  overcome  by  the  establishment  of  hand  pumps 
in  bicycle  repair  shops,  while  the  burden  of  weight  and 
expense  would  not  be  very  much  greater  than  they  are 
at  present  with  coal  oil  illumination. 

Eecent   information    which    has    just 

been  furnished  concerning  the  capitaliza- 

concerning  .  !,.,.,,„ 

the  new  various  electrical  interests  of 

Sacramento.  the  city  of  Sacramento  has  proven  the 
error  of  surmises  lately  published  in 
this  paper  to  the  effect  that  unless  con- 
solidation or  other  combination  should  occur,  the  city 
named  is  on  the  eve  of  a  struggle  of  commercial  suprem- 
acy between  its  two  electric  systems.  "  One  side,"  it 
was  pointed  out,  "  is  ranged  on  the  vantage  ground  of 
abundant  water  power,  but  its  forces  are  crippled  because 
of  the  heavy  interest  charges  that  must  be  met ;  the  op- 
posing side  is  free  from  bonded  indebtedness.  Its  interest 
charges  are  light,  and  by  the  substitution  of  gas  engines 
for  its  present  steam  plant,  and  by  effecting  other  changes, 
it  can  render  service  at  exceedingly  low  rates." 

The  interests  referred  to  are  those  of  the  Sacramento 
Electric  Power  and  Light  Company  and  the  Capital  Gas 
Company,  respectively,  and  the  publication  has  brought 
out  new  information,  from  which  it  appears  that  the 
bonded  debt  of  the  Capital  Gas  Company  is  $150,000  in 
twentj7  year  6  per  cent,  bonds,  issued  on  November  1st, 
1890,  and  that  its  capital  stock  is  $500,000,  in  10,000 
shares  of  $50  each,  representing  au  investment  of 
$650,000.  The  proportion  of  this  amount  that  is 
chargeable  to  the  electric  plant  may  be  assumed  to  be 
about  50  per  cent,  approximately  per  1000  horse-power. 
It  also  appears  from  statements  furnished  by  the  Sacra- 
mento Electric  Power  and  Light  Company  that  of  the  en- 
tire bonded  issue  of  the  latter  company,  amounting  to 
$1,500,000,  only  $300,000  was  expended  for  hydraulic 
works  and  exclusive  water  power  privileges.  The  street 
railway  system  of  Sacramento,  which  covers  the  entire 
city  and  which  already  earns  a  sum  equal  to  the  entire 
amount  of  "the  fixed  charges  of  the  Sacramento  Electric 
Power  and  Light  Company,  cost  $600,000. 

Further  figures  rendered  are  of  interest  as  showing 
that  the  expenditures  on  account  of  the  present  hydraulic 
and  electric  generating  plant  (of  4000  horse-power)  to- 
gether with  the  transmission  line  to  Sacramento  and  the 
new  electrical  equipment  of  the  sub-station,  amounted  to 
$375,000,  in  addition  to  which  the  sum  of  approximately 
$125,000  was  expended  in  the  construction  of  the  Folsom 
power  house  and  the  Sacramento  sub-station.  These  ex- 
penditures make  an  aggregate  issue  fo  bonds  amounting 
to  $1,400,000,  leaving  a  reserve  of  $100,000  in  bonds  in 
the  Company's  treasury. 

Bearing  in  mind  the  fact  that  the  revenues  of  the 
street  railway  system,  which  consumes  but  about  one-fifth 
of  the  power  output  of  the  present  plant,  are  alone  suffi- 
cient to  defray  all  fixed  charges  on  the  entire  transmis- 
sion and  street  railway  plant,  it  is  evident  that  the  Sac- 
ramento Electric  Power  &  Light  Company  is  in  a  posi- 
tion not  only  to  meet  any  competition  that  may  arise, 

Oct,  1895.] 




but  to  furnish  power  at  figures  that  will  seem  astonish- 
ingly low  to  Californians.  Indeed,  the  era  of  cheap 
power  for  Sacramento  may  be  said  to  have  opened  by 
the  awarding  of  the  contract  to  the  Sacramento  Electric 
Power  and  Light  Company  for  lighting  the  streets  of  the 
city  at  a  rate  one-third  lower  than  had  been  paid  before, 
but  which  rate  is  nevertheless  highly  profitable  to  the 
Company  because  of  its  ability  to  deliver  electric  power 
at  exceedingly  low  cost. 

The  fact  that  the  excellence  of  the 
country  roads  throughout  the  English 
agricultural  districts  has  not  prevented 
,.0nNrKy  roads  *he  farmers  from  demanding  a  cheaper 
method  of  transportation  for  the  produce 
than  can  be  obtained  by  the  ordinary 
means  of  haulage  by  teams,  indicates  that  the  movement 
for  good  roads,  which  is  so  universal  throughout  this 
country,  demands  most  careful  consideration  and  investi- 
gation. The  claim  is  made  by  those  advocating  an  im- 
provement in  the  character  of  the  highways  that  this 
improvement  is  demanded  by  agricultural  commuuities. 
In  England,  as  has  been  stated,  these  communities  are  at 
the  present  time  asking  for  light  railwa3's  to  take  the 
place  of  team  haulage.  In  this  country  the  movement 
for  good  roads  has  been  successful  niainly  in  suburban 
districts,  where  their  introduction  has  changed  the  land 
from  property  valuable  as  agricultural  investments  to 
property  even  more  valuable  for  suburban  residences, 
and  when  the  work  which  has  been  actually  done  in 
making  good  roads  is  examined  carefully,  it  is  found  that 
the  cases  in  which  progress  has  been  made  are  very 
rarely  in  the  midst  of  an  agricultural  community.  In 
our  last  issue  we  noticed  the  success  attendant  upon  un- 
dertaking the  introduction  of  freight  cars  on  the  Oak- 
land and  Haywards  (Cal.)  electric  line,  and  the  fact  is 
that  these  freight  cars  are  being  patronized  by  trucking 
teamsters,  who  find  it  cheaper  to  load  their  wagons  upon 
the  cars  rather  than  to  haul  them  to  the  city  by  teams. 

In  the  State  of  Ohio  a  Legislative  Commission  has  re- 
ported that  the  expense  of  putting  the  highways  in  the 
condition  demanded  by  the  advocates  of  good  roads 
would  be  nearly  if  not  quite  equal  to  the  expense  inci- 
dent to  the  laying  of  tram  tracks  along  all  of  these  high- 
ways and  equipping  the  greater  portion  of  them  with 
electric  power.  In  a  thickly  settled  suburban  district 
there  is  no  doubt  but  that  the  availability  of  the  high- 
ways for  pleasure  driving  and  bicycling  is  more  impor- 
tant than  their  adaptability  for  heavy  teaming,  but,  in 
localities  where  the  question  of  haulage  is  the  more  im- 
portant one,  we  should  be  very  slow  in  assuming  that  a 
greater  economy  to  the  community  can  be  obtained  by 
the  improvement  of  the  highways  as  a  whole  than  by  any 
means  which  would  facilitate  heavy  haulage  irrespective 
of  the  adaptability  to  light  driving.  A  roadway  30  or  40 
feet  wide  is  unnecessary  for  the  purposes  of  heavy  haul- 
age, all  that  is  required  being  a  solid  tread  for  the  wheels 
of  the  trucks  used,  and,  if  no  other  motive  power  is  pro- 
vided, a  solid  way  for  the  horses. 

Such  a  road  as  this  was  constructed  long  ago  over  the 
swampy  ground  lying  between  the  cities  of  Albany  and 

Schenectady,  in  the  State  of  New  York,  the  tread  for  the 
wheels  being  long  granite  blocks,  about  fourteen  inches 
wide,  between  which  cobbles  were  laid  for  bearing  the 
weight  of  the  horses.  Thousands  of  tons  of  merchandise 
have  been  carried  over  this  road  during  the  past  twenty- 
five  years,  and  a  better  road  or  easier  haulage  would  be  dif- 
ficult to  find  when  the  purposes  for  which  it  was  designed 
are  taken  into  account.  Throughout  the  State  of  Cali- 
fornia there  are  immense  quantities  of  timber,  building 
stone  and  ore  which  cannot  be  worked  for  a  greater  por- 
tion of  the  year  on  account  of  the  impassable  condition 
of  the  highways,  and  to  bring  the  roads  to  such  a  condi- 
tion that  teaming  would  be  possible  throughout  all  sea- 
sons of  the  year  would,  in  general,  cost  more  to  the  com- 
munity than  could  possibly  be  afforded.  At  the  same  time 
it  would  be  wrong  to  say  that  no  endeavor  should  be  made 
to  make  these  sources  of  wealth  more  commonly  availa- 
ble. In  many  such  regions  the  laying  of  a  simple  tram- 
way with  a  tread  adapted  to  wagon  wheels  would  solve 
the  problem,  while  in  some  regions,  where  water  power 
is  available,  it  might  be  economical  to  equip  the  roads 
with  electric  power,  and  should  this  he  done  it  would 
not  be  necessary  to  utilize  any  other  rolling  stock  than 
the  ordinary  country  wagon.  We  are  not  aware  that 
this  plan  has  been  tried  on  any  established  tramway, 
though  the  analogous  scheme  of  hauling  country  wagons 
by  the  means  of  a  road  engine  has  been  found  econom- 
ical, both  throughout  the  confines  of  our  own  State  and 
in  many  other  localities  adapted  to  the  use  of  the  steam- 
road  engine. 

Advocating  this  plan  may  be  looking  very  far  iato  the 
future,  but  it  certainly  seems  that,  with  the  general  ad- 
vance in  engineering  knowledge,  we  may  hope  that,  in 
considering  the  question  of  the  improvement  of  high- 
ways, more  of  our  County  Commissioners  may  consider 
the  economy  to  be  obtained  in  haulage  of  produce  by 
laying  iron  tramways  which  will  be  ultimately  adaptable 
to  the  purposes  of  electric  haulage. 

The  importance  of  compressed  air  as 

a  means  of  transmitting  power  is  more 

transmission       readily  appreciated  on  the  Pacific  Coast, 

by  where  successful  mine  plants  have  been 

compressed  air.  for  gQ  many  yearg  using  air  compressors, 

than  in  sections  of  the  country  where 
this  work  is  entirely  unfamiliar. 

Although  the  transmission  of  power  by  the  means  of 
water  at  a  pressure  of  750  pounds  per  square  inch  has 
been  financially  successful  in  London,  and  the  steam 
distributing  plant  in  New  York  has  undoubtedly  paid 
ample  dividends,  yet  the  difficulties  encountered  by  the 
two  companies  using  these  systems  have  been  so  great 
that  it  is  doubtful  whether  there  will  be  in  future  any 
considerable  amount  of  power  distributed  in  this  manner 
from  plants  yet  to  be  constructed. 

The  transmission  of  power  by  means  of  natural  gas 
through  long  pipe  lines  has  been  so  completely  success- 
ful in  this  country,  and  the  great  economy  of  the  Popp 
compressed  air  system  in  Paris,  indicate  that  these 
means  of  transmission  may  become  competitors  of  elec- 
trical transmission  systems  over  very  considerable  dis- 



[Vol.  I,  No.  4. 

tances.  The  transmission  of  fuel  gas  at  a  high  pressure 
is  not  of  particular  importance  where  the  coal  mines  are 
distant,  except  in  so  far  as  the  construction  and  mainte- 
nance of  the  pipe  line  bears  upon  the  question  of  the 
transmission  of  compressed  air.  The  fact  that  the  com- 
bined efficiency  of  an  air  compressor  and  motor  may 
reach  as  high  a  value  as  80  per  cent,  shows  that  the  high 
efficiencies  realized  with  dynamos  and  motors  may  be 
equalled  and  perhaps  exceeded  with  compressed  air  appa- 

The  great  advantages  incident  to  a  compressed  air 
transmission  are  to  be  seen  when  we  consider  that  the 
power  is  readily  subdivided  into  small  units,  and  that 
an  ordinary  steam  engine,  with  but  few  modifications,  is 
capable  of  acting  efficiently  as  an  air  motor  ;  that  the 
danger  of  life  and  property  is  a  minimum  when  it  is 
compared  to  any  other  system  of  transmission,  and  that 
no  return  mains  are  necessary,  either  for  obtaining  the 
greatest  economy,  or  for  the  disposition  of  disagreeable 
products.  As  regards  the  efficiency  of  transmission, 
compressed  air  is  at  a  disadvantage  only  when  compared 
with  electricity  at  a  high  tension  transmitted  by  over- 
head lines,  although  recent  statements  are  made  by 
pneumatic  engineers  which  may  lead  to  the  economical 
use  of  air  at  high  pressure. 

With  air  at  115  pounds  initial  absolute  pressure,  and 
an  initial  velocity  of  25  feet  per  second,  the  terminal 
pressure  at  the  end  of  ten  miles  will  be  equal  to  85.7 
pounds  and  the  terminal  velocity  equal  to  33.6  feet  per 
second,  when  a  twelve-inch  main  is  used.  If  the  initial 
velocity  is  increased  to  50  feet  per  second,  then  at  the 
end  of  six  miles  the  pressure  will  have  been  reduced  to 
that  of  the  atmosphere.  It  is  therefore  seen  that  pipes 
of  a  large  diameter  must  be  laid  for  the  transmission  of 
compressed  air  at  low  pressures  over  a  considerable  dis- 
tance, and  that  although  the  total  amount  of  power  trans- 
mitted will  be  increased,  it  has  not  yet  been  definitely  de- 
termined whether  any  advance  in  efficiency  is  obtained  by 
increasing  the  initial  pressures.  The  new  mains  laid 
by  the  Paris  Compressed  Air  System,  7  kilometers  in 
length  and  20  inches  in  diameter,  using  air  at  90  pounds 
per  square  inch,  are  capable  of  transmitting  6000  horse- 
power. With  a  main  of  this  size,  the  necessary  con- 
struction for  guarding  against  excessive  leakages  is  of 
course  very  expensive,  and  in  some  instances  it  has  been 
found  necessary  to  lay  double  mains,  one  enclosing  the 
other,  in  the  natural  gas  region,  where  pressures  from 
250  to  500  pounds  per  square  inch  have  been  encoun- 
tered. The  demand  for  high-pressure  air-pipes  will  no 
doubt  produce  something  much  better  and  cheaper  than 
is  now  to  be  obtained,  and  the  immediate  future  will  de- 
termine whether  high-pressure  air  is  to  be  a  successful 
rival  of  high-tension  electrical  currents.  For  shorter 
distances  and  lower  pressures  we  have  the  results  of  the 
Paris  Company  to  assure  us  that  h  loss  of  pressure  ex- 
ceeding 8  per  cent,  is  unnecessary  in  a  city  net-work 
containing  thirty-four  miles  of  pipe.  This  economy,  we 
think,  compares  favorably  with  the  results  obtained  in 
the  transmission  of  electricity  over  small  distances,  and 
indicates  that  in  cases   where  large  water  powers  are 

available  near  manufacturing  centers,  the  question  of 
the  total  initial  cost  of  plant  and  economy  of  manage- 
ment demands  very  careful  consideration  before  it  is 
possible  to  say  that  an  electrical  transmission  is  the  more 
certain  to  be  successful. 

Electrical  transmission  has  the  undoubted  advantage 
of  having  been  more  completely  exploited  and  the 
sources  of  economy  more  completely  understood,  but 
with  the  introduction  of  more  efficient  air  compressors 
and  motors  we  are  beginning  to  see  the  possibility  of  a 
serious  competitor  in  compressed  air  for  delivering 
power  to  many  consumers  throughout  a  manufacturing 

Of  late  several  classes  of  the  National 
School  of  Electricity  have  been  organized 
national  school  in  several  cities  of  the  Pacific  Coast  under 
electricity.  a  &an  °^  instruction  similar  to  the  Cha- 
tauqua  courses  in  literary  circles.  The 
lesson  leaves  of  the  National  School  were 
prepared  by  Prof.  Dugald  C.  Jackson,  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  Wisconsin,  which  at  once  places  their 
accuracy  and  reliability  above  question.  The  mode 
of  procedure  is  simple.  Upon  the  organization  of 
a  class  in  any  locality  an  instructor  is  selected  who 
uses  the  leaflets  as  a  text,  illustrating  each  lesson 
by  means  of  experimental  apparatus  furnished  by  the 
school.  Each  course  embodies  some  thirty  odd  lessons, 
at  the  conclusion  of  which  the  student  should  have  ac- 
quired at  least  elementary  information  concerning  the 
fundamental  principles  and  the  general  applications  of 
electrical  science.  The  student  will  have  learned,  for 
instance,  how  to  technically  distinguish  between  an 
electrical  possibility  and  an  electrical  impossibility — a 
perception,  which,  if  possessed  by  all  businessmen,  would 
prevent  investment  in  the  many  fraudulent  schemes  that 
are  daily  foisted  upon  the  credulous  public.  The  Na- 
tional School  does  not  profess  to  turn  out  finished  elec- 
trical engineers,  and  those  aspiring  to  thoroughness  in 
that  profession  must  look  to  such  well-established  seats 
of  learning  as  the  University  of  California  or  Stanford 
University  for  their  education.  Its  course  is  one  emi- 
nently adapted  to  the  needs  of  the  business  man  who 
desires  general  information  concerning  electrical  matters 
but  who  has  neither  the  time  nor  the  inclination  to  make 
himself  profound  in  the  subject. 

The  National  School  of  Electricity  has  been  the  recip- 
ient of  no  little  comment,  favorable  or  otherwise,  at  the 
hands  of  the  electrical  press.  We  know  that  the  names  on 
its  honorary  faculty  insure  accuracy  and  thoroughness  in 
the  technical  preparation  of  its  lesson  leaves  throughout 
the  scope  they  are  designed  to  include.  The  School  has 
struck  a  popular  chord,  for  it  now  has  enrolled  through- 
out the  country  upwards  of  4000  students,  while,  in  the 
west,  hundreds  stand  ready  to  enlist  when  they  are  con- 
vinced that  the  administration  of  the  scheme  shall  prove 
as  unimpeachable  as  are  the  names  of  its  honorary  fac- 
ulty. With  the  organization  of  the  San  Francisco  class 
of  the  National  School  is  presented  an  opportunity  for 
determining  the  real  efficacy  of  a  scheme  that  the  eastern 
electrical  press  and  reports  have  harped  discordant^ 
upon,  and  the  conclusions  thus  reached  will  here  be 

Oct.,  1895.] 



passing  Qomment. 


The  Electrical  Engineer  has  devoted  prominent  space 
to  an  article  by  Mr.  George  D.  Burton  on  smelting  re- 
fractory ores  in  an  electric  furnace,  in  which  he  reports 
results  that  may  be  important  to  California  miners ;  in 
fact  a  number  of  the  experiments  seem  to  have  taken 
place  in  this  State,  though  the  results  which  are  stated 
most  concretely  refer  to  the  smelting  of  copper  ores  in 
Canada.  "  Electricity  "  has  charged  that  the  statements 
in  this  article  are  manifestly  inaccurate,  though  it  does 
not  venture  to  give  any  figures  to  show  where  the  inac- 
curacies lie.  Perhaps  exception  might  be  taken  to  the 
statement  made  by  Mr.  Burton  that  the  smelting  charges 
for  gold  and  silver  ores  amount  to  as  much  as  seventeen 
dollars  per  ton,  though  he  is  very  careful  to  state  that 
this  is  true  only  in  some  cases.  A  smelter  charging  so 
high  a  price  would  hardly  do  a  very  exlensive  business 
amongst  California  miners.  On  the  other  hand,  in  giv- 
ing a  concrete  example  of  what  can  be  done  with  his 
electrical  furnace,  Mr.  Burton  states  that  he  has  smelted 
a  ton  of  Canadian  nickel  ore  with  an  expenditure  of 
2000  amperes  at  250  volts  in  forty  minules,  producing  a 
mat  containing  27^  per  cent,  of  pure  nickel.  The  energy 
delivered  in  the  time  stated  by  Mr.  Burton  amounts  to 
the  delivery  to  the  ore  of  about  a  million  and  a  quarter 
of  heat  units.  While  taking  the  statement  made  by  the 
best  Government  assayers  that  Canadian  nickel  ore  con- 
tains about  3  per  cent  of  nickel  and  a  similar  amount  of 
copper  in  "  gangue  "  (composed  mainly  of  iron  pyrites) 
and  referring  to  the  table  of  specific  heats  given  by  F. 
W.  Clarke  in  his  Smithsonian  publication,  we  find  that 
more  than  three  million  heat  units  will  be  required  to 
raise  the  mass  of  a  ton  of  ore  to  the  temperature  of 
smelting.  This  presents  a  discrepancy  in  figures,  which 
Mr.  Burton  will  find  hard  to  reconcile. 

Judging  from  the  articles  seen  in  several  recent  papers, 
it  appears  that  the  manufacturers  of  incandescent  lamps 
are  greatly  concerned  over  the  question  of  a  satisfactory 
universal  lamp  base  to  facilitate  the  handling  of  stocks 
in  these  days  of  low  prices.  One  will  readily  appreciate 
the  difficulty  when  it  is  stated  that  an  incandescent 
lamp  manufacturer  must  carry  stocks  of  fifteen  or  twenty 
different  voltages,  and  that  these  lamps  may  be  ordered 
at  any  time  to  fit  in  one  of  half  a  dozen  different  kinds 
of  lamp  sockets.  The  cost  of  the  caps  for  the  different 
sockets  vary  from  one-half  cent  to  five  cents,  yet 
lamp  users  can  rarely  see  why  they  should  pay  more  for 
a  Schaefer  or  Thomson-Houston  base  than  they  would 
for  an  Edison  or  a  Westinghouse.  Undoubtedly  the 
elimination  of  many  odd  bases,  and  the  reduction  to  one 
or  two  forms  would  facilitate  carrying  stocks,  and  greatly 
decrease  the  cost  of  manufacture,  but  on  the  other  hand, 
the  user  sometimes  has  good  reason  for  his  choice  of  a 
definite  socket  or  of  more  than  one  socket  in  the  same 
building.  Plants  which  are  run  from  storage  batteries, 
and  plants  in  which  the  regulation  of  light  is  affected  by 
a  change  of  voltage  in  different  parts  of  the  system,  as 
well  as  occasional  plants  using  both  direct  and  alterna- 
ting system  of  different  voltages  need  an  easy  method  of 
separating  their  stocks  of  lamps,  and  there  is  no  surer 
guard  against  error  on  the  part  of  ignorant  workmen 
than  can  be  found  by  using  different  sockets  for  different 
kinds  of  lamps.  There  is  also  the  need  in  hotels  and 
public  buildings  that  the  exchange  of  lamps  from  one 
socket  to  another  be  kept  entirely  in  the  hands  of  work- 
men appointed  to  make  such  changes,  and  as  no  method 

for  locking  a  lamp  in  its  socket  has  been  devised,  such 
plants  must  be  equipped  with  more  than  a  single  style  of 
base.  If  there  is  so  urgent  a  need  for  the  solution  of 
this  question,  it  may  be  found  rather  in  the  method  em- 
ployed by  German  lamp  manufacturers  than  in  the  at- 
tempt to  have  a  standard  base  adopted.  The  lamp  mak- 
ers in  Germany,  who  are  undoubtedly  producing  and 
selling  lamps  at  a  lower  price  than  those  elsewhere,  have 
for  some  time  adopted  the  plan  of  putting  the  lamps  on 
the  market  entirely  without  bases,  and  allowing  selling 
agents  and  central  stations  to  do  their  own  capping,  and, 
where  capping  is  done  by  the  manufacturer,  to  make  a 
charge  covering  the  cost  of  the  particular  cap  applied  to 
the  lamp.  Under  such  circumstances,  lamps  can  be  had 
at  a  definite  cost  for  the  lamp  itself,  and  all  users  of  the 
lamps  adopt  the  particular  socket  which  will  allow  the 
cheapest  lamp  base  adaptable  to  their  needs. 

In  the  Electrical  World  for  September  14th  appeared 
an  article  by  Keppele  Hall  appealing  for  better  con- 
struction work  ou  the  part  of  contractors  doing  interior 
wiring,  in  which  the  sweeping  assertion  is  made  that  this 
work  is  done  on  an  average  by  men  incompetent  on  ac- 
count of  deficiency  in  training,  and  who  are  both  unable 
and  unwilling  to  do  so  much  as  a  neat  job  in  carpenter- 
ing. No  doubt,  in  many  small  towns  where  electricity 
has  only  recently  been  introduced  into  dwellings,  there 
is  much  justice  in  this  statement,  but  we  hardly  think 
that  it  is  true  on  an  average  that  men  doing  electrical 
wiring  are  of  the  character  described.  No  better  proof 
of  the  improvement  in  efficiency  made  by  electrical  con- 
tractors can  be  found,  than  on  the  one  hand,  the  gradual 
disappearance  of  the  poorest  grades  of  insulation  on  the 
market,  and  the  steady  growth  of  manufacturing  com- 
panies who  have  uniformly  preserved  a  high  standard  for 
their  wares.  Ou  the  other  hand,  we  have  the  results 
published  by  the  insurance  inspectors  to  prove  that,  in 
spite  of  the  great  increase  in  the  use  of  electricity  dur- 
ing the  past  years,  the  proportion  of  fires  due  to  de- 
fective workmanship  in  electrical  installations  has  very 
greatly  decreased.  It  is  unfortunate  that  it  has  become 
the  custom  on  the  part  of  men  of  short  experience,  who 
have  established  themselves  in  districts  where  a  greater 
or  less  amount  of  slipshod  work  is  going  on,  to  jump  at 
once  to  the  conclusion  that  their  experience  is  the  com- 
mon one  throughout  the  country.  On  the  contrary,  the 
average  character  of  the  electrical  contractors  is  steadily 
rising,  and  architects  are  recognizing  the  necessity  for 
the  aid  of  efficient  electrical  engineers  in  laying  out  and 
subdividing  the  wiring  systems,  until  throughout  the 
manufacturing  centers  of  New  England,  as  well  as  in 
most  large  cities,  but  little  work  is  undertaken  without 
the  personal  supervision  of  some  engineer.  It  appears 
that  at  no  time  in  the  history  of  electric  lighting  has 
there  been  less  call  for  such  a  plea  than  at  the  present, 
and  there  is  no  doubt  but  that  if  the  present  demand  for 
efficient  superintendence  in  electrical  uudertakiugs  is 
continued,  the  slipshod  contractor  will  disappear  on  ac- 
count of  the  unfavorable  character  of  his  business. 

The  Electrical  Review  of  September  25th  prints  an 
interesting  article  on  Hornsby-Akroyd  Petroleum  En- 
gine, which  may  take  an  important  position  in  the  field 
for  cheap  prime  movers,  and  which  contains  elements 
that  might  profitably  be  studied  by  the  local  manufac- 
turers of  gasoline  engines.  It  has  been  the  practice  of 
gasoline  engine  manufacturers  to  rely  almost  entirely 
upon  an  electric  spark  for  iguiting  their  gases,  and  every 
user  of  these  engines  knows  the  difficulties  that  are  en- 
countered in  .  keeping  the  batteries,  spark  coils  and 
conductors  in  working  order.  English  engineers  have 
largely  abandoned  the  spark  coil  for  a  porcelain  tube  ex- 



[Vol.  I,  No.  4. 

tending  into  the  explosion  chamber,  and  maintained  at  a 
red  heat  by  means  of  a  small  Bunsen  burner  playing 
upon  the  inside  of  the  tube.  By  this  means,  the  ignition 
of  the  mixture  is  effected  whenever  the  mixture  of  gases 
attains  the  proper  constitution  and  density,  and,  as  a  re- 
sult, more  constant  service  has  been  attained.  From  the 
standpoint  of  the  manufacturer,  the  certainty  of  ignition 
may  seem  less  important  than  a  complexity  of  governing 
gear,  and  we  venture  to  assert  that  should  our  manufac- 
turers overcome  this  great  trouble  to  the  users  of  such 
engines,  there  would  be  small  objection  raised  to  the 
added  parts  necessary  for  effecting  governing  by  the 
variation  of  the  amount  of  injected  gas. 


Facts  and  Hian  Pressure.  Pamphlets  for  gratuitous  circu- 
lation, Babcock  and  Willcox  Company,  New  York,  1895,  by 
Chas.  C.  Moore  &  Co.,  Pacific  Coast  Managers,  32  First  street, 
San  Francisco. 

We  have  lately  received  from  the  Babcock  and  Will- 
cox Company  two  pamphlets  concerning  the  manufac- 
ture of  water  tube  boilers.  These  pamphlets  are  addi- 
tions to  their  very  valuable  book  on  "  Steam,"  which  is 
familiar  to  all  engineers.  In  the  pamphlet  entitled 
"  Facts  "  is  contained  descriptions  of  the  various  water 
tube  boilers  designed  in  this  and  other  countries  from  the 
early  attempts  of  Stevens  in  1805  down  to  the  more 
modern  boilers  exhibited  at  the  Chicago  Fair.  All  of 
the  designs  are  here  described  under  four  distinct  heads: 
First,  boilers  containing  tubes  with  closed  ends  ;  sec- 
ondly, boilers  composed  of  bent  pipes ;  thirdly,  boilers 
composed  of  pipes  and  fittings ;  and  fourthly,  boilers 
composed  of  pipes  closed  at  both  ends.  In  each  case  the 
boilers  are  described  with  the  implication  that  they  have 
been  abandoned  on  account  of  the  impossibility  of  clean- 
ing the  tubes,  but  it  seems  to  be  too  much  of  an  as- 
sumption for  any  manufacturer  to  claim  that  such  boil- 
ers as  the  Thorneycroft,  Morrin  or  Sterling  have  been 
entirely  abandoned,  or  to  imply  that  the  Henshall 
boiler  is  no  longer  manufactured.  There  is  no  doubt 
but  that  this  pamphlet  contains  a  great  number  of  im- 
portant forms,  and,  directly  considered,  will  guard  the 
purchaser  against  abandoned  experiments,  though  it  is 
unfortunate  that  no  tests  are  given  with  any  of  these  im- 
portant designs. 

In  the  pamphlet  on  "  High  Pressure  "  we  are  pleased 
to  see  so  complete  a  description  of  the  methods  of  man- 
ufacture and  materials  used  in  producing  the  Babcock 
and  Willcox  boilers  for  high  pressure  steam.  Recent 
advances  in  steam  engine  manufacture  have  created  a 
demand  for  boilers  capable  of  delivering  steam  at  pres- 
sures even  as  high  as  200  pounds  per  square  inch. 
Where  such  high  pressures  are  used  it  is  necessary  that 
we  be  assured  of  perfection  in  every  part  of  the  manu- 
facture of  the  boiler,  and  it  is  no  small  consideration  to 
the  engineer  for  him  to  be  able  to  see  so  well  an  estab- 
lished firm  as  the  Babcock  and  Willcox  Company  are, 
manufacturing  their  admirable  type  of  boiler  in  a  manner 
calculated  to  give  as  nearly  perfect  results  as  can  be  ob- 

Electrical  Measurements:  A  Laboratory  Manual;  H.  S. 
Carhart,  M.  A.,  L.  L.  D.,  and  G.  W.  Patterson,  Jr.,  M.  A., 
B.  S.    Allyn  &  Bacon,  Boston,  pp.  350. 

It  is  with  considerable  satisfaction  that  we  take  up  the 
Laboratory  Manual  of  Professors  Carhart  and  Patterson, 
and  notice  that  the  modern  methods  of  measurement 
heretofore  accessible  only  in  "  Gray's  Treatise  on  Abso- 
lute Measurements"  have  been  reduced  to  such  clearness 
that  they  become  intelligible  to  students,  and  suscepti- 
ble of  being  applied  by  the  average  engineer.  The  spe- 
cial apparatus  of  the  particular  laboratory  from  which 

the  book  is  issued  has  not  dominated  the  character  of 
this  treatise  or  burdened  it  with  the  defects  of  other 
laboratory  manuals  which  have  been  heretofore  issued. 
The  fact  that  these  authors  have  treated  the  subject  of 
electrical  measurements  from  the  stand-point  of  the  phy- 
sicist rather  than  that  of  the  electrical  engineer,  has  di- 
vested their  work  of  a  considerable  amount  of  complica- 
tion and  unnecessary  detail,  while  at  the  same  time  an 
extension  of  their  methods  of  measur3ment  to  practical 
application  lies  within  the  power  of  an  engineer  using 
the  book,  on  account  ef  the  distinctness  with  which  the 
various  quantative  measurements  are  explained.  Being 
written  from  the  standpoint  of  physical  electrical  meas- 
urements, the  subjects  treated  are  limited  to  the  meas- 
urements of  resistance,  current,  electro-motive  forces, 
quantity  and  capacity,  induction,  magnetization  and 
hysteresis.  The  discussion  of  units,  which  forms  the  in- 
troduction to  the  work,  are  entirely  in  accordance  with 
the  scientific  c.  g.  s.  system,  and  treat  the  results  of  the 
Paris  and  Chicago  conventions  most  completely.  The 
entire  elimination  of  all  other  systems  from  this  chapter 
unfortunately  fails  to  clear  up  the  mind  before  the  aver- 
age student  the  complete  subject  of  dimentional  formula. 
Even  the  physicist  must  occasionally  refer  to  the  papers 
of  engineers  where  complicated  unit  systems  are  in  use, 
and  it  seems  that  the  authors  would  not  have  degraded 
the  quality  of  their  work  had  they  introduced  examples 
showing  the  methods  of  conversion  from  the  British  unit 
systems  into  the  scientific  c.  g.  s.  system. 

Where  apparatus  has  been  described  as  in  the  case  of 
resistance  boxes,  galvanometers  and  scales,  balances, 
standard  cells  and  standards  of  capacity,  the  treatment 
is  particularly  rational  and  specific  ;  though  the  neces- 
sity for  absolute  cleanliness  and  high  insulation  of  all 
kej's  and  wires  is  given  more  by  implication  than  direct 
instruction,  which  is  perhaps  all  that  is  necessary  in  a 
well-arranged  laboratory,  where  tables  are  dry  and  free 
from  fog  and  dust,  but  which  must  be  insisted  upon  both 
to  the  practical  engineer  and  to  the  student  working 
under  less  than  ideal  conditions.  In  the  same  vein  we 
would  desire  more  specific  instruction  concerning  the 
adjustment  of  a  differential  galvanometer  throughout 
its  range  of  reading,  rather  than  simply  at  the  zero 
point.  The  treatment  of  the  Wheatstone  bridge  and  its 
errors  is  noticeably  complete,  but  the  difficulty  in  locat- 
ing the  minimum  point  of  deflection  of  the  galvanometer, 
which  most  students  experience,  might  well  be  borne  in 
mind,  and  the  production  of  an  appreciable  swing  by 
timing  the  contact  and  periodicity  of  the  galvanometer 
as  used  by  Faraday  and  Henry  should  not  be  considered 
beneath  the  notice  of  the  modern  experimenter.  The 
example  given  of  the  change  of  resistance  of  a  dielectric 
with  electrification  shows  this  action,  although  in  the 
text  of  the  experiment  we  fail  to  find  any  mention  of  its 
existence  or  signification. 

It  is  fortunate  that  so  clear  a  description  of  the  silver 
and  copper  voltameter  has  been  at  last  made  acces- 
sible to  those  not  having  Raleigh's  papers  or  Gray's 
Manual  at  their  hand,  and  the  familiarization  of  this 
piece  of  apparatus  will  tend  much  to  the  accurate  cali- 
bration of  commercial  apparatus.  While  the  treatment 
of  self  and  mutual  induction  is  undoubtedly  as  complete 
as  can  be  found  in  any  other  book,  it  seems  unfortunate 
that  the  difficulties  attendant  upon  the  measurement  of 
distributed  capacities  and  self  induction  are  not  indi- 
cated with  sufficient  clearness  to  avoid  the  confusion  of 
their  measurement  with  the  measurements  of  localised 
capacity  and  self  induction.  When  we  come  to  the  sub- 
ject of  magnetism  and  hysteresis  we  find  the  best 
recognized  methods  carefully  explained,  though  the 
errors  of  Hopkinson's  bar  and  yoke  and  Bidwell's  di- 
vided ring  methods  in  the  hands  of  an  ordinary  experi- 

Oct.,  1895.] 



menter  seem  to  be  too  lightly  called  to  attention.  The 
fact  that  the  machine  work,  to  give  accurate  results 
with  these  methods  and  to  eliminate  the  influence  of  the 
gap  at  the  division  of  the  bar  or  ring,  is  one  that  is  uu- 
likely  to  occur  to  the  average  observer  who  may  rely 
upon  these  methods.  It  is  to  be  regretted  that  these 
authors  have  not  treated  the  subject  of  the  absolute 
measurement  of  resistance,  since  the  apparatus  of  Lorentz 
has  become  almost  a  necrssary  adjunct  to  any  laboratory 
where  low  resistance  of  great  carrying  capacity  is  ad- 
justed. The  criticisms  that  have  been  made  of  this  book 
are  not  at  all  intended  to  indicate  that  the  work  is  ma- 
terially lacking  in  either  scope  or  method  of  treatment, 
but,  on  the  contrary,  we  have  nothing  that  has  hereto- 
fore given  us  so  carefully  and  well  the  best  recoguizt-d 
method  of  physical  electrical  measurements. 


By  Geo.  H.  Larkim. 

Believing  that  consumers  of  steam  power  will  be  in- 
terested in  the  result  of  some  tests  recently  made  by  the 
writer  in  the  use  of  crude  petroleum  for  fuel,  I  have 
prepared  the  following.  The  tests  were  made  under 
horizontal  return  flue  tubular  boilers  at  the  works  of 
the  Pacific  Rolling  Mills,  San  Francisco,  using  the  Union 
Oil  Company's  standard  23  degree  gravity  fuel  oil  from 
the  Santa  Paula  (Cal.)  oil  fields,  fed  through  the  Larkin 
oil  burner. 

The  oil  was  pumped  from  a  car  tank  into  an  old  ship 
tank  holding  about  90  barrels,  which  was  placed  on  a 
platform  slightly  raised  from  the  ground  about  60  feet 
from  the  boilers,  on  which  were  placed  two  drums,  28.4 
inches  in  diameter  and  about^  40^nche_s_high.  These 
two  drums  were  connected  to  the  ship  tank  and  also  to 
the  oil  pump  used  for  feeding  the  burners,  and  were 
filled  and  emptied  alternately,  30  inches  of  oil  being 
used  out  of  drum  No.  1,  which  was  then  disconnected 
and  filled,  when  drum  No.  2  was  connected  and  30  inches 
useil  out  of  it  after  the  same  manner.  The  water  con- 
sumed was  handled  in  the  same  way,  two  water  tanks 
being  used  that  were  tilled  from  the  Spring  Valley  Water 
Company's  system,  and  60  inches  of  water  being  taken 
from  tanks  Nos.  1  and  2  alternately.  The  oil  weighed 
19  pounds  to  each  inch  in  depth  of  the  drum,  and  the 
water  weighed  257  pounds  to  the  inch  in  depth  of  tank. 
While  the  weight  of  the  water  is,  of  course,  constant, 
the  weight  of  the  oil  varies,  but  as  all  fuel  oil  is  sold  by  a 
standaid  measured  unit  of  42  gallons  to  a  barrel,  the 
same  number  of  pounds  per  inch  in  drum  was  allowed, 
as  in  previous  tests  made  with  other  oils,  which  was  con- 
sidered the  simplest  and  most  satisfactory  way  of  deter- 
mining the  comparative  value  of  different  oils. 

These  boilers  have  been  used  for  all  of  the  previous 
fuel  tests  made  at  the  Rolling  Mills,  and  were  in  good 
condition,  being  clean  and  of  good  draught,  but  they 
were  not  enclosed  in  the  building.  All  water  connections 
for  both  feed  and  blow-off  were  disconnected,  and  blind 
gaskets  were  put  in  where  necessary.  The  boilers  were 
fed  by  an  injector  to  the  disconnected  end  of  the  boiler 
feed  pipe,  and  the  steam  pipe  leading  from  the  boiler 
was  connected  to  the  main  steam  line  of  the  Rolling 
Mills,  and  regular  fires  were  kept  up  during  the  entire 
time  of  tests  Nos.  1  and  2. 

For  test  No.  3,  the  boilers  were  separated  from  the 
main  line  and  were  used  to  run  the  6  and  8-inch  mills 
alternately.  This  necessitated  frequent  stoppage  of  the 
fire,  as  at  short  intervals  the  mills  were  shut  down  and 
the  consumption  of  steam  was  only  about  one-half  of 
the  rating  of  the  two  boilers.  The  amounts  of  water 
and  oil  used  were  carefully  measured  by  men  appointed 

by  Mr.  P.  Noble,  Superintendent  of  the  Rolling  Mills, 
and  their  work  was  continued  during  the  two  or  more 
weeks  of  the  test. 

The  results  obtained  from  the  three  tests  made  are 
shown  in  the  accompanying  table. 

Test  No.  1  designates  the  first  week's  run,  from  which 
it  will  be  observed  that  the  boilers  were  forced  con- 
siderably above  their  normal  rating,  and  that  conse- 
quently the  terminal  temperature  was  too  high  for  good 
econom}7.  The  apparent  high  evaporative  efficiency  un- 
der the  conditions  given  is  due  to  the  fact  that  the  oil 
used  was  about  9%  heavier  than  was  allowed  by  the 
measurements  per  inch  in  the  oil  drum,  as  before  ex- 

In  test  No.  2  the  stack  temperature  was  reduced  to  a 
more  theoretical  point,  and  the  boilers  were  run  to  about 
their  nominal  rating,  and,  as  a  result,  test  No.  2  shows 
considerably  better  efficiency  than  test  No.  1.  The  in- 
creased evaporation  is  the  direct  result  of  a  reduced 
terminal  temperature,  and  the  high  efficiency  attained 
is  due  to  the  fact  that  the  furnace  temperature  was  very 
high,  while  the  terminal  temperature  was  almost  theo- 
retical. That  these  boilers  furnish  practically  dry  steam 
to  the  main  line  is  an  assured  fact,  and  while  no  calori- 
meter was  used,  there  was  no  lack  of  opportunity  to 
observe  the  appearance  of  the  steam  at  the  openings  left 
at  the  connections  of  the  steam  pipe  to  the  steam  drum 
on  the  boilers,  and  at  these  points  the  steam  showed 
bluish  in  color  and  nearly  transparent  at  some  distance 
from  the  orifice. 

While  the  results  of  test  No.  3  are  absolutely  correct, 
they  are  apt  to  be  misleading,  unless  more  fully  ex- 
plained. The  boilers  were  disconnected  from  the  main 
line,  as  stated,  and  were  connected  to  the  8-inch  mill 
without  any  stoppage,  and  as  they  had  been  running  for 
112  hours  continuously,  at  their  normal  rating,  the  heat 
stored  up  in  the  brick  work  became  active  upon  the  fires 
being  reduced,  and  the  boilers  ran  at  about  one-half  the 
rated  capacity.  This  explains  the  high  showing  made 
by  oil  in  this  separated  test,  the  duration  of  which  was 
ouly  8i  hours.  The  percentage  of  gain  would  of  course 
be  less  the  longer  the  test  was  continued. 

In  tests  Nos.  1  and  2  the  fires  were  started  under  cold 
boilers,  and  the  amount  of  oil  used  in  getting  up  steam 
is  included  in  the  table.  At  the  conclusion  of  the  tests, 
the  oil  and  feed  water  were  shut  off  at  almost  the  same 
time,  the  water  in  the  gauge  glasses  being  brought  up  to 
the  same  level  as  when  starting  up.  This  left  the  boilers 
full  of  hot  water,  and  the  brick  work  hot,  for  which  the 
oil  received  no  credit.  This  difference  is  plainly  shown 
by  comparing  a  continuous  run  with  the  24-hour  run,  in 
which  the  test  started  and  stopped  with  hot  boilers.  For 
instance,  the  oil  and  water  report  for  August  30th, 
shows  that  the  oil  used  from  11:27  p.  m.  on  the  29th,  to 
11:09  p.  m.  on  the  30th,  was  360  inches,  or  6840  pounds, 
the  time  being  23  hours  and  28  minutes,  and  water  used 
from  9:10  p.  m.  on  the  29th,  to  9:35  p.  m.  on  the  30th, 
was  420  inches,  or  107,940  pounds,  the  time  being  24 
hours  and  25  minutes.  As  the  difference  in  time  was  57 
minutes  between  the  beginning  and  ending  measure- 
ments for  the  water  and  oil  respectively,  a  deduction  of 
about  15  inches,  or  3855  pounds  of  water,  should  be 
made,  which  makes  the  water  and  oil  consumption  on 
August  30th  to  be  as  follows  : 

Oil  consumed : 6,840  lbs. 

Water  evaporated 1 04,085  lbs. 

Water  evaporated,  per  pound  of  oil 

under  actual  conditions 15.21  lbs. 

Water  evaporated  per  pound  of  oil 

from  and  at  212   F 18.31  lbs. 

A  deduction  of  9%  from  these  results  should  be  made 
for  the  difference  between  the  drum  measurement  and 



[Vol.  I,  No.  4. 

the  actual  weight  of  the  oil,  which  brings  the  actual 
evaporation  from  and  at  212°  F.  per  pound  of  oil  to  16.67 
pounds  for  a  continuous  run  of  23  hours  and  28  minutes. 


Oil  used,  California  crude,  from  Santa  Paula,  Cal. 
Kind  of  boilers,  horizontal  return  tubular. 

Test  No.  1. 

Size  of  boilers 54"xl6' 

Number  and  size  of  flues..  54       4" 

Rated  horse  power 75 

Steam  pressure 75 

Temperature  of  feed  water  60°  F. 

Stack  temperature  (av'g).  600    F. 

Total  oil  consumption  ....  46,217  lbs. 

Total  water  evaporation..  707,778  lbs. 
Pounds     of     water    (60  ) 

evaporated  ~f  lb  of  oil. .  14.09  lbs. 
Pounds    of    water    (212°) 

evaporated  ~f>  lb  of  oil. .  16.79  lbs. 

Total  EP  developed 27,231 .5 

EP  per  hour 260 

IP  per  boiler 130 

Oil  used  per  LP  hour 1.8  lbs. 

Duration  of  test 104  h.  35  m. 

boratory  of  the  Edison  Light  and  Power  Company  of 
San  Francisco,  the  photometer  having  a  distance  of  100 
inches  between   centers.     For  a  standard,  a  16  candle- 
power  incandescent  lamp,  previously  standardized  from 
standard  English    sperm  candles  burning  120  grains  per 

Test  No.  2. 

Test  No.  3. 



54       4" 

54       4" 





60    F. 

60    F. 

480    F. 

400    F. 

31,198  lbs. 

1,463  lbs. 

460,030  lbs. 

23,130  lbs. 

14.74  lbs. 

15.80  lbs. 

17.55  lbs. 

18.83  fts. 







1.7  lbs. 

1.6  lbs. 

112  h.  9  m. 

8h.  30m. 


By  F.  E.' Smith. 

Believing  that  publications  of  the  tests  of  the  various 
means  in  use  for  lighting  bicycles  at  the  present  time  will 
be  of  popular  if  not  technical  interest,  the  writer  gives  be- 
low the  results  of  measurements  originally  made  as  a  mat- 
ter of  personal  satisfaction.  Before  presenting  the  same  it 
is  well,  however,  to  point  out  the  distinction  that  should 
be  drawn  between  a  riding  light  and  the  signal  light. 
The  lanterns  ordinarily  used  can,  after  a  consideration 
of  these  experiments,  be  considered  only  as  signal  lights, 
or  those  containing  visual  warning  of  approach.  As  a 
means  of  illuminating  the  roadway  they  can  be  consid- 
ered only  as  a  partial  or  doubtful  success.  With  a  riding 
light,  however,  the  roadway  becomes  sufficiently  illumi- 
nated for  thirty  or  forty  feet,  or  even  a  greater  distance 
ahead,  so  that  travel  can  be  accomplished  with  ease  and 
safety.  In  the  present  state  of  bicycling  by  night,  signal 
lights  without  number  are  available,  but  riding  lights, 
though  eagerly  sought,  are  not  to  be  obtained.  Original 
experiment  in  this  direction  led  to  the  construction  of  an 
electric  lantern,  consisting  of  three  cells  of  storage  bat- 
tery operating  a  small  one  candle-power  incandescent 
lamp  arranged  in  a  suitable  reflector  placed  upon  a  bicy- 
cle, as  shown  in  the  accompanying  illustration.  This  is 
the  apparatus  referred  to  below. 

The  two  forms  of  oil  lanterns  which  are  believed  to 
be  the  best  were  selected  for  the  test.  These  burned 
signal  oil  and  kerosene  oil,  respectively,  and  their 
weights,  when  filled,  were  20  and  40  ounces,  respectively. 
They  were  tested  under  the  best  possible  conditions  as 
to  trimming,  polish,  etc. 

The  electric  lantern  is  operated,  as  stated,  from  three 
cells  of  storage  battery  of  the  Hough  type,  each  cell 
containing  two  plates  li  inches  by  3f  inches  in  size. 
The  lamp  used  was  manufactured  by  Geo  E.  Lamont,  a 
San  Francisco  manufacturer,  and  is  rated  at  one  candle- 
power,  is  of  4  watts  efficiency,  and  consuming  .7  of  an 
ampere  at  6  volts.  The  battery  will  operate  this  lamp 
about  four  hours  continuously.  The  weight  of  the  bat- 
tery and  lamp  complete  is  36  ounces. 

All  candle-power  measurements  were  made  by  means 
of  the  standard  Lummer-Brodhen  photometer  in  the  la- 

Sojie  Tests  op  Bicycle  Lanterns. 

per  hour,  was  used,  and  under  these  conditions,  which 
are  accurate,  the  various  lanterns  gave  the  following 
tests  : 

Oil  lantern  No.  1,  burning  signal  oil 3/4  candle  power. 

Oil  lantern  No.  2,  burning  kerosene 6}4      " 

Electric  lantern,  consuming  42  watts 45 

I  may  add,  as  an  illustration  of  the  efficiency  of  the 
electric  lantern,  that  during  the  recent  eclipse  of  the 
moon,  when  no  street  lamps  were  lighted  and  the  streets 
of  San  Francisco  were  in  intense  darkness,  I  was  able, 
with  the  aid  of  the  electric  lantern  on  my  bicycle,  to 
discern  another  bicyclist  turn  into  the  street  at  the  fur- 
ther end  of  the  block,  a  distance  of  600  feet  away.  The 
electric  lantern  gives  a  splendid  riding  light  and  illu- 
minates the  roadway  brilliantly  for  a  distance  of  50 
feet.  In  addition  to  the  headlight,  there  can  be  used  a 
rear  electric  lantern,  operated  from  the  same  battery,  to 
be  used  as  a  signal  light.  In  my  machine  this  consists 
of  a  red  light  attached  to  the  saddle  post  and  pointing 

Mr.  G.  P.  Low  has  decided  to  call  his  excellent  elec- 
trical paper,  published  in  San  Francisco,  The  Journal 
of  Electricity,  under  which  name  he  will  continue  to 
demonstrate  the  high  stage  that  electrical  engineering 
and  education  has  reached  on  the  Pacific  slope. — Elec- 
trical Engineer,  New  York. 

We  have  at  last  received  a  copy  of  the  first  issue  of 
our  new  contemporary.  The  venture  has  received  no 
little  attention  in  the  United  States,  and  it  is  with 
interest  that  we  turn  over  its  pages  *  *  *  The 
articles  are  good. — Electricity,  London. 

Oct.,  1895.] 




A  noteworthy  instance  in  which  municipal  authorities 
have  taken  up  the  question  of  city  lighting  and  have  in- 
stalled a  plant  to  meet  the  conditions  which  they  believe 
to  have  existed,  and  after  extensive  trial  have  failed  to 
score  a  success,  while  the  same  plant  after  having  passed 
into  the  control  of  private  parties  has  rapidly  built  up 
into  a  paying  venture,  is  illustrated  in  the  station  at 
Berkeley,  Cal.,  the  interior  of  which  is  shown  in  the  ac- 
companying cut,  reproduced  by  the  permission  of  the 
Berkeley  Herald. 

In  1893  the  town  of  Berkeley,  Cal.,  after  a  profitless 
experience  in  running  its  own  electric  plant,  advertised 
for  bids  for  the  lease  of  the  plant  and  doing  the  city 
lighting.  Two  competitors  for  the  contract  —  the  Oak- 
land Gas,  Light  and  Heat  Company,  and  the  San  Fran- 
cisco Electric  Company  —  made  bids  that  were  the  same, 
but  in  the  specifications  of  the  latter  were  details  advan- 
tageous to  Berkeley,  by  reason  of  which  the  San  Fran- 
cisco company  secured  the  contract.     On  September  11th 


The  original 

ideas  presented 
on    •'  Electricity 


A  Commercial  Success  fhom  a  Municipal  Failure 

of  the  year  named,  the  San  Francisco  Electric  Company, 
through  Mr.  J.  Geo.  Gardner,  General  Manager,  secured 
control  of  the  plant  by  effecting  a  combination  with  the 
Berkeley  Electric  Light,  Heat  and  Power  Company,  and 
the  reorganized  concern,  under  Mr.  Gardner's  manage- 
ment, soon  placed  the  enterprise  on  a  business  basis,  and 
at  present  the  investment  is  rendering  satisfactory  re- 

Among  the  first  improvements  made  in  the  old  instal- 
lation was  the  placing  of  a  new  tubular  boiler  and  an 
Eclipse  Corliss  Engine,  each  having  a  capacity  of  200 
horse  power,  and  also  the  installation  of  two  La  Roche 
alternators,  having  an  output  of  36  amperes  and  75  am- 
peres, respectively,  or  a  combined  capacity  of  2000  16 
candle-power  incandescent  lamps.  In  addition,  the  plant 
operates  65  2000  candle-power  arc  lamps  for  municipal 
purposes  from  one  75  lamp  9.6  ampere  Ball  arc  lighting 
dynamo.  The  incandescent  service  is  rendered  on  meter 
rates,  with  the  usual  results,  for  it  is  found  that  although 
2400  lamps  are  wired  in  on  the  circuits,  the  maximum 
load  carried  is  but  800  lamps.  The  business  is  rapidly 
growing,  and  is  quite  satisfactory. 

the  article  of  Lieut. 
Plant  Growth,  and 
Light  in  Chemical  Decomposition,"  presented  in  the 
September  number  of  the  Journal  of  Electricity,  are  ex- 
ceedingly important  suggestions  of  the  possible  connec- 
tions of  observed  effects,  which  seem  heretofore  to  have 
been  unconnected.  The  relation  between  the  crop  reports 
throughout  the  country,  and  the  eleven-year  sun-spot 
periods  have  long  been  noticed,  although  scientific  men 
have  felt  that  rather  a  coincidence  was  indicated  than 
that  there  was  any  necessary  connection  between  the 
two  facts.  Mr.  Stuart-Smith  has  pointed  out  that  the 
experiments  of  Prof.  "Warner,  at  Amherst,  Mass.,  seems 
to  give  the  connecting  link  between  these  observed 
effects,  which  have  heretofore  appeared  to  be  so  widely 
supported.  Our  meteorological  observers  have  not  made 
the  observations  necessary  for  the  proof  or  disproof  of 
Lieut.  Stuart-Smith's  hypothesis,  though 
before  such  observations  are  likely  to  be 
undertaken  it  is  necessary  that  a  correla- 
tion of  facts,  already  at  hand,  should  indi- 
cate whether  there  is  a  strong  probability 
that  such  observations  would  lead  to  im- 
portant results.  In  the  records  of  the 
astronomical  observatories  are  to  be  found 
complete  reports  of  the  condition  of  the  sun 
for  a  great  number  of  years,  and,  since  the 
establishment  of  Gauss  and  Weber  of  mag- 
netic observations,  many  records  have  been 
preserved  of  the  existence  and  character  of 
magnetic  storms.  These  two  sets  of  data 
have  been  found  to  correspond  with  each 
other,  and  it  is  now  definitely  believed  that 
the  presence  of  spots  on  the  sun  exerts  a 
maguetic  effect  on  the  earth,  inducing 
strong  earth  currents.  Whether  the  crop 
reports  follow  more  closely  the  periodicity 
of  the  sun  spots  or  of  the  earth  currents 
has  not  been  so  clearly  established.  The 
variations  in  the  actinic  properties  of  sun- 
light, of  which  Lieut.  Stuart-Smith  speaks, 
are  altogether  unobserved  as  yet,  and  until 
definitely  proved  that  there  is  a  relation 
between  the  existence  of  spots  upon  the  sun 
and  the  actinic  activity  of  sunlight  on  the 
earth's  surface,  we  will  necessarily  be  in  doubt  as  to 
whether  the  characteristics  of  the  sunlight  or  the  exis- 
tence of  earth  currents  has  a  greater  effect  upon  plant 
growth.     The  practice  of  the  market   gardeners  about 

the  city  of  Boston  of  forcing  their  vegetables  by  light- 
ing their  garden  with  arc  lights,  would  indicate  that  an 
actinic  change  in  sunlight  may  probably  be  found  to  be 
more  influential  in  plant  growth  than  the  presence  of 
earth  currents,  though  up  to  the  present  time  experi- 
ments on  a  large  scale  have  not  been  made  in  forcing 
plant  growth  by  means  of  these  currents.  S. 

San  Francisco,  October  17,  1895. 

The  Stirling  Supply  Company,  54=  Second  street,  San 
Francisco,  has  secured  the  Pacific  Coast  agencies  for  the 
electric  light  and  power  apparatus  of  the  Card  Electric 
Company  of  Mansfield,  Ohio,  and  of  the  Standard  Ther- 
mometer Company  of  Peabody,  Mass.,  manufacturers  of 
the  well-known  Upton  Arc  Lamp. 

In  responding  to  advertisements  please  mention  The 
Journal  of  Electricity. 



[Vol.  I,  No.  4. 


A  new  type  of  direct  connected  electric  elevator,  which 
presents  several  novel  features  of  improvement  over  the 
ordinary  form,  has  recently  been  brought  out  by  Messrs. 
Cahill  &  Hall,  of  San  Francisco,  and  which  is  shown  in 
side  elevation  in  Figure  1.  The  particular  novelty  con- 
sists in  the  way  the  hoisting  ropes  are  operated,  which 
forms  a  radical  departure  in  that  the  hoisting  ropes  are 
not  wound  on  a  drum,  as  is  the  usual  practice,  but  are 
moved  by  friction  in  much  the  same  way  that  the  cable 
of  a  cable  railway,  or  the  rope  of  the  house  mover,  or 
the  ship's  hawser  about  a  capstan  are  pulled.  The 
principle  upon  which  these  appliances  are  operated  is 
that  so  long  as  the  free  end  of  the  rope  about  the  capstan, 
for  instance,  is  kept  taut,  the  rope  will  keep  its  grip  exert- 
ing an  amount  of  pull  dependant  upon  the  power  excited 
and  the  strength  of  the  rope. 

which  being  hinged  as  shown  at  Z,  is  free  to  tilt  either 
way.  The  major  portion  of  the  weight  of  the  apparatus 
however,  is  borne  by  the  idler  sheave  C  ",  around  which 
the  equivalent  of  the  free  end  of  the  rope  passes.  The 
weight  of  the  equipment  being  borne  on  the  rope  through 
the  sheave  C",  furnishes  the  power  for  taking  up  the 
slack  on  the  free  end  of  the  rope,  and  if  the  car  meets 
with  an  obstacle  preventing  further  travel,  or  if  through 
any  mischance  the  car  should  strike  the  bumpers  at  the 
top  or  bottom  of  the  shaft,  the  rope  will  slip  upon  the 
traction  sheaves,  and  all  danger  or  damage  will  be 
averted.  This  is  a  feature  which  exists  in  no  other  form 
of  electric  elevator  equipment,  and  is  undoubtedly  of 
great  value,  owing  to  the  fact  that  with  rigid  connections 
between  the  rope  and  the  winding  drum,  or  between  the 
rope  and  expansion  or  thrust  sheaves,  it  is  evident  that 
in  event  of  the  car  striking  an  unyielding  obstacle,  the 
momentum  of  the  motor  will  impose  fierce  strains  upon 
the  machinery  that  ofttimes  will  result  in  breakdown, 


If,  however,  the  free  end  of  the  rope  is  slack,  the 
frictional  contact  of  the  rope  with  the  capstan  will  be 
freed,  and  the  rope  will  slip.  This  principle  is  execu- 
ted in  a  novel  way  in  the  distinctive  type  of  elevator 
designed  by  Cahill  &  Hall.  It  will  be  seen  in  Figures  1 
and  2  that  there  are  two  hoisting  ropes.  One  end  of 
each  of  these  is  fastened  to  the  top  of  a  counter  weight, 
whence  they  pass  up  and  over  a  sheave  mounted  at  the 
top  of  the  elevator  shaft,  thence  down  along  its  side  to 
and  twice  around  these  traction  sheaves  designated  as  C 
and  C  in  Figure  2.  From  these  traction  sheaves  the 
ropes  continue  down  and  around  the  front  idler  sheave 
C",  shown  also  in  Figure  3,  from  which  it  continues  up, 
and  is  made  fast  to  the  under  side  of  the  counterweight. 
The  elevator  cage  is  supported  by  four  ropes  leading 
from  the  top  of  the  car  over  a  sheave  at  the  top  of  the 
elevator  shaft,  thence  to  the  top  of  the  counterweight. 

The  basic  principles  upon  which  the  equipment  oper- 
ates may  now  be  understood.  As  shown  in  Figure  2, 
the  entire  apparatus  is  rigidly  mounted  upon  a  bed  plate, 

Figure  1 — Departure  in  Electric  Elevator  Construction. 

throwing  the  car  upon  the  safety  devices.  To  go  more 
fully  into  the  modus  operandi  of  the  Cahill-Hall  equip- 
ment, as  the  front  end  of  the  apparatus  is  held  up  by 
the  idler  sheave  resting  on  the  hoisting  ropes,  it  is  clear 
that  the  measure  of  lift,  which  may  be  given  to  the  ma- 
chine, depends  upon  the  amount  of  weight  resting  on  the 
hoistiug  ropes,  which  of  course  is  fixed  by  the  weight  of 
the  equipment.  If  more  pull  is  exerted  on  the  hoisting 
ropes  than  there  is  weight  resting  upon  them,  evi- 
dently the  machine  will  rise,  which  will  slacken  the 
ropes,  and  they  will  slip.  By  adjusting  the  weight  of 
the  machine,  the  equipment  may  thus  be  made  to  raise 
any  predetermined  load,  any  material  excess  of  which  will 
cause  slipping,  which  the  makers  claim  to  be  a  most  im- 
portant feature. 

In  construction,  the  form  of  motor  used  resembles  the 
waterproof  type  of  the  street  railway  motor  to  a  consid- 
erable extent.  It  is  therefore  of  the  iron-clad  frame 
type,  and  has  two  internal  pole  pieces.  The  particular 
feature  that  impresses  one  regarding  the  design  of  the 

Oct.,  1895.] 



motor  is  the  large  amount  of  iron  in  the  frame,  and  the 
entire  absence  of  magnetic  joints.  The  self-induction  of 
the  field  circuits  is  very  high,  and  the  series  coil  is  so 
proportioned  that  the  self-induction  opposes  or  chokes 
back  the  abnormal  current  flow  that  would  otherwise 
occur  at  starting,  because  of  the  absence  of  counter- 
electro-motive  force  due  to  the  armature  being  at  a 
stand-still.  The  motor  is  equipped  with  self-oiling  and 
self-aligning  bearings ;  its  weight  is  2400  pounds,  and  its 
speed  is  800  revolutions  per  minute. 

Those  who  are  familiar  with  the  starting  torque  of 
various  types  of  electric  motors  will  appreciate  result  of 
a  test  made  by  Edward  S.  Cobb,  mechanical  engineer, 
upon  the  motor  in  question,  and  from  his  report  it  ap- 
pears that  a  15  horse-power  motor  having  a  ten  inch 
armature  exerted  a  starting  torque  of  2,448  pounds  on 
the  surface  of  the  armature,  and  this  with  all  the  resis- 
tance of  the  rheostat  thrown  in,  and  with  no  material 
heating  in  either  the  rheostat  or  the  motor. 

The  controller  used  is  of  the  general  disc  type  in  which 

eliminates  the  use  of  a  thrust  bearing  for  the  worm 
shaft,  resulting  in  higher  efficiency'  than  would  be  the 
case  with  the  use  of  but  one  gear.  Further  advantage  is 
rea hzed  in  this  arrangement  in  that  By  having  two  gears, 
each  will  be  called  upon  to  carry  but  half. the  load,  hence 
they  will  wear  twice  as  long.  The  gears  are  filled  with 
oil  up  to  the  center  of  the  worm  shaft,  which  insures  per- 
fect lubrication.  '..  / 

An  equipment  installed  in  the  building  of  the  Fred.  J. 
Byrne  Block,  Los  Angeles,  Cal.,  is  so  geared  that  for 
each  revolution  of  the  armature  the  car  travels  five' 
inches.  The  travel  of  the  car  is  55£  feet,  and  from 
tests  made,  this  distance  was  covered"  in  nine  seconds 
each  way.  Twenty-two  seconds  were  consumed  in  mak- 
ing the  round  trip,  including  starting  and  stopping, 
while  fifty-five  seconds  were  consumed  in  making  a 
round  trip  with  a  stop  at  each  of  the  five  floors.  To 
stop  at  each  of  the  five  floors  allowing  a  man  to  get  on 
and  otf  the  car  in  a  way  as  near  actual  conditions  of 
operating  an   elevator  as  is  possible,   required  ninety 


')  ■    '  I 

Figure  2 — Departure  in  Electric  Elevator  Construction. 

the  lever  consists  of  a  straight  bar  insulated  and  swing- 
ing at  the  center,  and  which,  therefore,  acts  diametri- 
cally, and  brings  the  wipers  in  contact  with  strips  so 
arranged  as  to  give  the  connections  necessary.  All 
wipers  and  contact  strips  are  made  removable,  and  are 
manipulated  by  the  lever  in  the  elevator  car. 

That  the  motor  performs  its  work  well  is  evident  by 
the  smoothness  and  ease  of  both  starting  and  stopping. 
The  connections  given  for  circuit  changes  are  such  as 
meet  general  conditions,  but,  of  course,  they  may  be 
modified  in  minor,  details  to  meet  the  necessities  of  dif- 
ferent equipments.  The  motors  are  wound  in  standard 
voltages  for  500,  250  and  1 10  volts,  and,  except  in  par- 
ticular instances,  motors  having  a  rating  of  15  horse- 
power amply  satisfy  all  requirements. 

It  will  be  seen  from  the  outline  drawing  in  Figure  2 
that  the  armature  shaft  is  extended  through  insulating 
couplings  L  L '  to  the  worm  shaft  S,  upon  which  is  keyed 
the  right  and  left  hand  worm  gears  A  A ',.  which  drive 
the  main  sheaves  C  C '  respectively.     This  arrangement 

seconds  for  the  round  trip,  all  of  which  would  indicate 
that  the  elevator  was  fully  to  the  standard  of  any  mod- 
ern high  speed  hydraulic  elevator. 

The  safety  devices  with  which  the  system  is  equipped 
has  been  carefully  worked  out,  and,  in  addition  to  all 
ordinary  mechanical  safeties,  two  sets  of  solenoids — one 
of  which  appears  at  K  K ',  the  other  being  on  the  oppo- 
site side — have  been  placed  for  breaking  the  main  cir- 
cuit, and  throwing  on  the  brake  I '  and  I  respectively. 
The  solenoid  controlling  the  brake  I  is  wired  in  parallel 
with  the  shunt  coil  of  the  motor,  and  when  excited  re- 
leases the  brake  I  by  raising  a  heavy  weight  (not 
shown)  which  actuates  it  through  an  ordinary  form  of 
toggle  joint.  The  solenoid  K  K'  operates  similarly  so 
far  as  mechanical  effects  are  concerned,  but  is  controlled 
through  contact  strips  on  the  car,  which  make  the  cir- 
cuit controlling  the  solenoid,  and  at  the  same  time  throw 
the  brake  I'  and  cut  the  main  circuit  by  raising  the  lever 
R,  opening  the  main  switch  at  Q.  The  main  circuit 
being  thus  broken,  current  is  taken  off  the  motor,  and 



[Vol.  I,  No.  4. 

the  second  solenoid   (not  shown)  which  throws  on  thg 
second  brake  I  as 'described. 

The  San  Frawisco  Savings  and  Loan    Society    has 
furnished  interesting  data  concerning  the  advantage  of 

Figure  3—  Departure  in  Electric  Elevator  Construction. 

electric  over  hydraulic  elevators.  The  hydraulic  equip- 
ment displaced  by  the  Cahill-Hall  apparatus  consisted  of 
an  ordinary  vertical  cylinder  elevator,  operated  by  pres- 
sure from  the  mains  of  the  Spring  Valley  "Water  Com- 
pany. The  water  consumed  was  measured  by  the  travel 
of  the  elevator  for  the  period  stated,  which  averaged 
12,931  feet  per  day,  and  the  bills  rendered  from  March 
5th  to  August  5th  inclusive,  show  an  average  consump- 
tion of  63,800  cubic  feet  of  water  per  month,  which  cost 
an  average  of  $118.71  per  month,  in  comparison  with 
which  the  bill  of  the  Edison  Light  &  Power  Co.  for 
electric  service  for  the  month  of  September,  amount- 
ing to  $20.80,  shows  a  marked  economy  in  favor  of  the 
electric  elevator. 


A  decided  novelty  in  the  way  of  an  attraction  for  the 
amusement-loving  public  has  recently  been  erected  on  a 
block  near  the  Haight  street  entrance  to  Golden  Gate 
Park,  San  Francisco,  and  which  will  doubtless  be  a  ma- 
terial factor  in  increasing  the  business  of  the  many  street 
car  lines  of  that  neighborhood.  The  attraction  consists 
of  what  may  be  termed  a  water  toboggan,  or  a  water 
chute.  The  chute  proper  consists  of  an  inclined  plane, 
275  feet  in  length,  and  built  with  a  rise  of  25  per  cent. 
Down  this  chute  boats  will  shoot  with  accelerating 
velocity  until  the  lake  at  the  bottom  is  reached,  when 
the  voyagers  will  undoubtedly  have  had  enough. 

The  entire  outfit  is  operated  by  electric  power  from 
the  trolley  system,  and  the  equipment  consists  of  one 
twenty-horse-power  slow  speed  multipolar  motor  for 
operating  the  elevators ;  one  sixty-horse-power  bipolar 
motor  for  driving  a  fifty-light  arc  dynamo  ;  one  G.  E. 
800-motor  operating  the  hoist  for  pulling  the  empty 
boats  up  the  chute,  together  with  a  pumping  plant 
for  keeping  the  chute  well  flushed  with  water.  Already 
the  city  is  flooded  with  posters  asking  "  Have  you  shot 
the  chutes?"  and  before  long  many  San  Franciscans 
will  have  experienced  the  fact  that  there  is  something 
new  under  the  sun. 

^he  ^rade. 


There  are  hundreds  on  the  Pacific  Coast  who  will  be 
pleased  to  learn  that  John  M.  Klein's  Electrical  Works 
has  so  increased  its  business  as  to  necessitate  moving  to 
a  large  three-story  building,  Nos.  421-3  Montgomery 
street,  San  Francisco.  The  present  quarters  are  near 
California  street,  in  one  of  the  busiest  portions  of  the 
city,  and  the  establishment  having  taken  the  entire 
building,  will  fit  up  the  basement  as  a  packing  room,  the 
first  floor  as  a  store  and  salesroom,  the  second  floor  as  a 
warehouse,  and  the  third  floor  as  its  factory,  making  it 
one  of  the  most  complete  electrical  manufacturing  and 
supply  houses  on  the  Pacific  Coast.  This  removal  at 
once  centralizes  the  various  interests  of  the  concern  by 
bringing  them  under  one  roof  in  the  best  business  por- 
tion of  the  city. 

The  history  of  this  establishment  is  one  of  singular 
prosperity.  Mr.  Klein  started  in  business  with  the 
Western  Union  Telegraph  Co.,  in  New  York  City,  in 
1869,  as  a  messenger  boy,  in  which  capacity  he  proved 
so  faithful  that  in  the  following  year  he  was  given  a 
position  in  the  old  Western  Union  shops  on  West  Fifty- 
fifth  street,  where  he  became  a  shop  mate  of  many  of  the 
veteran  telegraphers,  among  whom  wei'e  John  Gough, 
A.  J.  Brown,  Charles  Bender,  George  Thompson  and 
others.  For  many  years  he  remained  in  the  factory, 
and  then  came  to  San  Francisco  and  entered  the  fire 
alarm  service,  where  he  remained  until  1880,  when  he 
started  in  business  for  himself,  his  only  capital  being  a 
well-equipped  set  of  tools  and  a  thorough  understanding 
of  the  art.  An  idea  of  the  degree  of  success  attained 
may  be  had  from  the  fact  that  the  mercantile  rating  of 
the  electrical  supply  house  of  John  M.  Klein's  Electrical 
Works  is  as  high,  if  not  higher,  than  any  other  similar 
establishment  on  the  Pacific  Coast.  Though  the  firm 
still  embraces  Mr.  Klein's  individuality,  the  firm  has  re- 
cently been  enlarged  by  the  addition  of  the  name  of  Mr. 
Marion  L.  Mowry  to  partnership,  as  a  result  of  which 
the  business  is  being  pushed  to  the  utmost  degree. 

Mr.  Mowry,  who  is  a  native  of  California,  is  well- 
known  in  district  messenger  and  electrical  circles.  He 
was  the  founder  of  the  California  District  Messenger 
Company  in  1882,  and  the  first  to  start  opposition  to  the 
American  District  Messenger  Company  of  San  Francisco. 
In  various  ways  he  has  been  connected  with  electrical 
projects,  and  recently  became  interested  as  above  stated. 


Sacramento  City  has  again  assumed  its  workaday 
attire,  and  most,  if  not  all,  of  the  electric  lighting  equip- 
ment erected  by  the  Carnival  Committee  for  decorative 
purposes  has  been  disposed  of  at  private  sale.  It  now 
transpires  that  a  single  supply  house  in  San  Francisco 
furnished  over  14,000  lamps  for  the  Carnival,  and  an 
equal  number  were  obtained  from  other  sources.  The 
remaining  equipments  in  the  Folsom  Power  House  of 
the  Sacramento  Electric  Power  and  Light  Company  have 
been  completed,  as  has  also  the  sub-station,  and  the  sys- 
tem is  working  to  entire  satisfaction. 

Through  inadvertence  no  mention  was  made  of  the 
fact  that  credit  for  a  great  amount  of  work  on  the  arches 
and  other  illuminating  effects  for  the  Carnival  was 
installed  by  the  Pacific  Electrical  Works.  This  is  one 
of  the  oldest  electrical  supply  and  construction  estab- 
lishments in  Sacramento,  having  been  established  under 
the  management  of  C.  A.  Fisk  in  1874,  and  its  store  at 
1023  Fourth  street  forms  a  headquarters  for  everything 

Oct.,  1895.] 




The  Okonite  Company  (Limited),  always  progressive 
and  leaders  in  all  that  pertains  to  their  especial  line  of 
goods,  brought  a  new  idea  in  tape  to  the  recent  street 
railway  convention  which  created  a  genuine  sensation 
and  caused  any  amount  of  favorable  comment.  The 
novelty  consists  of  a  new  form  in  which  the  company  is 
putting  out  the  celebrated  Manson  Tape,  and  was  shown 
by  Captain  Willard  L.  Candee,  who  was  to  be  found 
here,  there  and  everywhere,  surrounded  by  an  inter- 
ested group  of  the  electrical  fraternity  eager  to  get 
points  on  the  "  good  thing." 

The  usual  manner  for  supplying  the  trade  with  tape 
has  been  for  the  manufacturers  to  put  it  up  in  half- 
pound  packages  or  rolls,  incased  in  tin  foil  or  other 
wrapping.  It  is  the  general  experience  of  most  com- 
panies that  the  linemen  in  using  tape  so  put  up,  after 
taking  what  was  needed  for  the  work  in  hand  from  the 
roll,  would  throw  what  was  left  away,  or,  if  they  did  put 
it  back  into  their  kit,  the  wrapping  would  soon  become 
loose,  the  tape  gather  dust  and  dirt,  and  in  a  short  time 
become  almost  unfit  for  further  use. 

Captain  Candee  showed  the  Manson  Tape,  packed  in 
round  tin  boxes  of  two  colors — red  and  white — both 
very  attractive  and  neat  in  appearance,  and  containing 
one  ounce  of  the  tape.  This  is,  nine  times  out  of  ten,  a 
sufficient  quantity  for  any  ordinary  repair,  and  if  there 
be  any  left  over  it  may  be  put  back  into  the  box,  which 
is  conveniently  small  (about  the  size  of  a  silver  dollar), 
where  it  will  be  kept  fresh  and  clean  and  ready  for  further 
use.  The  new  form  of  packing  meetsan  evident  want,  and 
will  unquestionably  mean  a  considerable  saving  to  the 
companies  and  prove  a  great  convenience  to  linemen. 

The  Manson  Tape  is  furnished  in  two  colors ;  the  black 
tape  will  be  put  up  in  red  boxes  lettered  in  black,  the 
white  tape  in  white  boxes  also  lettered  in  black. 

Captain  Candee  returned  from  the  convention  with  a 
large  number  of  valuable  souvenirs  in  the  shape  of  sub- 
stantial orders  for  the  novelty.  It  is  of  interest  to  state 
that  the  tape  put  up  in  this  way  adapts  itself  perfectly 
to  the  needs  of  cyclists  as  well ,  and  will  doubtless  prove 
as  popular  in  that  quarter  as  for  purely  electrical  uses. 


is  entirely  water  and  dust  proof,  and  may  be  conve- 
niently opened  from  below,  which  retains  the  armature 
in  the  top  half  of  the  casing  or  by  the  removal  of  only 
two  bolts,  the  armature  may  be  lowered  with  the  bottom 
half.  The  armature  is  of  the  toothed-drum  type,  pro- 
vided with  machine-wound,  interchangeable  coils.     The 

The  latest  type  of  motor  manufactured  by  the  Walker 
Manufacturing  Company,  is  that  shown  in  the  accom- 
panying illustrations,  and  which  at  once  combines  all 
features  that  have  been  found  of  value.     It  is  of  the  four 

Walkek  Street  Railway  Motor. 

pole  single  reduction  steel  frame  type,  is  of  light  weight, 
considering  the  output,  and  is  in  no  way  attached  to  the 
axle  except  through  the  springs,  which  at  once  practi- 
cally eliminates  the  serious  items  of  repair  to  both  track 
and  equipment,  consequent  to  the  hammering  on  the 
track  and  rail  joints  due  to  rigid  suspension.     The  motor 

Walker  Street  Railway  Motor. 

field  coils,  which  are  also  machine  wound,  can  be  readily 
removed  from  the  frame,  and  the  shaft  is  unusually 
heavy  with  extra  large  and  long  journals,  while  the 
gears  are  run  in  oil  in  a  detachable  air-tight  casing  run 
in  oil.  Insulation  is  effected  by  the  use  of  mica  through- 
out, and  every  motor  is  tested  at  5000  volts  a.  c.  A 
series  parallel  controller  is  used,  which  takes  up  an  ex- 
ceedingly small  portion  of  the  care  platform,  is  both  fire 
and  waterproof,  and  all  parts  are  easy  of  access  for  in- 

The  Pacific  Coast  Agency  of  the  Walker  Manufac- 
turing Co.  has  beeu  placed  with  the  Adner  Doble  Co., 
Mechanical  and  Electrical  Engineers  and  Contractors  of 
Nos.  13  and  15  Fremont  street,  San  Francisco,  who  report 
the  sale  of  a  400  horse-power  multipolar  Walker  generator 
to  the  Oakland  Consolidated  Street  Railway  Company, 
and  of  fifteen  street  railway  equipments  to  the  Sutro 
Railroad  Company. 


The  recent  installation  of  600  horse-power  of  new 
wrought  steel  construction  safety  boilers  by  the  Babcock 
&  Wilcox  Company  in  the  power  house  of  the  Sutro 
Railroad  Company,  together  with  the  erection  of  200 
horse-power  of  boilers  for  the  Commercial  Steam  Power 
Works,  and  60  horse-power  for  the  Hebrew  Orphan 
Asylum  in  San  Francisco,  have  received  close  attention 
by  parties  who  are  interested,  as  the  high  character  of 
workmanship  on  the  forged  parts  and  drums  is  some- 
thing unusual.  These  "  W.  S.  C."  boilers,  as  this  type 
is  termed,  have  forged  steel  heads,  cross  boxes  and  drum- 
heads, and  are  designed  for  exceptionally  high  pressure. 
Mr.  Charles  C.  Moore,  the  Pacific  Coast  Manager,  has 
received  for  distribution  among  steam  users  two  inter- 
teresting  pamphlets,  entitled  "High  Pressure"  and 
"  Facts."  The  former  specially  describes  boilers  of  the 
"  W.  S.  C."  construction,  and  the  latter  gives  a  history 
of  water  tube  boilers  from  the  inception  of  the  art  of 
steam  boiler  construction  to  the  present  time,  indicating 
the  degree  of  commercial  success  attained  by  each. 

Messrs.  Charles  C.  Moore  &  Co.  also  report  recent 
equipment  of  thirty  steam  plants  in  this  section  with 
Stratton  Steam  Separators  and  of  more  than  forty  plants 
with  Bundy  Tank  and  Return  Steam  Traps,  the  latter  be- 
ing a  comparatively  new  device  of  special  economy  for 
returning  condensed  water  direct  to  the  boilers  without 
pumping.  Satisfactory  sales  of  Goubert  Feed  Water 
Heaters,  New  York  Safety  Engines,  Snow  Steam  Pumps 
and  Spencer  Damper  Regulators  are  also  reported. 



[Vol.  I,  No.  4. 




twenty  feet  higher  than  the  Russian  River.  The  plant,  it  is  esti- 
mated, will  generate  from  2,000  to  5,000  horse-power,  and  it  is 
expected  that  with  additional  turbines  and  canals  running  out  of 
the  initial  dam  at  least  10,000  horse-power  can  be  derived. 

Enthusiastic  citizens  here  are  declaring  that  in  a  short  time 
Sonoma  County  and  the  entire  State  will  be  the  scene  of  pros- 
perous factories  run  by  this  new  power  so  cheaply  obtained  from 
the  hills.— Santa  Rosa,  Cal.,  Democrat. 

The  transmission  of  electric  power  is  no  longer  a  speculative 
experiment  but  a  plain  business  proposition,  that  commends 
itself  to  intelligent  investors  everywhere. — Santa  Cruz  (Cal.) 

While  capitalists  of  the  State  are  looking  around  for  electric 
power,  we  beg  to  call  their  attention  to  Merced  Falls,  in  this 
county.  If  the  power  there  is  harnessed  up  and  properly  utilized 
it  will  produce  handsome  returns  on  the  investment. — Merced, 
Cal.,  Express.  

The  business  boom  in  the  electrical  world  continues  and  new 
schemes  for  power  transmission  and  other  electrical  enterprises 
are  being  formed,  while  hustling  promoters  of  other  schemes  a 
little  older  are  figuring  on  the  cost  of  plans  and  trying  to  raise 
capital. — San  Francisco  Call. 

It  is  not  easy  to  foresee  all  that  this  [electric  transmission] 
may  mean  for  the  near  future,  particularly  here  in  the  Salt  River 
valley.  ,  If  the  water  power  which  we  have  could  be  utilized  for 
generating  electricity,  there  would  be  no  end  to  the  possibilities. 
— Phcenix  (Ariz.)  Republican. 

Matters  in  the  [municipal]  electric  light  department  are  still 
mixed.  When  the  incandescent  plant  was  put  in  operation 
things  got  in  a  tangle  which  it  seems  impossible  to  straighten 
out.  A  number  of  stores  and  residences  are  furnished  with 
lights,  but  the  profit  accruing  to  the  city  has  not  as  yet  been 
discovered. — Alameda  (Cal.)  Argus. 

The  work. of  harnessing  the  vast  water  power  of  California, 
most  of  which  is  now  going  to  waste,  has  evidently  begun  in 
good  earnest.  The  American  River  plant  at  Folsom  is  already 
furnishing  power  for  Sacramento,  twenty-three  miles  away. 
*  *  *  Similar  projects  are  on  foot  in  other  sections,  and  each 
one  will  probably  prove  a  highly  remunerative  investment. — Los 
Angeles  Times.  

It  is  suggested  that  if  the  National  Republican  Convention  be 
held  in  San  Francisco  next  June,  Sacramento  might  hold  at  that 
time  a  flower  carnival ,  or  Electric  Carnival,  or  similar  celebra- 
tion, for  the  purpose  of  attracting  and  entertaining  the  East- 
erners. If  Sacramento  does  anything  at  all,  let  her  have  next 
year  another  Electric  Carnival,  for  in  that  direction  she  can  give 
a  pageant  unique  in  its  character  and  which  no  other  city  at 
present  can  dupliaate. — Sacramento  Bee. 

It  is  practicable  to  pick  up  Nature's  immense  stores  of  power, 
as  represented  by  the  innumerable  mountain  streams  throughout 
the  land,  and  transport  them  to  the  centers  of  trade,  commerce 
and  manufacturing,  and  convert  them  to  the  uses  of  mankind. 
Instead  of  taking  the  manufacturing  establishment  to  the  power, 
which  is  often  in  places  difficult  of  access,  the  power  will  be  car- 
ried whither  the  manufacturer  wills.  He  will  build  his  factories 
where  they  will  be  easy  of  access  to  transportation,  and  bring  the 
power  of  the  mountain  streams  to  them.  And  this  is  not  an  idle 
dream — it  is  not  a  dream  at  all,  but  an  established,  practical 
reality. — Nevada  City  (Cal.)  Herald. 

In  California  there  is  no  Niagara  to  harness,  but  there  is  a 
steady  fall  of  water  from  the  Sierras  capable  of  furnishing  more 
power  than  will  be  needed  for  generations  to  come.  A  practical 
beginning  of  utilizing  these  streams  has  already  been  made ,  and 
it  will  be  a  misfortune  for  San  Diego  if  it  fails  to  become  a  com- 
petitor for  these  future  manufactories.  The  mountain  streams 
only  a  few  miles  distant  can  be  made  to  furnish  ample  power  at 
moderate  cost.  The  facilities  for  transportation  by  wrater  render 
this  city  a  much  more  desirable  place  for  manufacturing  estab- 
lishments than  interior  points.  The  subject  is  certainly  one 
worthy  of  careful  consideration. — San  Diego  (Cal.)  Union. 

There  is  no  limit  to  the  possibilities  that  lie  before  manufac- 
turers and  others  who  depend  upon  the  creation  of  some  form  of 
force.  Electricity  is  the  coming  motive  power,  but  electricity 
must  be  caused  by  some  exciting  agency  and  to-day  the  usual 
-means  is  a  steam  engine  which  turns  the  armatures  of  dynamos 
and  so  produces  the  current  that  is  then  used  for  lighting  and 
various  purposes.  But  this  depends  upon  coal,  and  coal  is  neither 
cheap  nor  plentiful  in  California.  Hence,  our  salvation  is  in  the 
means  of  utilizing  our  streams.  *  *  Some  of  our  local  capital- 
ists have  recently  examined  a  canyon  near  Healdsburg,  which 
they  think  will  solve  the  problem  for  Santa  Rosa.    The  canyon  is 

When  power  for  the  generation  of  electricity  for  transmission 
is  under  consideration,  Stanislaus  County  looms  far  above  all 
other  sections  of  the  State.  The  great  irrigatfon  dam  at  La 
Grange  affords  advantages  in  this  direction  that  are  simply  stu- 
pendous. Light,  heat  and  power  could  be  furnished  to  Merced, 
Modesto  and  Stockton  on  the  plains,  as  well  as  the  lesser  towns, 
and  to  Coulterville  and  other  towns  of  the  mountains.  An  elec- 
tric railroad  from  Modesto  to  Coulterville  would  make  this  city 
the  base  of  supplies  for  the  mining  town  and  all  adjacent  country, 
as  well  as  give  us  all  the  traveling  and  transient  business,  a  very 
valuable  consideration.  The  cost  of  constructing  and  equipping 
such  a  road  would  not  be  excessive,  and  the  enterprise  would  pay 
its  promoters  and  handsomely  enhance  the  business  of  the  town. 
—Modesto  (Cal.)  Herald. 

H.  W.  Gray,  the  contractor  who  built  a  portion  of  the  ditches 
of  the  Modesto  and  Turlock  irrigation  district,  says:  "  There  is 
already  going  to  waste  power  enough  for  the  submerged  dam  on 
the  Tuolumne  river  to  operate  an  electric  railroad  from  there  to 
Stockton  on  the  north  and  to  Fresno  on  the  south.  That  dam 
was  built  by  the  Modesto  Irrigation  district.  It  is  in  the  Tuo- 
lumne river  and  about  thirty  miles  from  La  Grange.  It  is  126 
feet  in  height,  and  supplies  2100  cubic  feet  of  water  per  second 
for  the  district.  The  district  will  probably  use  not  more  than 
1000  cubic  feet  per  second.  At  the  driest  season  of  the  year  there 
is  200  cubic  feet  of  water  per  second.  There  is  a  dam  already 
built,  with  water  flowing  over  it  at  a  height  of  126  feet,  which 
would  furnish  all  the  electric  power  needed  to  operate  a  railroad 
from  that  point  to  Modesto,  and  then  on  either  side  to  Stockton 
or  to  this  city.  As  it  is  now,  the  power  of  that  mighty  force  of 
water  is  going  to  waste.  That  dam  is  only  one  of  many  which 
may  be  built  for  the  purposes  of  irrigation,  which  may  also  be 
used  to  generate  electric  power  for  railroads.  The  whole  western 
slope  of  the  Sierra  Nevada  drains  an  almost  incalculable  amount 
of  water,  which  is  gathered  according  to  the  watersheds  into 
creeks  and  rivers.  There  is  the  Merced  River,  which  has  fall 
enough  to  supply  enough  power  to  operate  an  electric  road  to  a 
point  on  the  Bay  of  San  Francisco.  The  same  is  true  of  the 
Fresno  River  and  the  San  Joaquin,  the  King,  the  Tule  and  the 
Kern  Rivers.  All  those  are  great  rivers  with  capacity  of  generat- 
ing great  power,  which  may  be  used  for  electric  roads  or  for  manu- 
facturing plants  " — San  Francisco  Chronicle. 

California  cannot  be  too  prompt  to  make  commercial  use  of 
the  power  in  her  streams  to  provide  it  with  electricity.  The 
first  great  experiment — on  the  American  river  at  Folsom — is  suc- 
cessful. A  hundred  other  schemes  for  putting  traces  and  collars 
upon  the  moving  waters  are  in  the  air.  From  Lake,  from  San 
Diego,  from  Kern,  from  Calerveras  come  reports  of  projects  to 
make  the  waters  do  the  hard  work  for  man.  Use  of  water  for 
power  for  the  electric  road  to  be  built  to  the  Yosemite  Valley  is 
entirely  within  possibility,  and  the  visitor  to  the  wonderland  may 
ride  swiftly  by  the  force  of  the  very  waterfalls  that  enchant  his 
vision  at  the  end  of  the  trip. 

The  Directors  of  the  San  Francisco  and  San  Joaquin  Valley 
Railway  would  not  be  wasting  time  by  giving  consideration  to 
the  feasibility  of  the  use  of  electricity  as  the  motive  power  for  its 
trains,  and  to  investigating  how  power  may  best  be  obtained  from 
the  Stanislaus,  the  Tuolumne,  the  Merced,  the  King  and  the 
Kern.  The  topography  of  the  country  through  which  the  Valley 
Railroad  will  run  its  way  is  peculiarly  adapted  for  an  electric 
railway,  and  nowhere  else  in  the  world  has  nature  placed  the 
power  more  accessible.  One  of  the  reasons  for  selecting  the  Nan- 
tasket  branch  in  Connecticut  as  the  line  for  experiment  is  that 
within  its  short  limits  are  condensed  most  of  the  difficult  prob- 
lems which  will  have  to  be  solved  before  electricity  can  be  rec- 
ognized as  a  successful  substitute  for  steam.  The  grades  are 
steep  and  the  curves  sharp  and  frequent.  The  Valley  Railroad 
will  run  through  a  level  valley,  and  will  be  free  from  either  steep 
grades  or  sharp  curves. 

The  electric  locomotive  has  but  to  be  developed  one  degree 
further  to  be  ready  for  use  on  just  such  a  railroad,  and,  in  the 
mean  time,  California  should  be  preparing  to  receive  the  locomo- 
tive. The  union  of  the  largest  factory  in  the  world  for  supplying 
motive  engines  with  an  electrical  company  means  more  than 
speculation  for  constructions  for  suburban  roads.  It  means  that 
the  great  railroads  are  going  to  turn  their  attention  to  electricity. 
The  change  from  steam  should  come  first  where  natural  power 
can  best  be  applied. — San  Francisco  Examiner. 

Oct.,  1895.] 



Reports  of  the  Jffonth. 


Spokane,  Wash. — The  Union  Light  and  Power  Company  has 
been  defeated  in  its  suit  to  enjoin  the  City  of  Spokane  from  inter- 
fering with  the  construction  and  maintenance  of  its  lines. 

Seattle,  Wash. — The  City  Council  has  passed  an  ordinance 
requiring  all  electric  wires  put  underground  inside  of  ninety 
days.  All  electric  companies,  together  with  many  prominent 
business  men,  have  signed  a  petition  to  the  Council,  in  which  the 
electric  companies  agree  to  use  but  one  pole  line  on  either  side  of 
each  street,  with  six  poles  to  the  block,  and  that  all  other  poles 
shall  be  cut  down. 


Fresno,  Cal. — The  Sunset  Telephone  and  Telegraph  Company 
has  completed  and  is  now  occupying  a  vitrified  clay  underground 
conduit  system  covering  that  portion  of  the  city  bounded  by 
Fresno,  Kern,  I  and  N  streets. 

Sacramento,  Cal. — The  contract  for  the  12,000  feet  of  ferial 
telephone  cable  required  by  the  Capital  Telephone  and  Telegraph 
Company  was  secured  by  the  John  A.  Roebling's  Sons  Company, 
and  the  material  has  been  delivered  and  is  in  use. 

San  Francisco,  Cal. — R.  B.  Elder,  Pacific  Coast  agent  for  the 
Chloride  Company,  reports  the  sale  of  several  storage  battery 
plants,  among  which  is  one  of  thirty-six  cells  of  chloride  battery 
for  operating  the  new  Express  Exchange  for  Sacramento. 


Riverside,  Cal. — The  Board  of  Trustees  has  advertised  for  bids 
for  electric  power  purposes. 

Redwood  City,  Cal. — Efforts  are  being  made  to  operate  the 
new  electric  plant  here  by  water  power. 

Kennedy,  Nev. — The  Schweitzer  Electric  Milling  Company  is 
erecting  machinery  to  work  custom  ores. 

San  Diego,  Cal.— F.  S.  Hartwell  has  been  appointed  agent  for 
the  Walker  Manufacturing  Company  for  San  Diego  county. 

Visalia,  Cal. — The  Kaweah  Irrigation  and  Power  Company  is 
purchasing  a  complete  outfit  for  excavating  the  proposed  power 

Bodie.  Cal. — The  Standard  Consolidated  Mining  Company  has 
completed  the  big  dam  for  its  electric  power  station  at  Green 

Bakersfield,  Cal. — Alfred  Billing  has  filed  a  claim  for  35,000 
inches  of  water  of  Kern  River,  to  be  diverted  at  a  point  in  Section 
17,  Township  27,  Range  32. 

Waneta,  Wash.— The  Kootenay  (Ida.)  Hydraulic  Mining  Com- 
pany has  altered  its  plan,  and  instead  of  furnishing  water  for 
mining  purposes,  proposes  to  place  an  electric  plant  and  furnish 
electric  power. 

Woodland,  Cal. — The  Rumsey  and  Tancred  colonies  are  con- 
sidering the  advisability  of  putting  in  an  electric  transmission 
plant  to  furnish  power  for  pumping  water  from  Cache  Creek  to 
be  used  for  irrigating  the  Tancred  colony  and  the  surrounding 

San  Francisco,  Cal. — The  Pacific  Coast  office  of  the  West- 
tinghouse  Electric  and  Manufacturing  Company  reports  the  sale 
of  the  following  apparatus  during  the  month :  1 , 2%  horse- 
power 500-volt  multipolar  motor;  1  7%  horse-power  500-volt 
multipolar  motor. 

Flagstaff,  Ariz. — Yuma  capitalists  will  soon  begin  the  erection 
of  a  large  smelting  plant  at  Castle  Dome  for  the  reduction  of  the 
lead  and  silver  ores  from  the  mines  near  that  place.  Electricity 
for  the  works  will  be  furnished  by  water  power  taken  from  the 
great  Yuma  irrigating  canal. 

Salt  Lake  City,  Utah.— R.  M.  Jones,  Manager  of  the  Big  Cot- 
tonwood Power  Company,  has  returned  from  the  East  after  hav- 
ing ordered  a  complete  transmission  plant  for  the  company.  Mr. 
Jones  will  now  devote  his  time  to  the  management  of  the  com- 
pany during  period  of  installation. 

Sonora,  Cal.— It  is  reported  that  local  capitalists,  believed  to 
be  the  Sonora  Electric  Light  Company,  intend  to  build  a  dam 
across  the  north  fork  of  the  Tuolumne  river,  near  Duck  Wall 
Canyon,  about  five  miles  from  Somersville,  for  the  purpose  of 
developing  additional  electric  power. 

Victoria,  B.  C— F.  S.  Barnard,  who  has  just  returned  from 
London,  says  that  he  has  succeeded  in  obtaining  capital  to  the 
extent  of  $500,000,  for  the  purpose  of  developing  the  water  power 
of  Seymour  Creek,  and  thereby  generating  electricity  for  electric 
lighting  and  electric  railways  in  Vancouver,  New  Westminster 
and  vicinity. 

Los  Angeles.  Cal. — The  San  Gabriel  Power  Company  pro- 
poses to  take  the  entire  flow  of  the  San  Gabriel  river  out  of  its 
bed  eight  miles  above  the  mouth  of  the  Azuza  Canyon,  and  by 
conveying  it  through  a  tunnel  to  develop  a  fall  of  400  feet. 
This  tunnel  will  be  about  1000  feet  long  and  is  already  half  com- 
pleted.   The  promoters  are  W.  C.  Kerckhoff,  A.  Haas  and  others 

of  this  city. A  recent  survey  of  the  proposed  transmission  line 

for  the  Kern  River  and  Los  Angeles  Electric  Company  shows 
that  its  length  is  under  110  miles.  Between  the  reservoir  on  Sal- 
mon creek  and  Kern  river,  a  distance  of  eight  and  a  half  miles, 
there  is  a  fall  of  about  5,100  feet,  there  being  one  waterfall  of 
2,000  feet. W.  N.  Myers  has  purchased  a400-horse-power  elec- 
tric plant  to  furnish  power  to  pump  the  wells  in  the  oil  fields. 

San  Francisco,  Cal. — The  Pacific  Transmission  Company  has 
been  incorporated  for  the  purpose  of  generating  electric  power 
from  the  refuse  coal  at  the  Corral  Hollow  coal  mines  in  Alameda 
and  San  Joaquin  counties,  for  transmission  to  the  cities  of  Stock- 
ton, San  Jose  and  elsewhere.  Eight  hundred  thousand  dollars 
have  been  invested  in  developing  the  mines,  and  it  is  stated  that 
the  initial  plant  will  generate  5,400  horse-power.  Messrs.  James 
and  John  Treadwell  and  others,  among  whom  are  representatives 

of  the  General  Electric  Company,  are  the  incorporators. The 

Merced  Falls  Electric  Power  and  Manufacturing  Company  has 
been  incorporated  by  J.  P.  Flemming  and  others,  with  $1,000,000 
capital. The  Westinghouse  Electric  and  Manufacturing  Com- 
pany reports  the  sale  of  one  45  kw.  two-phase  and  one  60  kw.  sin- 
gle phase  plants. 

Fresno,  Cal. — The  contract  filed  by  the  San  Joaquin  Electric 
Company,  with  the  County  Recorder  for  the  purchase  of  electrical 
apparatus  from  the  General  Electric  Company,  describes  techni- 
cally the  machinery  and  supplies  called  for,  the  cost  being  $113,- 
500.  About  400  miles  of  copper  wire  must  be  furnished,  together 
with  1000  incandescent  lamps,  160  arc  lamps,  and  the  various 
machinery  heretofore  described.  The  San  Joaquin  Company  has 
accepted  the  county  franchise  with  the  understanding  that  the 
entire  work  is  to  be  completed  within  one  year.  About  150  men 
are  at  work  on  the  dams  and  ditches  of  the  company.  These. are 
now  about  completed,  and  the  work  of  grading  for  the  pipe  line 
and  power  house  site  is  in  progress.  The  poles  for  the  thirty-five 
mile  transmission  have  been  ordered,  and  work  on  the  pole  line 
will  be  commenced  by  October  15th.  The  initial  capacity  will  be 
1040  kilowatts  in  three  units  ;  4100  feet  of  pipe  line  must  be  laid, 
which  will  develop  water  power  under  1410  foot  head. 

Grass  Valley,  Cal. — The  contract  for  stringing  the  wire  for 
the  Nevada  County  Electric  Power  Company  has  been  awarded 
to  the  Electrical  Construction  &  Repair  Company,  of  San  Fran- 
cisco. The  basis  of  the  contract  is  the  stringing  of  seventy-two 
miles  of  bare  copper  wire  of  various  sizes  over  pole  lines  already 
erected,  and  at  the  top  of  the  pole  a  circuit  of  No.  8  iron  wire, 
which  is  broken  and  grounded  at  every  other  pole.  The  pole 
line  starts  out  from  the  power  house  at  a  grade  of  forty  per  cent. 
About  30,000  feet  of  lumber  is  being  received  daily,  and  is  being 
placed  in  the  flume  of  the  Nevada  County  Electric  Power  Com- 
pany. This  flume  will  be  18,400  feet  in  length,  and  is  now  about 
two-thirds  finished,  and  will  be  entirely  completed  by  the  middle 
of  October.  Only  a  few  weeks  more  work  will  be  required  on  the 
dam,  which  is  being  constructed  of  heavy  granite  logs  and  con- 
crete. A  new  road  has  been  built  to  allow  the  hauling  of  dyna- 
mos, water-wheels  and  lumber  to  the  site  of  the  power  house,  and 
no  delay  is  occurring  in  any  branch  of  the  work. 


Fort  Jones,  Cal.— It  is -expected  that  an  electric  light  plant 
will  be  installed  here. 

Yuma,  Ariz.— An  electric  light  and  pumping  plant  is  soon  to 
be  placed  in  the  prison. 

Long  Beach,  Cal.— The  Long  Beach  Electric  Light  Company 
will  soon  extend  its  service  to  San  Pedro. 

Phcsnix,  Ariz.— A  250  light  plant  is  being  installed  in  the 
insane  asylum,  together  with  a  pumping  outfit. 

Santa  Barbara,  Cal.— Negotiations  are  nearly  consummated 
for  a  1000-light  generator  for  the  town  of  Santa  Maria. 

Prescott,  Ariz. — Arrangements  are  about  completed  for  the 
installation  of  another  electric  light  plant  of  2000-light  capacity. 

Santa  Cruz,  Cal.-  C.  Osborn  has  been  appointed  to  succeed 
C.  E.  Lilly  as  superintendent  of  the  Electric  Light  and  Power 

Pasadena,  Cal. — Bids  and  specifications  have  been  received  by 
the  Electric  Light  and  Power  Company  for  an  additional  150- 
horse-power  boiler. 

Benicia,  Cal.— The  old  engine  and  dynamos  of  the  Napa  Elec- 
tric Light  Works  have  been  moved  to  Benicia,  where  they  will  be 
used  to  furnish  light  for  that  city. 

Woodburn,  Or. — Davis  Brothers  of  Silverton  are  canvassing 
this  place -with  the  idea  of  securing  sufficient  business  to  warrant 
the  installation  of  an  electric  lighting  plant. 


TH£  journal  of  blbctricity. 

[Vol.  I,  No.  4. 

Napa,  Cal. — The  electric  lighting  franchise  recently  secured 
by  L.  A.  Grothwell  has  been  assigned  to  a  new  company  known 
as  the  Napa  and  St.  Helena  Electric  Company. 

Salinas,  Cal. — The  Salinas  Gas  and  Water  Company  has  ac- 
cepted the  proposition  of  the  Common  Council  for  seven  addi- 
tional street  arc  lights,  at  $7.50  each,  for  fifteen  months,  and  will 
place  same  immediately. 

Grass  Valley,  Cal. — The  North  Star  Mining  Company  has 
installed  an  incandescent  lighting  plant,  consisting  of  a  100-light 
dyamo  of  the  Electrical  Engineering  Company,  operated  from  .a 
10-horse-power  Girard  water  wheel. 

St.  Helena,  Cal — The  General  Electric  Company  will  install 
an  electric  lighting  plant  for  the  Napa  and  St.  Helena  Electric 
Light  and  Power  Company,  and  are  now  at  work  laying  out  a 
complete  system  of  wiring  for  the  town. 

Sonora,  Cal.— Grant  &  Bannister  are  to  install  a  500-horse- 
powerelectric  light  and  power  plant,  to  be  completed  by  February 
15,  1896.  Wires  will  be  run  through  Sonora,  Columbia,  James- 
town and  other  towns  for  lighting  purposes. 

Wattsburg,  Wash. — J.  G.  Stevens  has  secured  a  franchise  to 
erect  an  electric  light  plant,  and  will  begin  work  at  once.  Power 
will  be  furnished  from  Washington  Mills  temporarily,  but  event- 
ually Mr.  Stevens  will  take  out  a  mill-race  of  his  own. 
-  Tacoma,  Wash. — The  Board  of  Public  Works  intend  to  increase 
the  electric  lighting  plant  by  the  addition  of  a  new  125-horse- 
power  boiler,  a  2000-light  alternating  generator  and  a  250-horse- 
power  engine,  the  generator  and  engine  to  be  second-hand,  if  the 
same  can  be  obtained.  The  plant  is  now  supplying  580  arcs  and 
over  3000  incandescents. 

Anaconda,  Mont. — The  Anaconda  Electric  Light  and  Power 
Company  are  building  a  new  power  house,  which  will  be  fitted 
out  with  a  new  outfit  of  water  wheels,  dynamos,  etc.  Four  new 
Leffel  turbine  wheels  and  a  Cascade  wheel  will  be  used,  directly 
connected  to  the  dynamos.  A  Brush  generator  will  furnish  arc 
lights,  and  a  Westinghouse  the  incandescents.  A  storage  battery 
will  be  placed  in  Carroll. 

San  Leandro,  Cal. — An  ordinance  stating  the  necessity  of 
putting  in  an  electric  light  plant  has  been  referred  to  the  Ordi- 
nance Committee,  and  as  the  price  of  such  a  plant  would  be  too 
great  for  the  city  funds,  it  has  been  proposed  that  bonds  be  is- 
sued. A  bid  of  $2,383.60  has  been  received  from  the  Best  Manu- 
facturing Company  for  furnishing  power  for  an  electric  light 
plant,  and  for  installing  the  electric  plant  the  following  bids : 
California  Electrical  Works,  $4,458.20;  A.  C.  Rowlands,  $7,183. 

San  Francisco,  Cal. — It  is  reported  that  the  recent  Eastern 
trip  of  J.  B.  Stetson,  President  of  the  North  Pacific  Coast  Rail- 
road and  also  of  the  Edison  Light  and  Power  Company,  was  in 
connection  with  electric  light  matters.  It  is  understood  that  Mr. 
Stetson's  object  is  to  meet  the  threatened  competition  of  the  San 
Francisco  Gas  Light  Company  by  engaging  in  the  gas  business, 
and  Professor  Stewart  is  authority  for  the  statement  that  the 
present  plant  of  the  gas  light  company,  which  cost  $12,000,000, 
can  be  duplicated  for  $3,000,000.  It  is  rumored  that  the  electric 
company  has  under  consideration  the  adoption  of  the  professor's 
ideas  and  intends  to  manufacture  gas  at  rates  lower  than  it  has 
ever  been  believed  possible  to  make  it. The  Merchants'  Asso- 
ciation is  advocating  the  lighting  of  Market  street  with  arc  lamps, 
and  the  daily  papers  are  urging  the  Park  Commissioners  to  install 
an  electric  plant  for  lighting  Golden  Gate  Park. W.  J.  O'Con- 
nor has  relinquished  the  agency  for  the  Sunbeam  Incandescent 
Lamp  Company  and  now  holds  the  Pacific  Coast  selling  agency 
of  the  Buckeye  Lamp  under  the  California  Electrical  Works. 


Pasadena,  Cal. — T.  S.  C.  Lowe  has  been  granted  a  franchise 
for  an  electric  railway  connecting  with  the  Pasadena  street  car 
system  and  the  mountain  railway  at  Altadena. 

St.  Anthony,  Idaho. — Engineers  are  at  work  surveying  for  a 
road  to  be  built  from  this  place  to  the  nearest  point  on  the  Utah 
&  Northern,  a  distance  of  about  twenty-seven  miles. 

San  Diego,  Cal.' — The  General  Electric  Company  has  secured 
the  contract  for  equipping  the  San  Diego  Cable  Company's  road 
with  electricity.  The  contract  includes  dynamos,  cars,  trolleys 
and  all  other  appliances. 

Redlands,  Cal.— E.  G.  Judson,  one  of  the  committee  of  the 
proposed  electric  street  railway,  has  figured  the  cost  of  equipment 
at  about  $8000  per  mile.  The  length  is  five  to  six  and  a  half 
miles,  the  cost  being  $40,000  to  $65,000. 

San  Jose  Cal.— Messrs.  L.  M.  Hale  and  J.  P.  Pfetch  have  sub- 
mitted a  proposition  to  the  Board  of  Trade  to  build  a  first-class 
road  between  San  Jose  and  Saratoga  and  Congress  Springs.  A 
committee  of  the  Board  of  Trade  endorses  the  proposition,  and 
urges  that  the  property  owners,  in  vicinity  of  the  proposed  road, 
subscribe  $50,000,  but  no  money  will  be  paid  until  the  road  is  in 
satisfactory  operation. 

Haywards,  Cal.— Surveys  have  been  finished  on  the  San  Lean- 
dro and  Hay  wards  branch  of  the  proposed  electric  -  road  from 
Oakland  to  Livermore.  Surveyors  are  also  at  work  on  other 
portions  of  the  road,  but  no  route  has  been  accepted. 

Phcenix,  Ariz. — Lincoln  Parlor  has  been  granted  a  fifty-year 
franchise  for  a  standard  gauge  railroad  to  be  operated  by  horse, 
electric  or  steam  power  on  Van  Buren  street  and  Woodland  ave- 
nue, from  the  center  of  Seventh  avenue  westward  to  the  city 

Santa  Barbara,  Cal. — The  Santa  Barbara  Consolidated  Elec- 
tric Bailway  Company  is  now  at  work  on  its  road  to  extend  from 
State  street  along  Haley  street  to  the  County  Hospital,  and  ex- 
pects to  extend  the  road  through  the  principal  streets  in  the  near 

Seattle,  Wash. — A  new  power-house  is  being  built  for  the 
Seattle  Consolidated  Street  Railway  Company,  new  cars  have  been 
ordered,  and  rails  for  Second  street  were  shipped  from  Chicago. 
The  company  will  spend  over  $100,000. The  Seattle  and  Ta- 
coma Electric  Railway  scheme  is  being  revived. 

Salt  Lake,  Utah. — O.  B.  Hardy  and  W.  J.  Moorhead  have  ap- 
plied for  a  franchise  to  build  an  electric  plant  for  furnishing  light 
and  heat,  and  maintaining  and  operating  electric  railroads  in  the 
West  Mountain  mining  district.  They  agree  to  light  the  jail  at 
Bingham,  during  the  life  of  the  franchise,  free  of  cost  to  Salt  Lake 

Oakland,  Cal. — The  General  Electric  Company  have  received 
the  contract  to  equip  the  Piedmont  division  of  the  Mountain  View 
&  Piedmont  Railroad  Company  with  electricity.  Seven  new  cars 
will  be  run  through  from  Piedmont  to  Seventh  and  Washington 
street.  The  cable  track  to  Piedmont  will  be  kept  in  repair,  and 
the  cable  will  probably  be  operated  Sunday  afternoons,  when  it 
is  necessary  to  carry  more  passengers  than  the  electric  cars  will 

accommodate. The  Haywards  Electric  Railway  Company  ran 

special  trains  from  thi=5  city  to  Haywards  during  the  recent  bicy- 
cle road  races.  These  trains  had  the  right  of  way,  and,  as  the 
track  runs  along  the  road  used  as  the  race  course,  hundreds  of 
people  took  advantage  of  the  opportunity  offered  to  keep  pace 
with  the  racers. The  Oakland  Street  Railway  Company  sub- 
mits applicants  for  positions  to  a  rigid  written  examination. 

San  Francisco,  Cal. — The  San  Francisco  and  San  Mateo 
Electric  Railway  Company  has  applied  for  a  franchise  to  extend 
its  Park  branch  from  the  present  terminus  at  Stanyan  and  Waller 
streets,  along  Stanyan  to  Sullivan ,  to  J,  to  Ninth  avenue,  and  thence 

through  the  old  San  Miguel  Rancho  to  Ingleside. C.  Stein,  the 

tie-plate  expert  of  the  Q.  &  C.  Co.,  of  Chicago,  who  was  at  the  Pal- 
ace Hotel,  is  superintending  the  placing  of  several  millions  of  tie- 
plates  on  various  electric  and  steam  roads  throughout  the  Coast, 
among  which  are  the  Los  Angeles  Consolidated  Electric  Railway 
Company,  the  Southern  Pacific,  the  San  Francisco  and  San  Joa- 
quin Valley,  and  the  San  Francisco  and  North   Pacific  Railway 

Company.     Mr.  Stein  is  now  in  Mexico. The   Abner   Doble 

Company  are  installing  fifteen  double  25-horse-power  Walker 
equipments  on  the  38-foot  combination  cars  of  the  Sutro  Railroad 
Company,  the  installation  aggregating  1500  horse-power.  These 
cars  are  each  guaranteed  to  haul  a  28-foot  trailer  up  a  11  per  cent, 
grade  at  five  miles  per  hour,  when  loaded  with  180  passengers  on 
the  car  and  150  passengers  on  the  trailer.  The  Westinghouse  E. 
&  M.  Co.  has  sold  48  horse-power  in  small  motors  to  the  Sutro 
Railroad  Co. 

Los  Angeles,  Cal. — The  Main  Street  Railway  has  been  pur- 
chased .by  a  San  Francisco  syndicate,  which  proposes  to  equip  the 
entire  road  with  electricity. The  Los  Angeles  Traction  Com- 
pany is  extending  the  terminus  of  its  road  to  University  station, 
as  follows:  From  Freeman  street,  the  present  terminus,  along 
Hoover  street,  Forrester  avenue  and  Vermont  avenue  to  the 
University  station.     Other  extensions  are  projected  in  the  near 

future. The  Los  Angeles  Electric  Railway  Company  has  sold 

its  bonds,  and  is  now  ready  to  commence  work  on  the  Altadena 

extension. Prof.  Lowe  has  applied  for  a  franchise  to  operate 

an  electric  railroad  from  the  corner  of  Raymond  and  California 

streets  to  Broadway.    The  road  will  be  built  without  delay. R. 

F.  Clark  and  associates  have  been  granted  an  electric  railway 
franchise  over  various  streets  commencing  with  the  intersection 
of  Main,  Spring  and  Temple  streets,  and  terminating  at  the  inter- 
section of  Mission  Road  and  the  city  limits.  Another  franchise 
has  been  granted  to  T.  C.  Paxton  for  an  electric  road  to  com- 
mence at  the  intersection  of  Hill  and  Eighth  streets,  running 
thence  along  Hill  to  Sixteenth,  to  Figueros,  to  Sixteenth,  to 
Georgia  Bell  street.— — By  January  1st,  1896,  there  will  be  an 
electric  street  car  line  starting  from  the  corner  of  Fourth  and 
Spring  streets  to  run  through  Hollenbeck  Park. — ■  The  Pasadena 
and  Pacific  Electric  Railway  Company  has  awarded  the  contract 
for  the  trolley  and  feeder  circuits  for  its  line  from  this  city  to 
Santa  Monica  to  the  John  A.  Roebling's  Sons  Company.  The 
length  of  the  road  is  twenty-two  miles. 

R.    M.    WOOD    CO.    PRINT,    314-316     BATTERY   ST  „  S.  ?. 


Vol.  I. 

NOVEMBER,    1895. 

No.  5. 

^Ko   JYovada   @ounty    "power   transmission. 

Figure  1. — On  the  Slide. 

BAT  the  installa- 
tion of  electric 
power  transmis- 
sion plants  in  the 
mountainous  min- 
ing regions  of  the 
Pacific  Coast  is 
attended  with 
many  unforseen 
difficulties  other 
than  electrical,  is 
shown  in  the  inter- 
esting plant  now 
being  erected  in 
California  by  John 
Martin  under  con- 
tract for  the  Ne- 

vada County  Electric  Power  Company.  So  typical  is 
this  undertaking  of  electric  installations  in  mountainous 
countries,  that  a  description  of  the  means  resorted  to  for 
handling  the  heavy  machinery  will  be  both  interesting 
and  instructive. 

The  plant  under  consideration  is  to  be  driven  by  water 
power,  mainly  derived  from  the  south  fork  of  the  Yuba 
River,  at  a  point  18,400  feet  above  the  site  of  the  power 
house.  At  this  point  a  cribbed  log  dam,  twenty-six  feet 
high  and  seventy-eight  feet  wide,  illustrated  in  Figure  4, 
has  been  erected.  Inasmuch  as  the  Yuba  Elver  at  this 
point  constitutes  a  torrential  stream  during  the  winter 
season,  the  utmost  care  was  necessitated  in  the  erection 
of  a  log  dam  to  withstand  the  floods  of  each  winter; 
accordingly  a  site  walled  in  by  solid  granite  was  selected 
for  the  dam  and  the  diverting  flume  shown  in  Figure  3 
was  built  to  carry  off  the  water  from  the  natural  bed  of 
the  river,  in  order  that  each'log  might  be  bolted  to  bed- 
rock and  to  each  other.  From  the  completed  dam  is  run 
the  flume  shown  in  Figures  3,  4  and  5.  This  is  five  by 
six  feet  in  size  and  has  a  capacity  of  5,950  miners'  inches. 
One  and  one-quarter  million  feet  of  pine  lumber  was 
used  in  its  construction,  which  consumed  the  labor  of 
110  men  for  four  months.  Continuing,  as  the  flume  does, 
mainly  along  the  granite  bluffs  confining  the  river,  its 
construction  was  a  task  of  great  magnitude,  involving 
the  exercise  of  much  engineering  skill  and  risk  of  life 
on  the  pai't  of  the  workingmen.  The  construction  of 
the  dam  and  flume  was  done  under  the  supervision  of 

Mr.  Alf.  Tregidgo,  who  from  the  outset  has  been  fore- 
most in  the  undertaking. 

The  flume  terminates  immediately  above  the  power 
house  on  an  exceedingly  steep  incline  known  as  "  The 
Slide,"  which,  together  with  the  power-house  site,  is 
illustrated  in  Figure  2,  giving  the  water  a  head  of  206 
feet.  From  the  penstock  of  the  flume  steel-riveted 
pipes,  320  feet  in  length,  are  to  be  carried  down,  the  first 
120  feet  being  of  forty-eight-inch  pipe,  and  the  second 
and  third  100  feet  being  forty-four  and  forty-two-inch 
pipe  respectively.  The  pipe  line  terminates  in  the  large 
steel  receiver  (Figure  8),  which  will  supply  water  to  the 
two  sets  of  Pelton  wheels  operating  the  generators. 
This  receiver  is  nineteen  feet  in  length  and  forty-eight 
inches  in  diameter,  weighs  approximately  four  tons,  and 

Figure  2. — The  Slide  and  Power-House  Site. 

constitutes  the  largest  though  not  the  heaviest  piece  of 
apparatus  used. 

As  indicated,  the  power  is  derived  from  two  sets  of 
Pelton  water  wheels,  each  of  which  consists  of  two, 
thirty-four  and  one-half-inch  Pelton  wheels,  direct  con- 

Copyrighted  1895,  by  Geo.  P.  Low.    All  Rights  Reserved. 



[Vol.  I,  No.  5. 

nected  on  the  same  shaft  and  each  of  which  is  driven 
by  two  three-inch  jets.  Eegulation  is  to  be  effected  by 
an  improved  type  of  the  Pelton  differential  cut-off 

Direct  coupled  to  each  of  these  water  wheels  is  a 
Stanley  500  horse-power,  inductor  type,  two-phase  gen- 
erator, each  of  which  is  guaranteed  under  contract  to 
have  a  commercial  efficiency  of  94.6  per  cent.,  and  an 
electrical  efficiency  of  98  per  cent.  The  foundations  of 
the  power  house  are  of  the  solid  bed-rock  granite,  upon 
which  the  generator  foundations  are  placed.  These  foun- 
dations consist  of  eighteen  inches  of  concrete  upon  the 

on  two  cross-arms,  each  pole  being  gained  for  two  addi- 
tional cross-arms.  Thirty-feet  round  peeled  poles  are 
used,  and  throughout  the  entire  line  a  sixty-foot  clear- 
ance has  been  cut  for  the  pole  line  through  the  timber 
and  brush.  The  line  loss  is  to  be  approximately  5  per 
cent.,  and  the  plant  will  be  operated  at  16,000  alterna- 
tions per  minute.  Triple  petticoat  top-grooved  por- 
celain insulators,  five  inches  across  the  bell  and  manu- 
factured by  F.  M.  Locke  of  Victor,  New  York,  are  being 
used  throughout. 

The  machinery  for  the  plant  was  transported  by  rail 
to  Nevada  City,  Cal.,  which  is  a  little  less  than  five  miles 

.from  the  power  house,  and  from 

!  the  outset  difficulties  of  an  unusual 
I  character  were  encountered.  The 
scene  of  operations  is  in  the  midst 
of  that  portion  of  California  which 
was  the  center  of  hydraulic  min- 
ing activity  until  the  anti-debris 
agitation  put  a  stop  to  that  mode 
of  mining.  The  roads  are,  or 
rather  were  at  the  time  when  the 
transportation  of  the  machinery 

bed  rock  through  which  were  ruu 
thirteen  three-quarter-inch  iron  bolts 
that  had  previously  been  sulphur- 
cemented  into  holes  that  had  been 
drilled  into  the  granite  to  a  depth  of 
eighteen  inches.  Bolted  by  this  means 
to  the  concrete  are  three  timbers 
dressed  down  to  eight  by  ten  inches 
that  have  previously  been  tarred  and 
wrapped  with  two  layers  of  P.  &  B. 
roofing  paper  and  finally  imbedded 
in  cement.  The  holding-down  bolts 
for  the  bed  plates  of  the  generators 
are  lag  screws,  which  in  turn  are  sulphur-cemented  into 
the  wood  timbers,  thereby  attaining  the  highest  possible 
insulation  resistance  to  earth.  The  generators  will  be 
provided  with  two  Crocker- Wheeler  multipolar  exciters, 
each  having  a  rating  of  five  kilowatts.  These  are  to  be 
belt-driven  by  independent  Pelton  wheels,  and  either 
will  be  of  ample  capacity  to  excite  both  generators. 

No  step-up  transformers  are  to  be  used,  as  the  gen- 
erators will  deliver  two-phase  current  to  the  line  at  5500 
volts.  The  pole  line  is  very  close  to  eight  miles  in 
length  and  carries  eight  No.  3B.&S.  bare  copper  wires 

Figures  3,  4  and  5.— 
and  a  portion  of 

■The  Site  of  the  Dam  and  Diverting  Flume,   the   Completed  Dam 
the  Flume  Line,  respectively,  of  the  Nevada  County  Fleetric  Power 

was  commenced,  in  practically  the  same  condition  as 
existed  during  the  early  mining  days.  They  were 
exceedingly  bad  thoroughfares  laid  out  over  the  shortest 
routes,  almost  regardless  of  grades.  Whole  mountain 
sides  had  been  washed  away  by  the  hydraulic  miners, 
and  the  rush  and  anxiety  attendant  upon  the  search  for 
the  precious  metal  forestalled  all  attempts  at  road- 
building,  with  the  result  that  the  highways  were  impas- 
sable for  heavy  machinery.  The  wagon  road,  such  as  it 
was,  did  not  reach  within  nearly  two  miles  of  the  site 
of  the  power  house,  which  compelled  the  building  of  a 

Nov.,  1895.] 



road  over  an  exceedingly  mountainous  country,  in 
addition  to  which  the  contractor  found  it  necessary  to 
partially  reconstruct  the  old  wagon  road  to  the  extent 
of  clearing  it  of  rocks  and  boulders,  and  widening  it 
sufficiently  to  admit  the  passage  of  heavy  machinery. 
This  was  drawn'  to  the  top  of  the  slide  by  means  of 
teams  varying  from  six  to  twelve  horses  each,  according 
to  load.  Each  of  the  Stanley  generators  consists  of  six 
pieces  weighing  approximately  five  tons  each,  the 
heaviest  piece  being  the  inductor,  which  weighs  11,200 
pounds,  and  which  proved  to  be  the  most  difficult  piece 
to  transport.  A  special  truck 
was  constructed  for  it,  and  de- 
spite the  unusual  precautions 
taken  a  break-down  occurred 
(Figure  6),  and  although  the 
blockade  thus  occurring  could 
be  cleared  out  within  a  day 
with  the  appliances  at  hand, 
the  urgencies  for  prevent- 
ing delay  in  transporting 
other  machinery  were  so  great 
that  a  new  road  was  built 
around  the  break-down.  The 
character  of  the  country 
through  which   this  road  was 

site  appears  upon  the  river  bank.  In  this  illustration 
photography  fails  to  bring  out  much  more  than  a  sug- 
gestion of  the  steepness  of  the  slide.  "Within  a  hori- 
zontal distance  of  probably  one-half  a  mile  the  mountain 
rises  to  an  elevation  of  about  1700  feet  above  the  river 
level.  The  first  400-feet  drop  from  the  top  may  be 
reached  by  wagon  road.  Continuing  downward,  the 
next  400  feet  is  an  angle  of  twenty-five  degrees,  and  the 
next  600  feet  is  an  angle  of  thirty-two  degrees.  Then 
follows  about  eighty  feet  of  thirty-five  degree  declivity, 
and  finally  a  further  drop  of  about  220  feet  is  made  to 

the  power-house  site  at  an 
angle  of  thirty-nine  de- 
grees, down  which  not 
only  all  machinery  for  the 
plaut  has  been  lowered, 
but  upon  which  the  pipe 
line  has  to  be  laid  and 
securely  anchored. 

The  means  by  which 
the  machinery  has  been 
lowered  down  the  slide  are 
those  familiarly  applied  in 
house  moving,  and  which 
is  termed  "snubbing." 
Each  piece  of  machinery  is 

Figdees  6,  7  and  8.— Illustrating  some  difficulties  encountered  in  the  installation  of 

the  Nevada  County  Electric  Power  Company. 

Transmission  Plant 

constructed  is  clearly  shown  in  the  illustration  and  the 
growth  of  underbrush,  cactus  and  small  pine  and  scrub 
oak  trees  was  so  dense  as  to  render  road  building  a 
serious  task.  Many  of  the  grades  on  this  improvised 
highway  were  so  steep  as  to  necessitate  lowering  the 
trucks  down  by  means  of  block  and  tackle,  yet  despite 
this  the  machinery  reached  its  destination  without  hav- 
ing suffered  the  slightest  injury. 

The  greatest  obstacles  to  be  surmouted  were  those 
encountered  in  lowering  the  machinery  down  the  moun- 
tain side,  shown  in  Figure  2,  in  which  the  power-house 

mounted  singly  upon  a  heavy  log  sled  made  in  the  most 
substantial  manner,  and  secured  thereto  by  means  of 
chains,  ropes  or  in  such  other  manner  as  will  prevent 
slipping.  Generally  three  14-inch  manilla  ropes  are  then 
secured  to  the  sled  and  machinery,  each  such  rope  being 
wrapped  several  times  around  a  tree  trunk,  and  a  man 
being  stationed  at  each  of  the  three  trees  to  control  the 
ropes.  The  load  is  then  lowered  gradually  by  slacking 
the  ropes  or  "  snubbing  "  them  as  in  house  moving. 

The  illustrations  given  convey  a  suggestion  of   the 
methods  used  in  overcoming  the  barriers  presented  in 



[Vol.  I,  No.  5. 

this  interesting  installation,  and  it  is  worthy  of  note 
that  despite  the  many  and  unforeseen  difficulties  en- 
countered the  work  of  installation  has  progressed  with- 
out mishap  or  delay,  and  the  plant  will  without  doubt 
be  in  operation  by  December  10th. 

The  mechanical  features  of  the  work  have  been  placed 
under  the  direction  of  Mr.  T.  J.  Benny,  and  the  entire 
electrical  equipment  has  been  erected  for  Mr.  Martin 
through  the  electrical  engineership  of  Mr.  E.  E.  Stark, 



By  Edward  A.  Rix,  P.  E. 

The  North  Star  Mining  Company,  of  Grass  Valley, 
Nevada  County,  California,  has  made  a  long  stride  ahead 
in  the  direction  of  economical  power  service,  by  installing 

Figoke  1. — The  North  Star  Air  Transmissi 
in  the  world,  as  it  appea 

of  the  Stanley  Electric  Manufacturing  Company,  whose 
apparatus  is  being  used  throughout. 

The  plant  now  being  erected  constitutes  the  initial  in- 
stallation, and  it  will  therefore  be  enlarged  as  necessary 
to  meet  future  demands.  Probably  seventy-five  per  cent. 
of  the  capacity  of  the  plant  will  be  absorbed  in  the  de- 
livery of  power  to  the  mining  industries  of  the  vicinity, 
and  already  sufficient  business  has  been  contracted  for  to 
more  than  defray  all  fixed  charges. 

on  Plant.     The  largest  tangential  Water  Wheel 
ed  before  being  housed  in. 

upon  their  property  a  very   complete   system  for  the 
transmission  and  use  of  compressed  air. 

It  has  been  dawning  upon  the  minds  of  power  users 
that  compressed  air,  which  heretofore  has  been  consid- 
ered a  luxury,  can  be  bent  to  mine  use  quite  economically 
and  most  conveniently.  Much  energy  has  been  expended 
of  late,  also,  by  the  advocates  of  compressed  air,  in  dis- 
seminating information  regarding  the  economy  of  air 
when  it  is  used  under  proper  conditions.  Heretofore  in 
California,  with  perhaps  one  exception,  air  has  been*used 

Nov.,  1895.] 



cold  in  the  engines  or  motors  into  which  it  has  been  intro- 
duced. Owing  to  the  sudden  and  very  considerable  drop 
of  temperature  which  occurs  on  the  expansion  of  air  in 
a  motor  cylinder,  it  is  impossible  to  use  it  cold  in  engines 
of  the  expansion  type,  for  it  would  take  but  a  few  mo- 
ments to  freeze  up  the  lubricants  and  discontinue  the 
operation  of  the"  machine.  A  gentle  amount  of  heat, 
however,  applied  to  the  air  before  it  is  used  in  the  motor, 
not  only  increases  its  volume  to  a  marked  extent  —  for 
instance,  somewhat  over  forty  per  cent,  upon  heating  to 
350  degrees  —  but  it  supplies  to  the  air  a  sufficient 
quantity  of  heat,  so  that  when  it  is  expanded  in  the  mo- 
tor cylinder,  its  exhaust  temperature  offers  no  inconve- 
nience to  proper  working  conditions.  Air  heated  to  this 
temperature  can  be  expanded  from  its  initial  pressure 
down  to  the  atmospheric  pressure  without  any  inconven- 
ience whatever,  and  with  most  economic  results. 

speed  of  the  machine  is  440  feet,  which,  while  not  quite 
as  economical  as  one  somewhat  lower,  was  dictated  by 
the  conditions  under  which  the  water-wheel  operated. 

The  air  enters  the  initial  cylinder  at  the  temperature 
of  the  power  room,  which  is  approximately  62  degrees, 
and  is  therein  compressed  to  25,pounds  to  the  square 
inch  gauge  pressure.  It  leaves  the  cylinder  at  a  tempe- 
rature of  200°F.,  and  passes  through  an  inter-cooler  of 
about  1000  running  feet  of  one-inch  copper  tubes  placed 
directly  beneath  the  water  wheel,  and  which  receives 
from  the  wheel  a  continual  shower  of  water  at  a  temper- 
ature of  about  58  degrees.  This  cools  the  air  to  such  an 
extent  that  it  is  delivered  to  the  high-pressure  cylinders 
at  a  temperature  of  60  degrees.  In  these  cylinders  the 
air  is  compressed  to  90  pounds,  and  is  delivered  from  the 
cylinders  at  a  temperature  of  204  degrees  into  six-inch 
mains  which  lead  to  the  mine.     Indicator  cards  taken 

Figure  2.— The  North  Star  Air  Transmission  Plant.     A  general  view  of  the  Rix  Duplex  Air  Compressors  and  Pelton  Water 

Wheel,  from  a  photograph  taken  during  Installation. 

Realizing  all  this,  after  an  extended  investigation  upon 
the  subject,  the  North  Star  Mining  Company,  haying  a 
splendid  water-power  at  its  disposition,  decided  to  install 
a  very  economical  compressed  air  plant.  A.  De  Wint 
Foote,  M.  Am.  Soc.  C.  E.,  was  placed  in  charge  of  the 
operations,  and,  after  receiving  bids  from  firms  both  in 
California  and  the  East,  the  contract  was  placed  with 
the  Fulton  Engineering  and  Ship-building  Works,  of  San 
Francisco,  for  the  compressed  air  plant,  which  concern 
placed  the  matter  in  the  hands  of  the  writer  for  execu- 
tion. All  the  machinery  was  designed  under  his  di- 

As  shown  by  the  half-tones  accompanying  this  article, 
the  compressors  consist  of  duplex  tandem  compound  ma- 
chines. The  initial  cylinders  are  eighteen  inches  in 
diameter,  and  the  high-pressure  cylinders  are  ten  inches 
in   diameter  by  twenty-four  inch    stroke.     The  piston 

from  the  cylinders  show  that  the  cylinders  are  doing 
equal  work,' and  at  110  revolutions  they  work  smoothly 
and  perfectly. 

Notwithstanding  the  fact  that  some  builders  claim 
that  clearance  has  no  detrimental  effect  upon  the  econ- 
omy of  their  air  compressors,  in  the  Rix  compressors  the 
clearance  is  practically  eliminated,  being  not  to  exceed 
l-32d  of  an  inch  at  each  end  of  the  stroke.  The  cards 
taken  from  these  cylinders  are  perfectly  square  cornered. 

The  water-jacket  system  is  quite  unique,  it  being  a  du- 
plex system  —  that  is,  there  is  an  independent  circulation 
for  each  end  of  the  cylinder,  the  water  passing  longi- 
tudinally back  and  forth  on  the  side  of  the  cylinder  and 
from  the  center  in  two  independent  streams,  cooling  the 
heads  at  the  same  time.  The  efficacy  of  this  water 
jacket  will  be  noted  in  the  temperatures  above  given. 
The  efficacy  of  the  combined  water  jackets  and  inter- 



[Vol.  I,  No.  5. 

cooler  will  be  noted  from  the  fact  that  in  the  single-stage 
machine,  and  at  a  pressure  of  90  pounds,  the  final 
temperature  of  the  air,  if  not  cooled  during  compression, 
would  be  459°F.  In  this  machine  the  combined  tempera- 
tares  of  delivery  in  the  two  cylinders  is  404  degrees,  the 
difference  between  these  temperatures  showing  a  very 
substantial  gain  in  work,  which  otherwise  would  have 
to  be  lost. 

In  testing  for  volumetric  efficiency,  the  receivers  were 
carefully  measured  a  number  of  times  and  found  to  con- 
tain 291  cubic  feet.  These  were  filled  repeatedly,  and 
the  number  of  revolutions  of  the  machine  accurately 
counted  each  time.  All  of  these  experiments  were  con- 
ducted after  the  machine  had  been  in  operation  for  a 
sufficient  length  of  time  to  reach  its  maximum  temper- 

The  barometer  at  the  power  house  is  27.35  inches,  cor- 
responding to  an  elevation  of  about  2400  feet.  This 
gives  an  atmospheric  pressure  of  13.32  pounds  per  square 
inch.  At  90  pounds  gauge  pressure  the  ratio  of  com- 
pression would  be  7.7,  and  the  receiver  containing  291 
cubic  feet  represents  2240  cubic  feet  capacity  of  free  air. 
The  average  of  a  great  many  experiments  showed  that 
the  compressor  took  102J  revolutions  to  fill  the  receiver 

ure  is  very  valuable  in  case  of  repairs  or  accident  to  the 
valves,  any  one  of  which  may  be  removed  and  repaired, 
and  replaced  without  stopping  the  machine. 

To  drive  this  compressor  there  has  been  placed  upon 
the  main  shaft  a  Pelton  water  wheel,  eighteen  feet  in 
diameter,  which  is  believed  to  be  the  largest  tangential 
water  wheel  ever  made.  This  wheel  is  of  peculiar  con- 
struction, and  was  designed  by  Edward  S.  Cobb,  M.  E., 
of  San  Francisco.  The  head  of  water  being  775  feet, 
and  it  being  considered  advisable  to  do  away  with  all 
gearing,  belting  or  ropes,  it  became  quite  a  question  to 
determine  how  to  construct  this  wheel.  In  the  first 
place,  the  piston  speed  of  the  compressor  was  placed  as 
high  as  possible,  440  feet  being  considered  about  the 
limit  that  should  be  practically  employed.  This  gave 
110  revolutions  for  the  compressor  shaft.  The  most 
economical  rim  speed  of  the  wheel,  which  is  fifty  per 
cent,  of  the  spouting  velocity,  has  placed  the  wheel  at 
18  feet  diameter.  Being  operated  at  a  peripheral  speed 
of  6210  feet  per  minute,  fears  for  its  safety  made  the 
use  of  cast  iron  inadvisable,  and  even  cast  steel  did  not 
offer  the  necessary  advantages.  Mr.  Cobb  suggested  the 
construction  which  is  shown  in  the  accompanying  engrav- 
ings, and  the  results  have  fully  justified  his  calculations. 

Figure  3.- — The  North  Star  Air  Transmission  Plant.     The  Rix  Compound  Pneumatic  Reheater. 

from  25  pounds,  which  is  the  pressure  of  the  initial  cyl- 
inder, to  90  pounds.  At  this  pressure  of  25  pounds 
gauge,  there  is  830  cubic  feet  of  free  air  in  the  receiver. 
The  difference  between  these  two  capacities,  or  1410 
cubic  feet,  would  represent  the  amount  of  air  which  was 
forced  into  the  receiver  at  the  revolutions  stated.  Inas- 
much as  the  temperature  of  the  receiver  is  somewhat 
higher  than  the  temperature  of  the  inlet  air,  there  should 
be  a  deduction  made  from  this  sum  corresponding  to  that 
temperature  of  about  2%,  making  the  corrected  amount 
delivered  to  the  receiver  1382  cubic  feet. 

The  theoretical  capacity  of  the  compressor,  deduct- 
ing the  piston  rods,  and  at  102J  revolutions,  is  1429 
cubic  feet  of  free  air  per  minute.  The  ratio  between  1382 
cubic  feet,  actually  delivered,  and  1429  cubic  feet,  theo- 
retical capacity,  is  96.6%,  which  represents  the  actual 
volumetric  efficiency  of  the  machine  at  the  present  writ- 
ing. This,  of  course,  will  vary  proportionately  with  the 
ratios  of  the  absolute  temperatures  of  the  inlet  air,  de- 
pending upon  the  season  of  the  year. 

One  peculiarity  about  the  Rix  compressor,  as  may  be 
noted  from  the  drawing,  is  the  fact  that  the  compressor 
is  so  arranged  that  any  cylinder  may  be  disconnected,  or 
any  end  of  any  cylinder  may  be  disconnected  without  in- 
terfering with  the  operation  of  the  machine.     This  feat- 

It  will  be  noticed  that  there  is  a  marked  difference  be- 
tween the  construction  of  this  wheel  and  the  ordinary 
bicycle  wheel  which  it  seems  to  suggest.  In  the  bicycle 
wheel  all  spokes  are  in  tension  and  are  tangent  to  a 
circle  concentric  with  the  hub  of  the  wheel,  whereas  in 
this  wheel  there  are  radial  rods  in  tension  to  support 
the  rim,  and  Mr.  Cobb  has  introduced  driving  trusses  to 
transmit  torsional  stress  from  rim  to  hub,  all  as  shown 
in  the  outline  view  of  wheel,  Figure  4.  The  rim  is  of 
wrought  iron,  riveted  up  in  convenient  cross- sections, 
and  the  dimensions  of  the  wheel  are  as  follows  : 

Diameter  over  all 18      ft. 

Width  of  face 8     in. 

Diameter  of  shaft -. . .  10      " 

Length  of  hub,  bore    20       " 

Length  of  hub  over  all 29       " 

Center  to  center  of  spokes  laterally  at  the  hub ...  24       " 

Center  to  center  of  truss  rods  at  the  hub 30       " 

Diameter  of  radial  spokes 1J£  " 

Diameter  of  truss  rods 2       " 

Weight  of  rim 6,800  lbs. 

AVeight  of  spokes 1,500   " 

Weight  of  hub 2,800  " 

Weight  of  ninety-six  Pelton  buckets 672   " 

Total  weight  of  wheel 11,772  lbs. 

The  buckets  are  of  bronze,  being  eight  inches  wide,, 
and  the  cover  being  two  and  one-half  inches  deep.  They 

Nov.,  1895.] 



add  eight  inches  to  the  diameter  of  the  wheel,  and  after 
being  milled  are  riveted  upon  the  outer  rim.  In  actual 
practice  the  wheel  is  splendidly  balanced  and  runs  per- 
fectly true  and  is  an  entirely  satisfactory  method  of  con- 
struction. Running  at  its  standard  speed  with  the 
connecting  rods  off  the  wrist  pins  and  suddenly  shutting 
the  water  off,  it  will  continue  to  run  fourteen  and  one- 
half  minutes  before  it  comes  to  rest,  showing  a  correct 
balance.  Water  is  supplied  to  the  wheel  through  about 
8000  feet  of  twenty-inch  riveted  steel  pipe,  built  by  the 
Eisdon  Iron  and  Locomotive  Works. 

The  wheel  is  governed  by  automatic  devices,  which 
keep  it  at  a  standard  speed  and  stop  it  and  start  it 
according  as  the  air  pressure  increases  or  falls  below  the 
standard  pressure.  The  compressed  air,  after  leaving 
the  compressors,  is  conducted  to  the  mine  and  delivered 
to  the  reservoirs  above  mentioned,  from  which  it  is 
taken  into  the  Eix  pneumatic  reheater,  a  cut  of  which 
is  shown  herewith.  It  is  here  heated  to  350  degrees 
Fah.,  and  delivered  to 
the  initial  cylinders  of 
a  compound  direct-act- 
ing pneumatic  hoist. 
In  this  cylinder  the  air 
is  cut  off  at  one-half 
and  exhausted  back  to 
the  compound  com- 
partment of  the  re- 
heater,  where  this  air, 
which  is  about  twenty- 
five  pounds  pressure,  is 
again  heated  to  350 
degrees.  From  here  it 
is  conducted  to  the 
compound  cylinder  of 
the  pneumatic  hoist 
and  expanded  to  atmos- 
phere, at  a  temperature 
of  about  160  degrees, 
the  exhaust  flume  con- 
necting with  the  dry 
room  for  the  men. 

The  air  is  also  con- 
ducted from  the  re- 
heater  to  operate  a 
Dow  compound  sinking 
pump,  having  a  ca- 
pacity of  600  gallons 
per  minute,  and  still 
further  down  the  mine 
for  operating  rock 

The  pneumatic  hoist  is  not  yet  in  operation,  and  will 
be  the  subject  of  a  further  description  when  it  is  com- 
pleted. If  the  anticipations  of  the  designers  of  this 
plant  are  realized,  the  pneumatic  hoist  will  develop  in 
its  cylinders  the  indicated  horse-power  of  the  compres- 
sors at  least,  and  possibly  will  exceed  it.  The  entire 
economy  of  the  system  should  exceed  eighty  per  cent. 

This  plant  is  receiving  a  great  deal  of  attention  from 
the  mine  owners  of  the  Pacific  Coast  who  anticipate 
putting  in  power  plants,  and  its  successful  operation  will 
determine  the  installment  of  others  of  a  similar  kind. 
Nothing  is  being  spared  to  make  the  North  Star  install- 
ation complete  in  every  respect. 

We  would  suggest  that  there  is  necessity  for  a  change 
in  the  sub-title  of  our  western  contemporary,  the  "  Pacific 
Electrician,"  which  states  that  it  is  "  the  only  electrical 
paper  on  the  Pacific  Coast."  This  is  not  accurate.  Messrs. 
Perrine  and  Low's  new  paper,  the  "  Journal  of  Elec- 
tricity," is  published  in  San  Francisco  and  shows  great 
signs  of  promise. — The  Electrical  Eeview,  New  York. 





Figuke  4.— Outline  Plan  of  the  Pelton  Water  Wieel  in  use  in  the  Air 
Transmission  of  the  North  Star  Mine. 

All  who  are  interested  in  hydraulic  machinery  will 
read  the  essay  published  by  Mr.  John  Eichards  on  the 
construction  and  operation  of  centrifugal  pumps  with 
profit,  for  the  experience  of  Mr.  Eichards,  as  a  mechan- 
ical engineer  and  designer  of  pumping  machinerj^  en- 
ables him  to  give  valuable  information  regarding  the 
development  and  present  condition  of  centrifugal  pump 
construction,  especially  on  the  Pacific  Coast.  The  work 
embraces  two  main  points — a  discussion  of  constructive 
features,  and  a  historical  sketch.  An  appendix  contains 
brief  discussions,  by  the  author  and  others,  of  some  in- 
tei"esting  questions  of  theory  and  practice.  No  system- 
atic discussion  is  given  of  the  scientific  principles  un- 
derlying the  design  and 
operation  of  centrifugal 
pumps.  In  fact,  it  is 
stated  at  the  outset  that 
these  pumps  "  defy  the 
mathematician,"  and  it 
is  evidently  the  author's 
belief  that  theory  is  of 
little  value  in  their  de- 

Under  "  constructive 
features  "  the  following 
are  the  main  points  dis- 
cussed: Size  of  impeller; 
form  and  dimensions  of 
pump  chambers ;  forms 
of  impeller  and  of 
vanes;  balancing  of  im- 
peller against  water 
pressure  and  against 
the  weight  of  shafting 
and  machinery ;  the 
question  of  double  or 
single  inlets  ;  and  the 
special  requirements 
for  dredging  pumps. 
The  question  of  attain- 
able efficiencies  is  also 
touched  upon,  and  the 
opinion  expressed  that 
for  large  pumps  and  for 
heads  not  exceeding 
twenty  feet  an  efficiency 
of  seventy  per  cent,   should  be  realized. 

After  an  instructive  historical  review  of  the  centrifu- 
gal pump,  it  is  pointed  out,  regarding  its  modern  history, 
that  the  most  noteworthy  development  is  in  the  direction 
of  high  lifts.  It  is  stated  that  these  pumps  have  been 
successfully  operated  in  California  against  heads  as 
great  as  160  feet.  This  fact  is  in  striking  contrast  with 
the  statements  frequently  found  in  works  on  hydraulics 
to  the  effect  that  the  usefulness  of  centrifugal  pumps  is 
confined  to  low  lifts. 

It  is  not  easy  to  understand  why  the  theory  of  cen- 
trifugal pumps  should  present  greater  difficulties  than 
that  of  reaction  turbines.  The  hydraulic  principles  in- 
volved are  identical  in  two  cases,  although,  as  our  au- 
thor says,  the  description  of  a  centrifugal  pump  as  an 
"  inverted  turbine  "  is  quite  inaccurate.  It  may  be  of 
interest  to  give  here  a  brief  statement  of  the  main  prin- 
ciples involved,  and  a  comparison  of  the  two  classes  of 

By  "  reaction  "  turbine  is  here  meant  one  which  oper- 
ates with  passages  completely  filled  with  water.     The 



[Vol.  I,  No.  5. 

term  does  not  accurately  describe  the  operation  of  such 
a  turbine,  but  no  better  name  seems  to  have  been  sug- 
gested. The  main  conditions  to  be  observed  for  the  effi- 
cient working  of  such  a  motor  are  :  (1)  The  water  should 
enter  the  wheel  without  shock ;  (2)  the  flow  through  the 
wheel  should  take  place  without  sudden  change  of  ve- 
locity ;  and  (3)  the  absolute  velocity  of  discharge  from 
the  wheel  should  be  as  small  as  possible.  To  satisfy 
these  conditions,  the  direction  of  wheel-vanes  at  entrance 
and  exit  points,  and  the  speed  of  rotation,  must  be  prop- 
erly adjusted  to  each  other.  As  a  general  rule,  it  may 
be  said  that  water  should  enter  the  wheel  with  an  abso- 
lute velocity  directed  nearly  tangentially  forward,  and 
should  leave  the  wheel  with  a  relative  velocity  directed 
nearly  tangentially  backward.  This  relalive  velocity, 
compounded  with  the  tangential  velocity  of  the  wheel  at 
the  point  of  outflow,  should  give  as  small  a  resultant  as 

During  the  gradual  deflection  of  the  water  in  the 
wheel  passages,  energy  is  transmitted  from  the  water  to 
the  wheel.  What  percentage  of  the  energy  lost  by  the 
water  is  thus  utilized,  and  what  percentage  is  carried 
off  by  the  outflowing  water,  in  the  case  of  any  given 
turbine  working  with  a  given  head  of  water,  depend  upon 
the  speed  of  rotation.  If  the  speed  is  gradually  in- 
creased, beginning  at  zero,  the  percentage  of  energy 
given  to  the  wheel  increases  up  to  a  certain  maximum 
value,  and  then  decreases  ;  and  for  some  values  of  the 
speed  of  rotation  it  becomes  zero.  If  the  speed  is  still 
further  increased,  the  energy  transferred  to  the  wheel 
becomes  negative,  or,  in  other  words,  the  water  receives 
energy  from  the  ivheel.  Now,  if  in  this  latter  case  the  de- 
sign of  the  wheel  is  such  that  the  energy  lost  by  dissipa- 
tion into  heat  by  friction,  impact,  etc.,  is  not  too  great, 
the  wheel  will  operate  as  a  pump,  aiding  the  flow. 
Thus,  a  centrifugal  pump  is  not  an  "  inverted  "  turbine, 
but  rather  a  turbine  running  at  too  high  a  speed  to  oper- 
ate as  a  motor. 

In  estimating  the  flow  through  a  turbine  and  the  en- 
ergy taken  from  (or  given  to)  the  water  for  a  given  head 
and  velocity  of  motion,  the  only  principles  needed  are 
"  Bernoulli's  Theorem,"  giving  the  relation  between 
velocity  of  flow,  pressure  and  height,  at  all  points  of  a 
stream  in  a  condition  of  steady  flow  in  fixed  passages, 
and  the  analogous  theorem  for  flow  through  rotating  pas- 
sages. These  theorems  need  not  be  given  here,  but  it  is 
to  be  remarked  that  they  apply  equally  whether  the  tur- 
bine operates  as  a  pump  or  as  a  motor,  and  the  problems 
of  design  should  be  as  readily  solvable  in  one  case  as  in 
the  other. 

It  is  a  well-known  principle  that,  for  a  given  turbine 
motor  of  the  reaction  type,  the  speed  for  highest  effi- 
ciency varies  as  the  square  root  of  the  head.  Further, 
if  the  head  changes,  and  the  velocity  of  rotation  changes 
as  the  square  root  of  the  head,  the  velocity  of -flow 
through  the  wheel  (and  therefore  the  quantity  of  water 
discharged)  will  vary  in  the  same  ratio  as  the  speed  of 
rotation.  This  is,  perhaps,  the  most  serious  disadvan- 
tage of  reaction  motors.  If  the  design  is  made  for  a  cer- 
tain fall  and  discharge,  the  wheel  cannot  yield  its  highest 
efficiency  for  a  different  fall,  unless  the  supply  of  water 
changes  correspondingly,  and  it  cannot  give  its  highest 
efficiency  for  a  changed  supply  of  water,  unless  the  fall 
is  correspondingly  changed. 

The  same  principle  would  seem  to  hold  for  turbine 
pumps.  If  a  pump  is  designed  so  as  to  give  a  high  effi- 
ciency when  working  at  its  best  speed  against  a  given 
head,  any  change  in  the  head  will  cause  a  decrease  of 
efficiency,  unless  the  speed  of  rotation  is  changed  in  the 
ratio  of  the  square  root  of  the  head,  and  if  this  is  done, 
the  discharge  will  vary  in  the  same  ratio.  Thus,  sup- 
pose a  pump  working  against  a  head  of  36  feet  has  its 

highest  efficiency  when  making  300  revolutions  per  min- 
ute, if  the  head  is  decreased  to  25  feet,  the  speed  for 
best  efficienc}7  should  decrease  to  250  revolutions  per 
miuute,  and  the  discharge  would  be  only  five-sixths 
as  great  as  before.  The  given  pump  could  not, 
therefore,  raise  as  much  water  against  a  head  of  25  feet 
as  against  36  feet  without  a  decreased  efficiency.  It  is 
doubtful  whether  this  principle  is  clearly  understood  by 

The  influence  of  the  form  of  the  impellus  vanes  upon 
the  efficiency  is  one  of  the  questions  discussed  in  Mr. 
Eichards'  essay.  The  author  seems  to  regard  this  as  of 
minor  importance,  especially  with  low  lifts.  Theory  in- 
dicates as  desirable  a  curve  of  such  form  as  to  gradually 
deflect  the  water  until  its  direction  of  flow  near  the  out- 
let of  the  wheel  becomes  nearly  tangential  and  opposite 
to  the  motion  of  the  wheel.  The  object  of  this  is  to  make 
the  absolute  velocity  of  exit  as  small  as  possible.  This  ab- 
solute velocity  necessarily  has  a  forward  tangential  com- 
ponent of  considerable  magnitude  because  of  the  rotation 
of  the  wheel,  and  this  should  be  neutralized  as  com- 
pletely as  possible.  The  form  of  vanes  is,  doubtless,  of 
less  practical  importance  with  low  lifts  than  with  high, 
because  a  much  lower  wheel  velocity  is  needed  to  give 
the  required  presssure  in  the  discharge  chamber.  Effi- 
ciency is  often  made  a  less  important  consideration  than 

The  existence  of  a  high  velocity  of  outflow  from  the 
impeller  passages  would  be  of  little  detriment  to  the  effi- 
ciency if  it  were  possible  to  produce  a  sufficiently  grad- 
ual transition  from  this  velocity  to  that  in  the  discharge 
pipe.  This  may  doubtless  be  partly  accomplished  by  the 
gradual  enlargement  of  the  passage  leading  from  the 
impeller  chamber  to  the  discharge  chamber.  This  feat- 
ure is  used  in  the  design  of  Schabaver,  of  which  an  ac- 
count is  given  in  the  appendix  to  Mr.  Eichards'  book, 
and  is  said  by  the  author  to  have  been  also  devised  by 
Mr.  Gl.  W.  Price,  of  San  Francisco.  According  to  the 
description  given,  the  method  of  Schabaver  is  to  make 
the  discharge  chamber  "a  narrow  orifice  extending  around 
the  whole  circumference  of  the  casing,"  and  gradually 
widening  outwards,  "  so  that  the  water  arrives  without 
shock  in  a  spiral  collector  surrounding  the  pump  and 
leading  into  the  discharge  pipe."  This  is  identical  in 
principal  with  Boyden's  "  diffuser,"  used  for  a  like  pur- 
pose with  turbine  motors.  Francis,  in  his  experiments 
with  the  Fremont  turbine,  found  that  the  use  of  a  dif- 
fuser gave  an  increase  of  3  per  cent,  in  the  efficiency. 
(Lowell,  Hydraulic  Experiments,  page  5.)  Experiments 
seem  to  be  wanting  to  show  the  value  of  this  construc- 
tion in  the  case  of  pumps. 

It  is  probable  that  the  efficiency  suffers  much  greater 
diminution  by  frictional  losses  at  high  speeds  than  at  low. 
This  matter  of  frictional  losses  and  other  practical  objec- 
tions to  extreme  high  speeds  would  seem  to  be  the  limit- 
iting  condition  for  the  working  of  pumps  against  high 
heads,  since  high  rotational  velocity  is  necessary  to  pro- 
duce high  pressure  in  the  discharge  chamber.  It  is 
doubtful  whether  this  difficulty  can  be  completely  over- 
come except  by  compounding. 

The  plan  of  compounding  two  or  more  pumps  in  series 
has  been  employed  with  apparently  complete  success. 
From  a  theoretical  stand-point,  the  compound  pump  seems 
to  furnish  a  complete  solution  of  the  problem  of  efficient 
working  against  high  heads.  If  two  exactly  similar 
pumps  are  used,  each  yielding  a  certain  efficiency  when 
working  alone  at  a  given  velocity  against  a  certain  head, 
and  if  the  discharge  pipe  of  one  is  made  the  inlet  pipe 
of  the  other,  the  two  ought  to  work  against  a  double 
head  with  undiminished  efficiency  ;  the  best  speed  of  ro- 
tation and  quantity  of  discharge  being  the  same  as  for 
each  pump  working  alone  against  the  original  head. 

Nov.,  1895.] 



The  frictional  loss  of  efficiency  should  be  the  same  for 
the  compound  pump  as  for  the  single  one  working  at  the 
same  speed  and  discharging  the  same  quantity  of  water. 
Each  pump,  in  fact,  does  the  same  quantity  of  work, 
whether  acting  alone  or  compounded  with  the  other ; 
the  sole  difference  in  the  conditions  of  the  two  being 
that  the  pressure  in  every  part  of  one  is  greater  by  a 
constant  amount  than  that  in  the  corresponding  part  of 
the  other.  There  is  no  apparent  reason  why,  by  com- 
pounding any  required  number  of  pumps  iu  the  same 
way,  water  cannot  be  raised  to  great  heights  as  efficiently 
as  to  moderate  oues.  The  question  of  high  lifts  thus  be- 
comes one  of  economy  of  construction  and  maintenance 
rather  than  one  of  possible  successful  working.  So  far 
as  first  cost  is  concerned,  Mr.  Richards  expresses  the 
opinion  that  it  is  much  less  for  a  compound  pump,  such 
as  he  illustrates  on  page  59,  than  for  piston  pumps,  to  do 
the  same  work. 

The  matter  of  the  balancing  of  impellers  is  of  much 
interest,  both  theoretical  and  practical.  The  "  hydrau- 
lic step,"  by  which  the  pressure  of  water  in  rapid  rota- 
tion is  made  to  balance  the  weight  of  shafting  or  other 
loads,  was  invented  by  Professor  F.  G.  Hesse,  and  is  the 
subject  of  Bulletin  No.  2  of  the  Department  of  Mechan- 
ical Engiueeriug  of  the  University  of  California.  Space 
is  wanting  for  a  description  of  this  interesting  device  or 
an  account  of  its  theory. 

On  the  whole,  the  impression  given  by  a  careful 
reading  of  Mr.  Richards'  book  is  that  designers  in  Amer- 
ica, and  especially  on  the  Pacific  Coast,  have  attained  a 
high  degree  of  success  in  the  adaptation  of  turbine 
pumps  to  a  variety  of  conditions.  It  seems  probable, 
however,  that  still  further  advance  may  be  made  by  the 
iutelligent  application  of  hydraulic  principles. 

Leland  Stanford  Jr.  University, 
Palo  Alto,    Cat. 


By  Lieut.  W.  Stuakt-Hmith,  U.  S.  N. 

Occasionally  a  boiler  explodes  under  circumstances 
which  make  it  exceedingly  difficult  to  determine  the  cause. 
The  evidence  of  those  in  whose  charge  the  boiler  is  en- 
trusted is  to  the  effect  that  the  steam  pressure  was  not 
above  the  normal  and  water  was  carried  at  the  proper 
height,  so  there  could  be  no  danger  of  explosion  from 
overheated  plates.  An  examination  of  the  debris  shows 
no  evidence  of  overheating  the  metal  of  the  shell, 
traces,  etc.,  show  good  section,  with  no  evidence  of  se- 
rious erosion,  and  a  test  shows  the  metal  to  be  of  good 
quality.  With  good  metal  of  proper  section  and  boiler 
well  proportioned,  it  is  manifest  that  rupture  can  only 
occur  through  excess  of  pressure,  and  the  report  of  the 
examiners  is  that  without  doubt  the  fireman  neglected 
his  duty  and  allowed  the  pressure  to  reach  a  point  which 
was  beyond  the  strength  of  the  metal  to  withstand. 

In  cases  where  the  evidence  iu  favor  of  the  fire- 
man proved  to  be  so  strong  that  no  possible  doubt 
could  be  expressed  regarding  the  fact  that  the  pressure 
was  not  excessive,  and  examination  showed  no  defect  in 
design  or  material,  the  necessity  for  an  explanation 
brought  forth  theories  to  account  for  instantaneous  de- 
velopment of  enormous  pressures.  According  to  one  of 
these,  the  water  over  the  furnace  crowns  might  exist  in 
a  spheroidal  state — that  is,  be  held  out  of  contact  with 
the  plate  by  a  layer  of  steam — in  consequence  of  which 
the  plate  became  highly  heated,  and  the  spheroidal  state 
being  broken,  the  water  was  brought  into  contact  with 
the  hot  plate  and  flashed  into  steam,  thus  producing  a 
sudden  enormous  pressure,  with  a  resulting  explosion. 
The  propounders  of  this  theory  did  not  realize  that,  owing 

to  the  large  amount  of  heat  rendered  latent  in  evaporating 
a  small  quantity  of  water,  the  excess  of  heat  in  the  plate 
would  not  be  sufficient  to  evaporate  any  considerable 
quantity,  even  if  such  a  spheroidal  state,  with  consequent 
heating,  would  be  possible  with  the  rough  plates  and 
other  conditions  existing  in  a  boiler. 

Another  theory  that  was  much  propounded  was  that 
water  was  decomposed  by  some  electric  action,  audthat 
the  resulting  oxygen  and  hydrogen,  existing  as  a  highly 
explosive  compound  in  the  proportions  necessary  for 
formation  of  water,  accumulating  in  considerable  quan- 
tity, was  in  some  manner  ignited,  with  resulting  enor- 
mous increase  of  pressure  and  explosion  of  boiler.  Ap- 
parently no  consideration  was  taken  of  the  fact  that  even 
if  oxygen  and  hydrogen  were  thus  formed  they  would 
pass  off  with  the  steam,  hydrogen  especially,  on  account 
of  its  low  specific  gravity,  being  very  quick  to  do  so. 

At  present  such  theories  are  scoffed  at,  and  the  verdict 
is  that  the  pressure  was  allowed  to  become  too  great  — 
a  faulty  steam  gauge  or  other  cause  preventing  a  careful 
fireman  from  being  aware  of  the  fact.  Such  verdicts, 
however,  are  sometimes  rendered  solely  because  the  ex- 
aminers realize  that  excessive  pressure  must  be  the 
cause,  and,  rejecting  what  they  know  are  absurd  notions, 
they  find  themselves  confronted  with  the  necessity  of 
assigning  a  valid  reason. 

Still,  mysterious  explosions  sometimes  occur,  and 
the  writer  believes  they  may  be  caused  by  a  sudden  in- 
crease of  pressure,  and  offers  the  following  explanation, 
which,  while  it  may,  to  some,  seem  as  absurd  as  the  the- 
ories quoted,  is  founded  on  strictly  scientific  principles 
and  represents  a  by  no  means  impossible  condition. 

Resonance  has  long  been  studied  in  relation  to  sound, 
but  it  is  only  within  recent  times  that  the  very  impor- 
tant place  it  may  occupy  in  cases  where  force  is  transmit- 
ted by  means  of  vibrations  in  elastic  media,  has  been  re- 
alized. In  cases  where  steam  and  other  vapors  and 
gases  are  used  as  the  media  for  the  transmission  of  force, 
this  transmission  is  not  accomplished  by  means  of  vibra- 
tions in  the  elastic  medium,  but  the  medium  itself  is 
strained,  and  beiug  transmitted  in  mass  to  the  point 
where  it  is  desired  to  have  work  performed,  it  is  placed 
in  conditions  favorable  to  the  release  of  the  teusion. 
During  this  recovery  from  the  strained  state,  work  is  per- 
formed equal  in  amount  to  the  energy  which  disappeared 
in  producing  the  strained  condition.  It  is  only  in  the 
case  of  those  substances,  such  as  gases  and  vapors,  which 
are  elastic  and  mobile  in  the  highest  degree,  and  which 
can  have  their  volumes  varied  through  wide  limits 
without  altering  this  state,  that  practical  use,  for  purpose 
of  performing  continuous  work,  can  be  made  tendency 
to  recover  from  a  state  of  strain.  Other  substances,  such 
as  ivory,  glass,  etc.,  are  highly  elastic,  but  the  limits 
through  which  they  can  be  strained  are  too  narrow  to 
permit  of  their  use  in  performing  continuous  work. 

Vapors  and  gases,  possessing  the  property  of  elasticity 
in  such  high  degree,  are  not  only  capable  of  receiving 
enormous  static  strain,  and  in  this  state,  being  trans- 
ferred from  place  to  place,  but  they  are  capable  of  being 
strained  by  an  impulse  received  at  one  point,  and  of  re- 
covering from  this  state  of  strain  by  transmitting  it  to 
neighboring  portions  of  the  mass,  thereby  setting  up  vi- 
brations which  gradually  die  out,  owing  to  the  want  of 
perfect  elasticity.  This  fact  being  recognized,  it  is  pos- 
sible to  offer  a  theory  which  the  writer  believes  furnishes 
a  correct  explanation  of  many  mysterious  boiler  explo- 
sions, and  incidentally  accounts  for  some  peculiar  look- 
ing indicator  diagrams  which  are  usually  set  down  as 
water  in  the  cylinder,  inertia  of  the  moving  parts  of  the 
indicator,  etc. 

The  distributing  valve  of  the  engine  being  closed, 
steam  fills  boiler,  steam  pipe  and  valve  chest,  and  has  no 



[Vol.  I,  No.  5. 

motion  as  a  mass.  The  valve  opens  and  permits  steam 
to  enter  the  cylinder,  thereby  giving  motion  to  the  mass 
of  steam  in  the  pipe,  the  velocity  attained  being,  say, 
100  feet  to  the  second  at  the  moment  of  cut-off.  When 
cut-off  occurs  this  motion  is  arrested  at  the  steam  chest 
owing  to  the  rigidity  of  the  metal,  but  along  the  body 
of  the  pipe  no  such  impediment  exists,  and  owing  to  its 
inertia  the  steam  continues  its  forward  movement,  com- 
pressing the  portion  before  it  until  the  resistance  to  com- 
pression finally  brings  the  mass  to  rest.  When  this  oc- 
curs the  steam  at  and  near  the  engine  will  have  a  den- 
sity considerably  in  excess  of  that  near  the  boiler,  and 
there  will  be  the  equivalent  of  an  impulse  producing 
strain  at  one  point  of  an  elastic  medium.  The  result 
will  be  that  the  recovery  from  the  strained  condition 
will  send  a  wave  toward  the  other  end  of  the  pipe  and 
the  boiler,  which  wave  will  tend  to  travel  back  and 
forth  through  the  pipe  with  continually  decreasing  am- 
plitude. The  same  thing  will  occur  at  the  following  and 
all  other  admissions  of  steam  to  the  cylinder,  so  that,  in 
addition  to  the  periodically  interrupted  forward  motion 
of  the  steam  as  a  mass,  there  will  be  a  series  of  waves 
continually  traveling  backward  and  forward  through 
the  pipe.  If  the  time  of  propagation  of  a  wave  from 
the  engine  to  the  far  end  of  the  pipe  and  return  differs 
materially  from  the  time  elapsing  between  cut-offs  in  the 
engine,  the  mass  of  steam  will  be  filled  with  a  series  of 
vibrations  moving  in  both  directions,  and  differing  in 
phase  to  such  an  extent  that  there  will  be  so  much  inter- 
ference as  practically  to  eliminate  all  vibrations,  and  in- 
struments will  make  no  record  of  them.  If,  however, 
the  conditions  are  such  that  the  first  wave  formed  travels 
forward  and  returns  just  as  the  wave  formed  by  the  sec- 
ond cutting  off  is  ready  to  start  forward  the  two  will  add 
themselves  together  and  a  single  wave  of  increased  am- 
plitude but  same  wave  length  will  go  forward,  with  re- 
sult that,  in  addition  to  the  steady  strain  on  the  pipe  due 
to  the  pressure  of  the  steam,  it  will  be  subjected  to  waves 
of  strain  which  pass  along  it.  This  occurring  for  several 
consecutive  revolutions  of  the  engine,  the  amplitude  of 
the  wave  will,  by  resonance,  be  raised  to  a  very  large 
figure,  and  a  very  great  strain  be  brought  to  bear  on  the 
pipe.  Such  a  wave  passing  into  the  boiler  and  then  re- 
bounding will  subject  it  to  a  sudden  increase  of  pressure, 
much  in  excess  of  that  due  to  the  steam,  and  will  have 
its  effect  increased  owing  to  the  fact  that  it  will  be  ap- 
plied as  a  live  load.  A  sudden  enormous  increase  of 
pressure  in  a  boiler  may  be  thus  explained  on  a  strictly 
scientific  principle. 

The  energy  due  to  the  forward  movement  of  the  steam 
at  one  cutting  off  may  be  readily  calculated.  Suppose 
there  is  a  10-inch  steam  pipe  100  feet  long,  steam  press- 
ure 125  pounds.  At  this  pressure  there  are  3.549  cubic 
feet  of  steam  per  pound,  or  the  total  quantity  of  steam 
in  the  above  pipe  will  be  15.36  pounds.  With  steam, 
at  moment  of  cutting  off  moving  100  feet  per  second,  the 
energy  of  the  moving  mass  of  steam  will  be  2385  foot 
pounds,  which  is  the  force  which  will  compress  the  steam 
preparatory  to  the  production  of  the  first  wave.  In  a 
very  brief  period,  if  the  conditions  are  right  for  the 
production  of  resonance,  this  energy  will  be  many  times 

Such  a  condition  of  affairs  is  certainly  possible,  though 
it  will  occur  only  at  rare  intervals,  and  it  is  sufficient  to 
account  for  some  mysterious  explosions.  It  is  impossi- 
to  guard  against,  owing  to  the  variety  of  conditions 
which  are  influential  in  producing  it.  In  order  that  the 
maximum  effect  may  be  produced  it  is  necessary  that  the 
primary  vibration  period  of  the  steam  in  the  pipe  should 
correspond  with  the  times  of  cutting  off  steam  in  the 
cylinder,  and  there  is  usually  sufficient  variation  in  the 
speed  of  the  engine  to  perhaps  greatly  promote  interfer- 

ence; moreover,  the  vibration  period  of  the  steam  is  it- 
self continually  changing,  as  it  depends  upon  the  elasti- 
city of  the  steam,  which  is  a  continually  varying 
quantity,  since  it  is  affected  by  every  variation  in  the 
pressure  and  by  every  variation  in  the  amount  of  en- 
trained moisture.  It  might  happen  that  a  steam  plant 
would  operate  for  many  years  without  the  proper  con- 
dition for  maximum  resonance  occurring;  then  the  proper 
relation  of  steam  pressure,  entrained  moisture  and 
engine  speed  might  occur,  and  in  a  few  moments  a 
disastrous  explosion  would  take  place,  with  absolutely 
nothing  to  show  the  reason  why.  Steam  pipes  as  well  as 
boilers  will  explode  from  this  cause. 

With  regard  to  the  engine  indicator,  it  occasionally 
happens  that  an  instrument  which  is  in  excellent  condi- 
tion and  usually  takes  fine  cards,  is  applied  to  an  engine, 
and  the  cards  show  an  admission  line  which  rises  far 
above  the  steam  line,  and  even  far  above  full  boiler 
pressure.  Sometimes  this  line  falls  back  at  once  to 
steam  line,  and  again  it  may  enclose  a  small  area  before 
reaching  this  line.  The  expert  thinks  there  is  water  in 
the  cylinder,  and,  finding  this  is  not  the  case,  blames  the 
indicator.  There  may  in  reality  be  water  in  the  cylin- 
der in  some  cases,  and  certainly  indicators  are  sometimes 
to  blame  for  such  additions  to  the  card,  but  it  will  be 
occasionally  noted  that  some  particular  engine  has  a  habit 
of  showing  such  cards  when  the  steam  is  dry  and  the  indi- 
cator in  good  order.  At  times,  even,  there  is  a  hump  in 
the  steam  line  between  admission  and  cut-off.  If  our 
theory  that  resonance  may  cause,  in  the  steam  pipe, 
waves  of  considerable  amplitude  is  correct,  we  have  a 
possible  explanation  of  some  of  these  card  peculiarities. 
If,  as  the  valve  was  opening,  or  after  it  opened  and  before 
steam  was  cut  off,  a  wave  reached  the  steam  chest  it 
would  record  itself  locally  on  the  card  as  an  increased 
pressure  which  would  be  called  "  water  "  if  made  on  the 
admission  line,  and  a  curiosity  if  made  on  the  steam 
line.  Of  course  it  could  produce  no  effect  after  steam 
was  cut  off. 

Where  an  engine  persists  in  showing  this  peculiarity 
it  seems  probable  that  the  conditions  as  to  length  of 
steam  pipe,  pressure  carried,  revolutions  per  minute,  etc., 
are  right  for  producing  partial  resonance,  either  with  the 
main  wave  or  one  of  the  harmonics,  and  it  would  be  well 
to  so  alter  the  condition  as  to  breakup  this  resonance  in 
order  to  avert  danger  of  explosion  due  to  an  accidental 
adjustment  of  conditions  whereby  more  perfect  resonance 
might  occur. 

Berkeley,  Cal.,  Nov  25,  1895. 


The  march  of  improvement  has  deprived  the  little  city 
of  Ontario,  Cal.,  of  the  greatest  novelty  that  that  town 
afforded.  Before  the  trolley  made  its  advent,  a  solitary 
car  used  to  wend  its  way,  pulled  up  a  slight  incline  be- 
tween a  beautiful  avenue  of  trees  several  miles  in  length, 
the  motive  power  being  a  pair  of  patient  mules.  When 
the  end  of  the  road  was  reached,  a  curious  sort  of  flat 
car,  looking  not  unlike  an  old-fashioned  trundle  bed, 
was  pulled  from  under  the  passenger  car  and  hooked  be- 
hind. The  two  mules  then  mounted  their  flat  car,  the 
driver  took  his  place  at  the  brakes,  and  the  trip  commenced 
down  the  grade  to  the  town,  and  of  all  who  have  taken 
this  romantic  ride,  none  have  enjoyed  it  more  than  the 
mules  themselves. 

The  popularity  of  a  technical  publication  can  best  be 
determined  by  the  demand  for  it,  and  in  this  connection 
it  is  interesting  to  note  that  it  has  been  necessary  to  re- 
print two  numbers  of  the  "  Journal  of  Electricity." 
namely,  the  August  and  September  issues,  to  supply 
orders  for  back  numbers. 

Nov.,  1895.] 



l^e  Journal  of  ^Etectritittj. 

An  Illustrated  Review  of  the  Industrial  Applications  of  Electricity,  Gas  and  Power- 


F.   A.   C.    PERRINE,   D.   Sc,   and    GEO.   P.    LOW. 

Subscription  Payable    in   Advance.      Terms  :— Domestic, 
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NOVEMBER,   1895. 






The  recent  appointment  of  a  local  sec- 
retary of  the  American  Institute  of  Elec- 
trical Engineers  for  the  Pacific  Coast 
shows  an  important  advance  in  the  pol- 
icy of  the  Institute  as  well  as  an  encour- 
aging sign  of  the  character  of  the  elec- 
trical engineering  on  the  Pacific  Coast.  Heretofore  the 
Institute  has  been  charged,  with  more  or  less  justice,  with 
being  a  close  corporation,  run  in  the  interests  of  certain 
members  residing  about  the  city  of  New  York.  The 
first  succeessful  broadening  of  the  Institute  policy  was 
found  in  the  establishment  of  local  meetings  in  Chicago; 
but  local  meetings  have  been  viewed  with  suspicion  by 
certain  of  the  New  York  members,  and  little  encourage- 
ment has  been  given  to  the  informal  meetings  of  members 
at  places  where  the  membership  was  too  small  to  war- 
rant local  meetings  on  the  Institute  plan.  The  informal 
meetings  held  in  San  Francisco  during  the  past  winter 
were  of  undoubted  personal  benefit  to  all  members  who 
attended,  and  they  will,  we  hope,  be  the  cause  of  bring- 
ing forth  a  greater  mumber  of  papers  written  by  those 
residing  on  the  Pacific  Coast.  It  is  gratifying  now  to 
find  that  at  last  the  efforts  made  toward  impressing  the 
necessity  for  greater  recognition  of  the  Pacific  Coast 
members  have  been  appreciated  by  the  Council,  and 
there  is  but  little  doubt  that  the  confidence  shown  by  the 
appointment  of  a  local  secretary  will  be  amply  justified. 



While  undoubtedly  the  recent  decision 
of  the  Supreme  Court,  denying  the  right 
of  the  Pacific  railroads  to  make  an  ex- 
clusive lease  of  their  right  of  way  to  any 
one  telegraph  company,  will  have  an 
important  bearing  on  the  telegraph  ser- 
vice to  points  between  San  Francisco  and  Chicago,  and 
possibly  upon  the  general  telegraph  business  of  the  Pacific 
Coast,  it  must  not  be  supposed  that  the  entire  question 
of  the  competing  telegraph  line  is  settled  by  this  decision 



of  the  courts.  The  courts  may  without  a  doubt  compel 
the  revocation  of  such  exclusive  leases,  but  it  is  hardly 
possible  that  they  will  undermine  the  present  good  will 
existing  between  the  telegraph  companies  and  the  rail- 
road. This  good  will  of  itself  is  in  geueral  of  a  greater 
value  to  the  telegraph  company  than  the  simple  question 
of  right  "of  way,  since  it  is  the  custom  of  the  railroad 
company,  which  acts  in  harmony  with  any  particular 
telegraph  company,  to  furnish  a  system  of  inspection  to 
the  telegraph  company,  through  the  medium  of  their 
track  walkers,  and  to  allow  special  facilities  on  their 
trains  for  the  transportation  of  repair  supplies  and  line- 
men. Where  such  courtesies  are  not  extended,  the 
simple  right  of  way  is  of  comparatively  little  value,  in- 
deed, of  almost  no  more  value  than  the  right  of  way 
through  the  open  country  by  the  side  of  the  railroad 
track,  which  at  any  time  might  have  been  secured. 
These  complicated  conditions  are  not  often  considered 
by  the  general  public,  in  rejoicing  over  a  court  decision 
similar  to  that  we  have  chronicled,  whereas,  to  the  prac- 
tical engineer,  the  points  now  covered  are  of  more  im- 
portance than  those  upon  which  the  courts  may  render 
their  decisions. 

It  is  with  interest  that  we  note  that 
an  effort  will  be  made  to  transmit  elec- 
trical energy  from  the  mines  of  Corral 
Hollow  to  Stockton,  San  Jose  and  other 
cities,  and  even  with  greater  interest  do 
we  hear  that  the  power  derived  is  to  be 
applied  to  the  operation  of  an  electric  railroad  thirty- 
two  miles  in  length,  extending  from  Livermore  to  Oak- 
land. Proposals  similar  to  this  have  been  made  in 
England,  and  for  a  transmission  of  energy  from  the 
Pennsylvania  coal  fields  to  certain  of  the  neighboring- 
East  eru  cities,  although  the  application  of  power  to  rail- 
roading is  a  proposal  which  adds  a  new  element,  opening 
new  possibilities  to  the  plan.  The  possible  financial 
economy  of  the  scheme  depends  upon  whether  it  would 
be  cheaper  to  transmit  the  energy  of  the  coal  over  an 
electrical  line  than  it  would  be  to  carry  the  coal  itself  by 
railway  or  steamer  to  the  point  of  consumption.  In  the 
one  case  an  excess  of  electrica  energy  must  be  developed, 
which  is  utilized  in  the  transmission  of  the  electricity  it- 
self; in  the  second  case,  a  proportion  of  the  coal  itself 
must  be  burned  to  effect  the  transportation.  In  carrying 
the  coal  bodily,  account  must  be  taken  of  the  mainten- 
ance of  the  railway  necessary  for  its  transportation, 
whereas  in  the  transmission  of  power  by  the  means  of 
electricity  is  had  a  cheaper  line  to  maintain,  although, 
perhaps,  a  greater  amount  of  the  total  energy  of  the  coal 
must  be  utilized  in  the  transmission.  The  calculations 
made  by  English  engineers  have  indicated  that  the  elec- 
trical transmission  of  energy  of  the  coal  is  probabljr  the 
cheapest  manner  in  which  a  definite  amount  of  coal  can 
be  used,  and  when  we  consider  the  fact  that  freight  rates 
are  much  lower  throughout  Eugland  than  in  California, 
it  seems  that  we  may  be  able  to  predict  a  very  consider- 
able financial  saving  to  the  users  of  the  electrically  trans- 
mitted power,  as  well  as  a  profitable  undertaking  to  the 
owners  and  promoters  of  the  electrical  enterprise. 



[Vol.  I,  No.  5. 

The  question  of  light  haulage  by  the 

means  of  electric  motors  has  attracted 

light  haulage     mucjj  attention  since  the  early  attempt 

BY  MEANS  OF  .  .  . 

ELECTRIC  MOTORS.   °f  the  late   Prof-    Flemlng   Jenkm  t0    eS" 

tablish  in  England  an  automatic  over- 
head hauling  system  which  he  named 
Telepherage.  Little  success  attended  the  various  efforts 
to  establish  telepherage  lines  on  account  of  the  fact  that 
the  overhead  line  construction  to  support  motors  suffi- 
ciently heavy  for  the  necessary  tractive  effect  was  too 
expensive  when  compared  with  tram  lines  laid  upon  the 
ground,  although  the  construction  necessary  simply  to 
carry  the  loads  to  be  moved  might  in  some  cases  be 
cheaper  than  tram  lines.  The  Boynton  bicycle  railway  is 
one  that  possibly  reduces  the  cost  of  construction  when 
compared  with  the  other  systems  of  elevated  railways, 
but  it  can  hardly  be  possible  that  any  such  rigid  over- 
head construction  would  be  as  economical  as  a  surface 

These  difficulties  have  been  met  by  Mr.  Richard  Lamb 
in  his  system  now  being  installed  along  the  banks  of  the 
Erie  Canal,  and  already  in  successful  operation  for  the 
haulage  of  logs  in  the  Ditmal  Swamp  of  Virginia.  The 
system  consists  of  a  pair  of  standing  ropes  suspended 
from  a  stout  pole  line  construction,  the  upper  cable  car- 
rying the  weight  of  the  motor  and  its  load,  while  the 
lower  cable  is  proportioned  simply  to  afford  tractive 
effect  by  means  of  passing  it  several  times  around  a 
sheave  attached  to  the  locomotive  motor.  The  current 
is  carried  by  the  bearing  rope,  and  returned  to  ground 
through  the  traction  rope.  Undoubtedly,  less  power 
will  be  used  by  this  system  than  that  which  is  necessary 
in  the  commoner  systems  of  cableways  with  running 
traction  ropes,  and  a  wide  application  might  be  predicted 
for  such  a  system  in  the  hauling  of  light  loads  over  mod- 
erate distances. 

The  important  proposition  of  this  haulage  system,  how- 
ever, is  one  that  looks  towards  the  re-establishment  of 
artificial  inland  waterways  that  have  so  largely  been 
superseded  by  steam  roads.  No  doubt  the  Lamb  system 
is  a  system  well  adapted  to  boat  towage,  but  its  success 
as  a  means  of  haulage  does  not  by  any  means  establish 
the  efficiency  of  artificial  inland  waterways.  In  the 
case  of  the  Erie  Canal,  fifty-one  millions  of  dollars  have 
already  been  expended  upon  its  construction,  and  it  is 
stated  at  the  present  time  that  nine  millions  further 
must  be  spent  before  the  canal  can  be  operated  at  a 
maximum  efficiency.  Mr.  Frank  W.  Hawley,  who  has 
the  contract  for  applying  electric  haulage  to  this  canal, 
anticipates  that  its  introduction  will  warrant  the  use  of 
about  three  thousand  boats  carrying  two  hundred  and 
sixty  tons  each  on  the  canal,  which  would  mean  that  as 
many  as  ten  boats  to  the  mile  would  be  towed.  These 
boats,  as  recently  built,  have  cost  fifty-five  hundred  dol- 
lars each,  and  when  we  consider  that  at  least  fifteen 
central  stations,  having  an  aggregate  capacity  of  not 
less  than  thirty  thousand  horse-power  will  be  required  to 
furnish  the  power,  it  is  at  once  seen  that  the  interest  on 

the  cost  of  the  investment  necessary  to  apply  the  system  to 
the  Erie  Canal  in  an  efficient  manner  would  bring  the  cost 
of  transportation  of  goods  from  Buffalo  to  Albany  up  to 
a  figure  which  would  be  little  if  any  below  the  charges 
now  made  by  the  steam  roads,  and  it  is  hard  to  see  how 
the  simple  applicability  of  any  such  haulage  system  by 
the  means  of  electrical  power  would  warrant  the  great 
outlay  necessary  for  building  and  maintaining  an  ex- 
pensive system  of  artificial  inland  waterways  such  as 
are  proposed  from  time  to  time  by  the  daily  press  in  its 
campaign  against  the  alleged  extortionate  freight  rates. 

It  is  surprising  that  a  journal  as  care- 
fully edited  as  the  Engineering  Magazine 
an  inaccurate      should  print  an  article  so  full  of  inac- 

ESTIMATE  OF  POWER    cnrades  ag  thafc    of  Alton   D     Adamg   0Q 

the  "  Limits  of  Electrical  Power  Trans- 
mission," which  purports  to  show  that 
the  annual  fixed  charges  on  an  electrical  transmission 
line  twenty-five  miles  long  will  amount  to  $22.83  per 
horse-power  hour,  as  against  a  cost  of  $25.00  per  hour 
for  steam  power,  coal  costing  between  $2  and  $3  per 
ton.  If  the  statements  in  this  paper  could  be  estab- 
lished, there  certainly  could  be  no  possible  economical 
distribution  of  power  from  a  water-fall  or  other  source 
greater  than  fifteen  to  twenty  miles  ;  but  when  we  ana- 
lyze the  items  of  cost  given  by  Mr.  Adams,  which  pre- 
tend to  be  the  lowest  possible  figures,  we  find  that  he 
makes  the  statement  that  4794  horse-power  of  electrical 
machinery  at  $20  per  horse  power  are  required  in  the 
transmission  and  delivery  of  1000  horse-power,  the  total 
amount  of  power  being  composed  of  1520  horse-power  in 
generators,  1000  horse-power  in  motors  and  2397  horse- 
power in  transformers,  omitting  altogether  the  consider- 
ation of  the  fact  that  the  Stanley  Electric  Company 
transmits  power  at  10,000  volts  without  the  intervention 
of  transformers.  We  are  astonished  to  see  that  Mr.  Ad- 
ams rates  such  generators  and  transformers  as  high  as 
$20  per  horse-power,  whereas  during  the  last  year  gen- 
erating machinery  has  been  sold  on  the  coast  as  low  as 
$11.00  per  horse-power  in  cases  where  not  more  than 
500  horse-power  were  purchased,  and  the  figures  that  he 
gives  are  higher  than  the  price  for  600-light  dynamos  in 
the  city  of  Boston  four  years  ago.  Besides  this  mis- 
statement, Mr.  Adams  has  included  in  his  estimate  for 
wire  the  amount  necessary  to  transmit  1000  horse-power 
100  miles,  in  place  of  25  miles,  which  is  the  assumed  con- 
dition of  his  problem.  Making  these  corrections  in  his 
figures,  we  find  that  his  total  cost  of  installation  is  to  be 
divided  by  at  least  two,  and  in  place  of  almost  $23  per 
hour  for  transmission  cost,  not  more  than  $10  or  $12 
should  be  allowed. 

Transmissions  approximating  the  distances  he  attempts 
to  prove  impossible  have,  unfortunately  for  Mr.  Adams's 
figures,  already  proved  themselves  to  be  economical,  and 
such  inaccurate  statements  will  do  little  to  advance  ra- 
tional transmissions  or  to  guard  against  those  which  are 

Nov.,  1895.] 



passing  Qcmmsnt. 


The  question  of  the  rating  a. id  behavior  of  fuse  wires 
has  at  last  been  adequately  treated  iu  a  paper  read  by 
Prof.  W.  M.  Stein  before  the  American  Institute  of  Elec- 
trical Engineers.  The  minimum  currents  required  to 
fuse  such  wires  has  been  accurately  ascertained  in  the 
experiments  of  Preece.  The  experiments  of  Harrington 
show  the  great  currents  they  will  carry  on  short  circuits, 
and  although  it  has  heretofore  been  understood  that  time 
is  a  factor  in  the  current  necessary  for  fusion,  the  par- 
ticular valu3  of  this  time  factor  has  not  been  clearly 
shown  experimentally.  These  experiments  have  proba- 
bly established  the  most  accurate  methods  of  fuse  test- 
ing, and  we  fortunately  are  now  able  to  predict  the 
action  of  fuse  wires  under  various  currents,  applied  either 
rapidly  or  slowly. 

In  the  Electrical  Engineer  for  October  16th  a  leading 
article  calls  attention  to  the  practical  installation  of  elec- 
tric launches  as  pleasure  craft  on  a  large  park  lake,  and 
to  those  who  have  had  the  pleasure  of  riding  on  these 
launches  at  the  Chicago  Fair  it  is  not  surprising  that 
such  installations  should  be  found  remunerative. 

While  it  may  be  possible  that  the  weight  of  the  cells 
is  a  disadvantage  in  tramway  work,  and  that  the  con- 
stant jarring  will  disintegrate  the  plates,  there  is  no 
doubt  but  that  they  are  acting  under  ideal  conditions 
when  applied  to  boats,  and  there  can  hardly  be  a  system 
conceived  more  directly  applicable  to  their  needs  than  in 
electric  roads  which  are  continually  striving  to  increase 
their  earnings  by  the  establishment  of  parks  and  excur- 
sion parties.  The  current  for  charging  is  at  hand  wher- 
ever cars  run,  and  the  rates  of  fare  are  much  higher 
than  can  be  charged  for  any  equivalent  amount  of  land 

One  of  the  most  important  papers  before  the  Montreal 
convention  of  the  American  Street  Railway  Association 
was  read  by  N".  W.  L.  Brown  on  the  preservation  of  ties 
and  poles  by  means  of  creosoting.  Iron  poles,  though 
strong,  have  not  given  the  life  that  was  at  first  hoped 
from  their  use.  Such  materials  as  redwood  and  cedar 
are  too  weak  to  stand  the  great  strains  applied  to  trolley 
suspenders,  while  the  life  of  the  stronger  woods  is  found 
to  be  very  limited. 

Creosoting  has  obtained  an  unmerited  position  of  dis- 
favor on  account  of  the  imperfect  manner  in  which  this 
operation  has  often  been  performed,  but  Mr.  Brown's 
tests  prove  that  where  the  work  is  thoroughly  done  the 
life  both  of  poles  and  ties  are  so  far  increased  that  the 
operation  is  one  effecting  a  great  economy  when  all  the 
items  of  annual  expense  are  included.  This  subject  is 
well  worthy  of  consideration  on  the  Pacific  Coast  partic- 
ularly, as  the  long,  dry  summer  effectually  seasons  the 
timber  and  greatly  reduces  the  cost  of  creosoting  as  com- 
pared with  localities  where  wet  timber  must  be  treated. 

The  question  of  transfers  on  our  street  railway  sys- 
tems has  been  so  throughly  discussed  in  the  daily  papers 
from  the  standpoint  of  the  passenger,  that  one  would 
almost  imagine  there  were  no  disadvantages  connected 
with  the  transfers  to  the  railway  management.  Should 
such  disadvantages  consist  simply  of  the  decreased  serv- 
ice for  a  single  fare  from  individual  passengers,  the  argu- 
ment against  their  extensive  use  might  be  invalid,  but 
to  any  one  who  holds  this  opinion  there  would  be  great 
enlightenment  on  reading  the  article  by  J.  A.  Cahoon,  on 
the  "  Use  and  Abuse  of  Transfers,"  in  the  Electrical 

World  of  October  18th,  where  it  is  shown  that  the  prin- 
cipal loss  to  the  railway  companies  comes  not  so  much 
from  their  legitimate  use  by  the  passengers  as  from  their 
illegitimate  use  by  the  conductors  and  motormen,  largely 
increasing  the  stealing  from  the  company.  We  venture 
to  assert  that  rarely  does  a  street  railway  company  wish 
to  curtail  its  traffic  or  to  inconvenience  its  passengers, 
but  until  some  system  of  transfers  be  adopted  which  will 
avoid  their  being  exchanged  from  one  conductor  to 
another,  much  sympathy  must  be  felt  for  any  railway 
company  desiring  to  curtail  their  use. 

The  exact  measurement  of  voltage,  current  and  resist- 
ance by  means  of  potentiometers  is  treated  in  an  article 
in  the  Electrical  World  of  October  12th,  by  W.  M.  Stein, 
of  Chicago,  in  which  he  calls  attention  to  the  inaccuracies 
often  creeping  into  the  application  of  the  potentiometer 
method  of  measuring  current.  This  method  is  one  that 
is  so  easily  applied  with  a  simple  sensitive  galvanome- 
ter, a  standard  cell  and  a  couple  of  high  resistances,  that 
it  admits  the  exact  measurement  of  large  currents  for 
testing  purposes  where  a  high-reading  galvanometer  or 
ammeter  are  not  at  hand,  and  the  method  of  using  it 
should  be  thoroughly  understood  by  all  engineers.  An 
imperfect  understanding,  however,  will  easily  lead  to 
exceedingly  inaccurate  results,  and  the  principles  in- 
volved, while  simple,  have  been  misstated  even  to  the 
extent  of  omitting  the  instructions  necessary  for  connect- 
ing to  eliminate  the  internal  resistance  of  the  standard 
cell  and  galvanometer. 

The  method  consists  simply  in  passing  the  current  to 
be  measured  through  a  large  German  silver  resistance, 
the  value  of  which  is  kuown  ;  at  the  ends  of  this  resist- 
ance a  series  of  high  resistances  are  connected  in  par- 
allel with  it,  and  the  terminals  of  the  standard  cell  con- 
nected through  the  galvanometer  in  such  a  sense  that  the 
e.  m.  f.  of  the  standard  cell  will  be  opposed  to  the  fall  of 
potential  from  one  end  to  the  other  of  the  high  resistance. 
When  the  connection  of  the  standard  cell  to  the  high 
resistance  is  so  adjusted  that  there  is  no  deflection  of  the 
galvanometer,  then  the  e.  m.  f.  between  the  terminals  of 
the  standard  resistance  is  obtained  by  the  relation  of  the 
total  resistance  between  its  tei  minals  to  the  resistance 
of  that  portion  which  equals  the  e.  m.  f.  of  the  standard 

Following  the  recent  meeting  of  the  Street  Railway 
Association  in  Montreal,  considerable  amount  of  space 
has  been  devoted  by  all  of  the  electrical  papers  to  the 
subject  of  the  most  efficient  brake  for  trolley  tramroads. 
The  speeds  employed  in  these  roads  have  continually  in- 
creased from  six  or  eight  miles  an  hour  to  fifteen  or  twenty, 
and,  even  in  some  cases  where  considerable  distances 
are  to  be  covered  in  suburban  districts,  speeds  exceeding 
thirty  miles  an  hour  are  employed.  When  we  consider 
the  great  momentum  of  a  car  weighing  from  fifteen  to 
twenty  tons  running  at  such  speeds,  we  can  at  once  realize 
not  only  the  difficulty  but  the  importance  of  an  efficient 
brake  system.  For  ordinary  stops  the  efficiency  of  the 
brake  does  not  become  of  so  great  importance  as  it  does 
when  an  emergency  stop  is  to  be  made.  Cable  roads  are 
all  provided  with  an  emergency  brake,  consisting  of  a 
solid  shoe  which  may  be  pressed  against  the  track  hard 
enough  to  lift  the  car  free  from  its  wheels  should  ex- 
treme rapidity  in  braking  be  necessary,  but  where  such 
brakes  have  been  applied  to  cars  not  held  to  the  track, 
as  is  the  case  with  the  cable  car,  by  means  of  the  grip 
attached  to  the  cable,  this  emergency  brake  has  been 
found  likely  to  derail  the  car,  and,  in  consequence,  such 
a  method  may  not  be  employed.  The  two  methods  of 
emergency  braking,  which  seem  to  have  been  met  with 
the  greatest  favor,  are  the  air  brake  and  the  Sperry  elec- 
tric brake.     Up  to  the  present  time,  the  disadvantage 



[Vol.  I,  No.  5. 

of  the  electric  brake  has  been  found  to  be  due  to  the  fact 
that  it  requires  the  car  motor  to  be  rapidly  transformed 
into  a  generator,  and,  where  the  commutator  contact 
on  the  motor  is  dirty  by  long  service,  it  will  gener- 
ally refuse  to  build  up  its  own  field  and  generate  the 
current,  while  the  air  brake  requires  considerable  extra 
weight  for  the  brake  mechanism,  and  depends  upon  a 
reservoir  which  may  fail  when  the  car  is  running  slowly 
through  a  crowded  district  requiring  frequent  stops.  It 
certainly  seems  that  the  electric  brake  is  capable  of  giv- 
ing much  more  efficiency  than  can  be  obtained  by  the 
means  of  an  air-brake,  but  until  one  or  the  other  of  these 
systems  has  attained  a  greater  perfection  than  is  appar- 
ent up  to  the  present,  the  running  of  high  speed  trolley 
cars  must  be  considered  as  attended  with  a  very  appre- 
ciable amount  of  danger  to  foot  passengers  crossing  the 
tracks.  '_ 

The  discussion  which  has  followed  Professor  Forbes' 
publication  of  his  view  concerning  the  engineering  con- 
test in  the  Niagara  transmission,  has  led  to  some  adverse 
criticism  of  Lord  Kelvin's  preference  for  direct  curreut 
power  transmission,  and  many  eminent  authorities,  led, 
perhaps,  by  Professor  S.  P.  Thompson,  have  laid  partic- 
ular stress  upon  the  adaptability  of  alternate  currents  to 
many  various  uses.  It  is  stated  by  these  advocates  of 
alternate  current  transmission  that  no  other  system  can 
be  so  easily  manipulated  and  adapted  to  the  many  pur- 
poses of  arc  and  incandescent  lighting,  long  distance 
transmission  of  power,  the  transformation  into  any  re- 
quired voltage,  aud  the  regulation  by  the  means  of  con- 
trollers, requiring  but  a  small  expenditure  of  energy  ;  but 
these  engineers  have  not  taken  the  pains  to  call  general 
attention  to  the  fact,  that,  though  an  alternating  current 
may  be  easily  adapted  to  such  uses,  it  is  not  by  any 
means  true  that  the  same  alternating  current  is  appli- 
cable in  every  case.  In  order  to  install  incandescent 
lamps  with  the  maximum  economy  as  regards  first  cost 
of  lines  and  transformers,  it  is  necessary  that  a  current 
with  a  high  number  of  alternations  be  employed  ,  for 
efficient  arc  lamps  to  operate  without  annoying,  noisy 
vibrations,  a  periodicity  much  less  must  be  used,  while 
the  proper  regulation  of  such  lamps  by  impedence  coils 
demands  a  current  of  high  periodicity.  Again,  motors 
and  rotary  transformers  are  only  to  be  considered  as 
acting  under  ideal  conditions  whenever  the  periodicity 
is  so  low  that  the  current  approaches  almost  a  pair  of 
continuous  currents  iu  its  character.  The  only  engineer 
who  has  appreciated  this  problem  sufficiently  to  attack 
its  solution  seems  to  have  been  Professor  Rowland,  to 
whom  a  late  patent  has  been  granted  for  a  device  capa- 
ble of  changing  an  alternating  current  of  any  number  of 
phases  or  periodicity  into  one  of  any  other  number  of 
phases,  or  other  periodicity,  varying  the  transformation 
of  an  alternating  current  all  the  way  from  a  continuous 
current  to  a  high  periodicity  multiphase  current.  As 
this  invention  has  been  explained  up  to  the  present  time, 
it  presents  formidable  complications,  which  seem  to 
leave  for  the  alternating  current  but  small  maintenance 
advantages  above  the  continuous  current  system,  which 
it  seeks  to  replace,  and  to  be  very  little  if  any  better 
than  the  continuous  current  transmission  operating 
motor  transformers. 

The  great  powers,  which  are  available  in  coal  mines 
and  water-falls,  are  already  being  looked  at  with  some 
suspicion  by  competent  engineers,  on  account  of  their 
remoteness  from  the  manufacturing  centers.  Although 
there  is  no  doubt  that  the  limit  of  twenty-five  miles, 
which  has  been  set  by  a  writer  in  the  Engineering  Mag- 
azine, which  we  notice  elsewhere,  is  entirely  too  small  a 
limit,  still  the  investigations  of  our  best  engineers,  who 
have  attempted  the  solution  of  long  distance  problems, 

show  that  the  limit  of  economical  transmission  with  ma- 
chinery operating  at  15,000  volts  is  not  far  from  fifty 
miles  where  alternating  current  machinery  is  employed  ; 
that  direct  current  machinery  will  extend  this  limit  is 
difficult  to  predict,  though  it  seems  that  many  cases 
might  be  found  in  which  the  greater  adaptability  of 
direct  current  machinery  to  the  many  uses  for  which  it 
might  be  employed  would  prove  to  be  a  greater  financial 
success  until  the  difficulties  of  manipulating  alternating 
currents,  as  above  indicated,  have  been  more  perfectly 


Electrical  Enginkh^inu,  Leaflets,  in  three  grades,  Element- 
ary, Intermediate  and  Advanced,  by  Prof.  Edwin  J.  Houston, 
Ph.  D.,  and  A.  E.  Kennelly,  F.  R.  A.  S.,  8-vo,  cloth,  300  pp. 
Price  for  each  course,  $3.00.  The  Electrical  Engineer,  New 
York,  1895. 

It  is  gratifying  to  notice  that  the  desire  for  informa- 
tion concerning  the  principles  of  electrical  science  has 
become  sufficient  to  warrant  the  production  of  many 
courses  of  instruction  from  the  pens  of  the  most  distin- 
guished and  competent  engineers.  Among  the  many 
books  published  during  the  past  few  years  with  the  aim 
of  supplying  this  need,  we  have  noticed  none  by  authors 
more  competent  of  speakiug  to  practical  men  than  these 
three  volumes,  which  have  been  divided  into  grades,  as 
best  suited  to  the  needs — first,  of  artisans  with  little  or 
no  knowledge  of  mathematics ;  secondly,  to  the  under- 
standing of  those  having  an  elementary  knowledge  of 
mathematics,  and  thirdly,  to  the  needs  of  students  pur- 
suing a  more  advanced  course  under  the  direction  of  a 
competent  instructor. 

The  value  of  the  study  to  the  student  in  any  such 
course  depends  upon  the  exactness  and  thoroughness 
with  which  the  elementary  principles  are  explained 
rather  than  upon  the  newness  of  the  apparatus  described, 
and  can  never  in  any  published  book  be  entirely  in  har- 
mony with  the  most  recent  practice,  on  account  of  the 
ever-changing  nature  of  recent  applications.  Of  these 
three  sets  of  leaflets,  the  greatest  importance  is  attached 
to  the  elementary  grade,  for  the  reason  that  so  little 
which  is  accurate  has  been  written  that  has  been  adapted 
to  the  understanding  of  electrical  artisans  and  others  with 
little  or  no  previous  knowledge  of  the  subject. 

It  is  a  question  whether  the  advanced  course  does  not 
include  more  than  can  thoroughly  be  taught  to  univer- 
sity students  in  Electrical  Engineering  without  an  exten- 
sion which  would  divide  the  subject  matter  of  these  leaf- 
lets into  two  or  three  separate  courses  of  instruction  ; 
though  for  mechanical  engineers  and  others  whose  time 
is  largely  devoted  to  collateral  branches,  an  elementary 
knowledge  of  the  principles  and  application  of  electric- 
ity is  here  given  most  clearly  and  concisely. 

Turning  our  attention  now  to  the  leaflets  of  the  Ele- 
mentary grade,  and  viewing  them  from  the  standpoint  of 
those  for  whom  they  are  designed,  we  should  expect  to 
find  sufficient  information  therein  to  enable  a  man  who 
has  completed  their  perusal  to  understand  the  conversa- 
tions and  the  simpler  descriptive  writing  of  the  ordinary 
electrical  engineer,  and  we  should  demand  that  the  infor- 
mation should  be  exact,  as  far  as  the  student  is  carried. 
It  is  with  much  pleasure  that  we  find  here  that  this  aim 
has  been  mainly  well  carried  out,  and  that  withal  the 
writing  is  so  phrased  as  to  be  easily  understandable.  But 
we  must  presume  that  there  is  a  good  amount  of  intelli- 
gence and  earnestness  possessed  by  any  man  who  would 
take  the  trouble  to  follow  this  course  voluntarily.  If 
this  is  so,  it  seems  to  us  to  be  a  pity  that  our  authors 
have  begun  by  confusing  the  terms  "energy"  and  "work," 
in  the  first  chapter,  though  each  term  is  correctly  used  in 

Nov.,  1895.] 



the  body  of  the  book.  Again,  we  notice  that  the  expia- 
tion of  the  term  "potential''  has  been  altogether  omitted, 
though  Its  elementary  explanation  can  certainly  be  made 
simple,  even  though  a  complete  understanding  of  "po- 
tential" may  be  difficult,  and  this  omission  is  the  more 
unfortunate  since  it  is  hardly  possible  for  any  one  to  un- 
derstand what  is  said  by  engineers  without  its  use.  Bo- 
sides  this,  the  term  "potential,"  when  understood,  ex- 
plains more  perfectly  the  character  of  the  volt  as  a  unit, 
and  brings  it  more  nearly  to  the  comprehension  of  those 
who  are  accustomed  to  use  the  common  mechanical 
units  in  the  measurement  of  concrete  quantities.  Exactly 
why  such  a  unit  as  the  watt  is  omitted  from  the  defini- 
tions, when  the  more  complicated  magnetic  units  are 
introduced,  is  hard  to  explain,  especially  as  the  authors 
use  the  unit  by  name  in  the  body  of  their  own  text. 

In  the  discussion  of  magnetism  one  would  criticise  the 
introductiou  of  the  term  "magnetic  flux,"  and  its  confu- 
sion with  the  lines  of  direction  in  a  magnetic  field  ;  these 
terms  are  altogether  distiuct,  and  it  seems  that  a  great 
confusion  may  be  produced  in  the  minds  of  practical  men 
which  will  be  hard  to  eradicate. 

On  the  whole,  however,  these  points  which  have  been 
criticised  are  not  of  great  importance  when  we  observe 
that  tbe  general  tenor  of  the  book  is  exact,  and  that  its 
careful  perusal  will  give  a  good  understanding  of  the 
principles  of  the  science,  and  will  lay  a  firm  foundation 
for  further  study.  If  the  perusal  of  this  first  volume 
will  lead  any  mau  to  continue  his  studies  into  the  second 
or  intermediate  grade  of  leaflets,  the  omissions  we  have 
noticed  are  largely  supplied,  and  a  course  through  the 
two  books  is  the  best  and  most  practical  that  we  have  yet 

In  no  one  of  the  three  volumes  is  the  true  theory  of 
the  glass  line  insulator  explained,  and  the  province  of  the 
petticoat  is  not  mentioned.  Many  constructors  are  prone 
to  consider  only  the  insulating  property  of  the  glass 
without  reference  to  surface  conduction,  which  leads 
too  often  to  insulators  beiug  installed  upside  down  as  well 
as  to  the  use  of  porcelain  knobs  out  of  doors,  which  would 
point  to  the  importance  of  a  more  thorough  discussion 
of  the  action  of  line  insulators  in  such  a  course  of  in- 

Much  has  been  written  at  many  times,  especially  in 
books  treating  primarily  of  physics,  which  refers  so  im- 
perfectly to  theories  of  electrical  action  that  the  element- 
ary student  is  confused  in  his  more  advanced  studies,  and 
it  is  with  great  gratification  that  we  notice  in  none  of 
these  leaflets  matter  which  must  be  unlearned  before  an 
advance  can  be  made.  The  three  courses  are  well 
adapted  to  the  needs  of  those  for  whom  they  are  de- 
signed, and,  though  each  is  complete  iu  itself,  yet,  as 
already  stated,  a  great  amount  of  benefit  may  be  derived 
in  considering  the  first  two  sets  as  a  continued  course, 
and  in  pursuing  the  third  under  the  direction  of  an  in- 

The  Electrical  Transmission  of  Energy,  by  Arthur  Vaughan 
Abbott,  C.  E.,  New  York,  D.  Van  Nostrand  Company;  pp.  586, 
8-vo.     Price,  $4.50. 

We  have  already  published  a  preliminary  notice  of 
this  manual  of  electric  line  construction,  written  by  Mr. 
Abbott,  the  chief  engineer  of  the  Chicago  Telegraph 
Company,  and  under  whose  supervision  some  of  the  best 
transmission  lines  in  the  United  States  have  been  con- 
structed. It  is  not  often  that  an  engineer  so  well  quali- 
fied has  the  inclination,  and  finds  the  time  for  giving  the 
results  of  his  mature  deliberations  to  the  general  public 
through  the  medium  of  a  book,  but  when  it  is  our  good 
fortune  to  obtain  such  a  work,  we  find  with  the  liveliest 
sense  of  satisfaction  that  the  instructions  given  are  all  of 
an  authoritative  character,  and  that  they  will  repay  the 
closest  perusal. 

Naturally  the  section  of  this  book  on  the  construction 
of  aerial  lines,  occupying  three  chapters,  is  the  most 
valuable  and  complete,  since  these  circuits  are  the  ones 
most  carefully  studied  by  the  telephone  engineer.  The 
lines  of  the  American  Bell  Telephone  Company  through- 
out the  country  are  undoubtedly  the  best  constructed 
of  any  system  of  transmission  lines,  and,  although  Mr. 
Abbott  gives  us  complete  information  concerning  the 
general  subject  of  line  guying,  and  the  construction  of 
poles  for  carrying  great  loads,  and  for  standing  the  ex- 
cessive strains  applied  to  anchor  poles,  we  search  in  vain 
for  the  consideration  which  has  led  the  telephone  com- 
pany to  adopt  their  system  of  construction,  which  in- 
cludes extra  braces  for  cross  arms,  and  a  complicated 
system  of  guying  in  the  direction  of  the  line  itself,  iu  ad- 
dition to  the  very  complete  system  of  side  guys  em- 
ployed. The  section  devoted  to  the  construction  of 
electric  railway  circuits  is  more  complete,  including  as  it 
does  the  return  circuit  with  an  extensive  discussion  of 
the  rail  bonding  question  and  electrolysis.  Throughout 
the  book  there  are  a  great  number  of  different  tables, 
some  of  which  have  been  calculated  by  the  author  from 
well-established  data,  while  others  represent  experimen- 
tal results  obtained  by  various  investigators,  and  while 
there  is  no  doubt  of  the  usefulness  of  these  tables  and 
their  general  reliability,  it  seems  unfortunate  that  in  so 
few  cases  are  the  authorities  for  the  tables  given,  which 
leaves  the  reader  in  consequent  doubt  as  to  whether  the 
tables  are  due  to  the  author's  own  investigations,  or  to 
those  of  others  working  in  the  same  line.  This  is  par- 
ticularly uufortuuate  when  we  find  that  in  some  cases 
doubtful  constants  have  been  used,  such  as  the  conduc- 
tivities in  tables  Nos.  3  and  7,  where  undoubtedly  the 
published  reports  of  manufacturing  companies  have 
been  accepted  as  accurate  without  sufficient  justification. 

In  his  discussion  of  wire  gauge  he  states  that  the 
Brown  and  Sharp  gauge  has  been  accepted  as  the  stand- 
ard for  this  country,  but  at  the  same  time  his  tables  for 
iron  wire  refer  to  the  Imperial  Standard  gauge,  which, 
so  far  as  we  are  aware,  has  not  been  used  to  any  extent 
by  either  our  manufacturers  or  constructors.  Some  of 
the  tables  are  also  presented  without  accurate  data  or 
formula  for  their  verification  or  extension,  which  is  in 
many  cases  decidedly  important,  as,  for  instance,  the 
table  on  page  453,  purporting  to  give  the  areas  given, 
covered  by  multiple  wire  systems,  conforms  neither  to 
the  indefinite  formula  which  is  given,  from  which  it  is 
supposed  to  have  been  computed,  nor  to  any  one  of  the 
well-established  methods  of  obtaining  the  results  given. 
Again,  we  find  in  table  No.  55  the  statements  of  the 
relative  amounts  of  conducting  material  required  in 
various  conducting  systems  where  continuous  and  multi- 
phase alternating  systems  are  employed,  but  no  method 
is  given  by  which  the  table  may  be  verified,  or  by  which 
the  engineer  can  obtain  for  himself  the  size  of  conduct- 
ors necessary  to  carry  a  definite  current  on  the  multi- 
phase systems.  Where  curves  and  tables  of  cost  are 
furnished,  we  notice  that  they  refer  more  particularly  to 
European  practice,  and,  in  consequence,  the  data  given 
is  of  comparatively  little  value  to  American  engineers, 
especially  as  no  general  method  is  indicated  whereby 
the  tables  may  be  corrected  in  order  to  conform  with 
our  practice. 

The  same  criticism  that  the  book  conforms  more  nearly 
to  English  practice  than  that  which  is  in  vogue  in  this 
country  may  be  applied  to  the  chapter  on  underground 
lines.  An  explanation  of  this  may  be,  perhaps,  found  in 
the  statement  made  in  the  preface  of  the  book  that  the 
object  aimed  at  is  to  make  the  statements  throughout 
correspond  more  nearly  to  the  future  direction  of  prac- 
tice than  to  a  historical  exposition  of  what  has  been 
done,  but  where  so  important  a  matter  as  the  construe- 



[Vol.  I,  No.  5. 

tion  of  underground  conduits  is  to  be  undertaken,  the 
engineer  would  hardly  be  justified  in  following  the  lines 
laid  down  as  typifying  European  practice  in  the  Crornp- 
ton,  Calender-Weber  and  other  such  systems,  without 
the  aid  of  a  more  definite  expression  of  opinion  and  the 
results  of  experience  than  are  given  in  this  book,  espec- 
ially since  the  descriptions  seem  to  have  been  taken 
from  the  publication  called  "  Practical  Electrical  Engi- 
neering," rather  than  described  from  personal  observa- 

Two  long  chapters  are  devoted  to  a  description  of  in- 
struments, and  to  an  exposition  of  the  practical  methods 
of  electrical  measurement,  while  the  only  reason  that 
can  be  discerned  for  their  insertion  is  that  the  methods 
explained  conform  more  nearly  to  engineering  practice 
than  to  those  of  the  laboratory  ;  and,  although  there  can 
be  no  doubt  but  that  there  is  a  need  for  such  treatment 
of  this  subject,  it  is  to  be  very  much  questioned  whether 
the  exposition  occurs  properly  in  this  book,  since  the 
presence  of  these  chapters  must  have  added  to  the  cost 
of  publication,  and  the  matter  published  is  less  than  is 

has  been  closely  followed  without  any  marked  exten- 
sions of  the  methods  and  results  there  given,  except  in 
the  case  where  the  treatment  of  the  calculation  for  the 
most  economical  conductor  in  any  given  transmission  is 
furnished.  While  following  closely  the  lines  laid  down 
by  the  English  author,  he  has  succeeded  in  giving  an  in- 
telligible exposition  of  the  subject,  which  was  decidedly 
lacking  in  the  English  treatise.  The  methods  explained 
for  the  calculations  of  mains  and  feed  wires  in  any  sys- 
tem follow  closely  those  explained  in  the  work  above 
mentioned,  and  it  seems  surprising  that  Mr.  Abbott  has 
not  distinguished  between  circuits  when  lights  are  all  on 
or  all  off  at  one  time,  and  circuits  on  which  the  lights 
are  altogether  independent,  especially  since  the  distinc- 
tion between  these  cases  has  beeu  carefully  made  by 
Carl  Hering  in  his  book,  the  "  Wiring  Computer."  One 
is  compelled  to  feel  on  reading  this  book  that  while  un- 
doubtedly an  authority  on  certain  subjects,  Mr.  Abbott 
has  presented  to  us  a  great  deal  of  undigested  matter, 
and  has  limited  his  discussion  of  the  subjects  with  which 
he  is  thoroughly  conversant  on  account  of  lack  of  space. 

Handling  a  Heavy  Cable. 

required  by  the  engineer  in  all  of  his  every-day  meas- 
urements. It  seems  to  us  that  it  would  have  been  much 
better  if  this  section  had  been  reserved  for  a  more  com- 
plete treatment  in  a  separate  treatise,  especially  as  the 
subject  matter  given  by  Abbott  has  already  been  pre- 
sented by  Park  Benjamin  in  his  book  on  the  Voltaic 

We  have  already  alluded  to  the  lack  of  information 
necessary  to  calculate  alternate  current  lines,  and  this 
lack  is  more  apparent  when  we  find  that  a  chapter  has 
been  devoted  to  the  expression  of  the  theory  of  alternate 
currents  following  closely  the  lines  of  Bedell  and  Crehore, 
but  not  advancing  in  any  particular  way  beyond  the 
theoretical  elements  laid  down  by  those  authors.  The 
same  matter  might  have  been  explained  much  more  in- 
telligently had  the  method  of  Steinmetz's  Graphical  An- 
alysis been  followed,  which  would  have  allowed  its  ex- 
tension to  practical  calculations.  The  section  devoted 
to  the  calculation  of  lines  for  both  series  and  parallel 
distribution  is  the  most  complete  that  has  been  given  in 
any  American  book,  but  the  method  of  the  author  in  the 
work  already  noted,  "  Practical  Electrical  Engineering," 

As  we  have  already  said,  the  subject  of  aerial  lines  has 
been  thoroughly  and  well  treated  so  far  as  the  treatment 
goes,  and  that  the  subject  of  electric  railroad  circuits  has 
been  well  covered,  and  that,  although  the  careful  col- 
lection of  matter  contained  in  this  book  is  an  exceed- 
ingly valuable  thing  to  all  engineers,  we  feel  disposed  to 
express  disappointment  that  one  who  is  so  competent  an 
authority  has  not  given  a  fuller  expression  of  opinion  on 
those  subjects  covered  by  his  experience. 


The  electrolytic  separation  of  metals  from  their  ores 
is  accomplished  by  first  reducing  the  crude  ore  chemi- 
cally to  salts  capable  of  being  electrolyzed.  Different 
salts  of  the  same  metal,  treated  by  different  methods, 
yield  to  electrolysis  with  different  degrees  of  facility,  and 
produce  the  metal  with  varying  degrees  of  purity,  and  in 
variable  quantity  with  the  same  current.  On  the  nature 
of  the  preliminary  process,  therefore,  depends  the  suc- 
cess or  failure  of  the  results.  Among  the  various  ores 
reduced  in  this  manner  are  zinc,  lead,  copper,  silver, 
gold,  aluminum,  sodium  and  magnesium. 







The  sub-station  building  of  the  Sacramento 
Electric  Power  and  Light  Company,  corner  of 
Sixth  and  H  streets,  Sacrameuto,  which  was 
only  partially  completed  in  September  last  at 
the  time  of  the  Electric  Carnival,  is  now  finished. 
As  previously  stated,  the  building  is  of  fire-proof 
construction,  and  is  of  practically  three  stories, 
the  basement  being  used  for  storage  purposes, 
the  first  floor  containing  the  three-phase  syn- 
chronous motors  and  the  street  rail  way  generators 
and  arc-lighting  dynamos,  together  with  suites 
of  offices,  while  the  fourth  tioor  contains  the 
step-down  transformer  vaults  and  the  testing 
rooms  and  supply  rooms  and  other  accommoda- 
tions usual  to  central  stations.  On  November 
1st  the  city  service  rendered  from  the  sub-station 
consisted  approximately  of  1500  incandescent 
lamps,  about  100  commercial  arc  lights,  and  650 
horse-power  for  street  railway  uses.  The  com- 
pany has  also  secured  the  city  lighting  contract, 
which  will  call  for  an  additional  100  arc  lamps 
on  December  1st.  Three  or  four  hundred  horse- 
power in  motor  service  is  also  being  delivered. 

The  finishing  of  the  sub-station  and  the  re- 
maining two  penstocks  and  water-wheels  at  the 
Folsom  power-house  practically  marked  the 
completion  of  the  entire  "  Transmission  Plant 
No.  1,"  and  both  of  these  features  are  illustrated 
herewith  as  supplemental  to  the  article  describ- 
ing the  plant  presented  in  the  September  number 
of  The  Journal  of  Electricity. 

The  fact  is  also  announced  that  the  company 
has  placed  on  the  market  its  one  and  one-half 
million  dollars  in  bonds  authorized  two  years 
ago  by  the  stockholders,  and  secured  by  a  deed 

Figures  1  and  2.— The  Sacramento  Electric  Power  and  Light  Company's  Penstocks  at  the 
Folsom  Power  House,  and  the  Sacramento  Sub-station,  respectively. 

of  trust  to  the  California 
Safe  Deposit  and  Trust  Com- 
pany. These  bonds  are  in 
denominations  of  $1000  each, 
and  bear  6  per  cent,  interest. 
Though  issued  in  November, 
1893,  the  managers  of  the  com- 
pany deemed  it  advisable  to 
withhold  the  bonds  from  sale 
until  the  entire  plant  was  com- 
pleted, and  could  demonstrate 
its  ability  to  earn  profits,  and 
none  have  ever  been  sold.  As, 
however,  the  plant  is  now  in 
successful  operation,  and  the 
earnings  have  proved  sufficient 
to  pay  all  the  operating  ex- 
penses and  bond  interest  and 
still  leave  a  handsome  margin 
of  profit  to  the  stockholders, 
application  has  been  made  to 
the  San  Francisco  Stock  and 
Bond  Exchange  to  have  the 
bonds  listed,  and,  after  the 
usual  examination  by  the  Ex- 
ecutive Committee  of  the  Ex- 
change, the  application  was 
granted,  and  the  bonds  were  on 
Nov.  20th  offered  for  sale  for 
the  first  time  at  $104. 

The  statement  of  the  officers 
of  the  company  shows  the  as- 
sets to  be  as  follows  : 



[Vol.  I,  No.  5. 

Hydraulic  works  at  Folsom  (cash  outlay) $  524,837.41 

Convict  labor  performed  by  the  State  for  certain 

rights,  viz :  700,000  working  days  at  $1  per  day 700,000.00 

Sacramento  street  railway  system 610,650.00 

Toboggan  railway  at  East  Park,  Sacramento.  . ......  3,946.00 

Transmission  plant  at  Folsom,  and  transmission  line 

to  Sacramento,  and  buildings  and  lands 496,289.49 

Power  and  distributing  station  at  Sacramento 73,284.40 

Arc  and  incandescent  light  distribution  system  at 

Sacramento 25,000.00 

Total  security  for  bonds $2,434,007.30 

With  no  indebtedness  other  than  the  bond  issue  of  $1 ,500,000.00 

when  the  same  shall  have  been  realized  upon. 

The  gross  annual  income  of  the  company  amounts  to    $212,962.36 

Deducting — 
Operating  expenses  and  maintenance ....  $97,697.11 

Interest  on  $1,500,000  bonds 90,000.00 


Leaves  an  available  surplus  to  the  stockholders  over 

all  expenses  and  fixed  charges $     25,265.25 

The  capacity  of  the  present  generating  plant  at  Folsom 
is  4000  horse-power,  the  transmission  yieldiug  an  effi- 
ciency in  Sacramento  of  3000  horse-power,  of  which  only 
950  horse-power  are  being  now  used  in  producing  the 
income  of  the  company  as  above  shown. 

Contracts  for  additional  power  and  light  are  now  being 
made,  and  when  the  entire  present  generating  capacity 
of  the  company's  "  Transmission  Plant  No.  1  "  is  used, 
the  net  profits  to  the  stockholder,  after  the  payments  of 
all  charges,  including  bond  interest,  sinking  fund  and 
depreciation,  will  be  upwards  of  $125,000  per  annum, 
leaving  out  of  the  question,  at  present,  future  extensions 
of  the  generating  plant  at  Folsom,  which  can  be  effected 
without  any  further  expenditures  on  dam,  headworks  or 


Mr.  S.  Morgan  Smith  of  York,  Pa.,  the  builder  of  the 
well-known  McCormick  Turbine,  is  visiting  San  Francisco. 

Mr.  C.  D.  Crandall,  manager  of  the  Western  Electric 
Co.,  of  Chicago,  who  is  making  a  business  tour  through- 
out the  Pacific  Coast,  is  at  the  Palace  Hotel,  San  Francisco. 

^he  ^rade. 


The  Card  Electric  Company,  of  Mansfield,  Ohio,  has 
recently  brought  out  a  special  piece  of  apparatus  termed 
a  "  mill  motor,"  which  is  illustrated  herewith,  and  which 

Reversible  Mill  Motor. 
Dr.  Thos.  Addison,  manager  of  the  Pacific  Coast  office 
of  the  General  Electric  Company,   has  returned  to  San 
Francisco  after  an  eastern  business  trip  of  several  weeks 

Lundell  Dynamos  for  Gas  Engine  Service. 

is  designed  for  handling,  heavy  machinery  in  rolling 
mills,  foundries  and  other  places  where  a  strong,  simple 
and  serviceable  machine  is  imperative.  As  the  illustra- 
tion shows,  this  motor  is  completely  enclosed,  and  can  be 
used  with  safety  in  places  where  the  open  type  of  motor 
would  soon  be  damaged  from  dust  or  occasional  wetting. 

Particular  attention  is  called  to 
the  method  of  mounting.  The 
front  of  the  motor  is  supported 
on  a  cast-iron  stand,  rigidly  fas- 
tened to  the  bed  plate  of  the 
machine  or  other  foundation, 
with  trunnions  on  each  side  of 
the  upper  part  taking  through 
suite  bearings  on  the  motor  case, 
forming  a  pivot  for  the  motor 
to  swing  on.  The  rear  part  of 
the  motor  is  supported  on  springs 
at  each  side,  with  springs  above, 
held  in  compression  by  bolts 
through  the  pedestals,  which 
support  them,  and  which  are  also 
fastened  to  the  bed  plate.  The 
object  of  this  arrangement  isto 
provide  a  flexible  support  for 
the  motor,  and  a  cushion  for 
the  gearing  when  heavy  loads 
are  thrown  on  the  motor  or  the 
direction  of  rotation  is  suddenly 
reversed.  In  practice  it  has 
been  found  to  work  admirably, 
and,  in  addition  to  saving  the 
gears,  gives  the  motor  a  notice- 
able advantage  in  starting  heavy 
loads  at  slow  speed.  Where  the 
conditions  are  such  that  the  spring  suspension  is  not 
advisable,  brackets  are  provided  on  the  motor  for  bolting 
to  the  bed  plate  or  foundation,  rigidly. 

The  "  reversible  mill  motor  "  when  used  with  a  suit- 

Nov.,  1895.] 



able  controller  and  current  regulator  makes  a  very  de- 
sirable outfit  for  operating  cranes,  turn-bridges,  hoists, 
bending  rolls  and  other  kinds  of  machinery  which  require 
various  speeds  in  either  direction.  The  motors  are  made 
in  20,  25,  30,  35  and  40  horse-power  sizes,  and  are  han- 
dled by  the  Sterling  Electric  Supply  Company,  Pacific 
Coast  agents,  San  Francisco. 

eral  offices  of  the  company,  and,  in  addition,  has  rented 
the  basement  of  the  building,  to  be  used  as  warerooms. 
Many  car-loads  of  electrical  appliances  of  every  descrip- 


The  street  railway  manager  whose  ties  on  country  di- 
visions are  cut  by  rail  flanges  or  weakened  by  frequent 
spiking,  and  who  has  found  no  satisfaction  or  adequate 
prevention  of  these  and  similar  troubles,  will  be  pleased 
to  learn  of  the  remarkable  success  being  achieved  with 
the  Servis  Tie-plate  on  electric  lines.  These  simple  ap- 
pliances, which  are  used  in  numberless  quantities  on 
steam  roads,  have  only  recently  been  introduced  for  serv- 
ice on  electric  lines,  but  sufficient  experience  has  already 
been  had  to  demonstrate  that  with  these  tie  plates,  even 
under  the  heaviest  traffic,  the  full  life  of  the  tie  is  se- 
cured, viz.:  cedar,  twelve  years  and  upward  ;  black  and 
red  cypress,  fifteen  years  and  upward  ;  redwood,  twenty 
years  and  upward.  Even  in  the  busy  yards  of  steam 
roads,  under  constant  and  heaviest  traffic,  ties  have  their 
period  of  usefulness  exteuded  from  two  to  eight  years 
and  upward,  according  to  the  quality  of  the  timber. 

As  shown  iu  the  accompanying  illustration,  the 
Servis  Tie-plate  simply  consists  of  a  plate  of  cast  iron, 
ribbed  on  one  side,  and  varying  iu  width  from  3|  inches 
to  6  inches.  The  plates  are_placed  upon  the  tie  with  their 
ribs  running  parallel  with  the  grain  of  the  wood,  and 
the  flanges  are  driven  into  the  tie  when  first  applied,  but 
after  short  service  the  fibre  of  the  tie  is  compressed,  its 
upper  surface  is  forced  down  to  the  plane  of  the  surface 
of  the  tie,  and  a  perfect  union  of  the  plate  and  tie  thus 
occurs.  Marked  economy,  not  only  in  the  life  of  the  tie, 
but  in  preventing  spreading  of  rails  or  widening  of 
gauge,  in  breaking  ties  and  rails,  and  in  breaking  wheels, 
occurs,  in  addition  to  which  the  tie  plate  even  tends 
to  hold  broken  rails  securely  in  place  under  moving 

Interesting  literature  concerning  "Proofs  of  Servis  '  may 
be  obtained  from  C.  B.  Kaufman  &  Co.,  525  Mission 
street,  San  Francisco,  Pacific  coast  agents  for  the  Q.  & 
C.  Co.  of  Chicago. 


The  San  Francisco  office  of  the  Westinghouse  Electric 
and  Manfacturing  Company  is  moving  from  the  sixth 

Tie  Plates  on  Electric  Railways. 

floor  of  the  Mills  Building  to  the  large  and  commodious 
suite  of  offices  on  the  southeast  corner  of  the  ground 
floor  of  the  same  building,  which  will  constitute  the  gen- 

Some  Products .  of  the  San  Francisco  Works  of  the 
Washburn  &  Moen  Mfg.  Co. 

tion  are  being  stored  there,  and  hereafter  the  company 
will  be  able  to  furnish  electric  lighting,  railway  or  trans- 
mission apparatus  of  almost  every  description,  together 
with  the  usual  central  station  supplies,  without  delay 
from  its  San  Francisco  office  on  the  shortest  notice. 


One  of  the  first  products  of  the  San  Francisco  Works 
of  the  Washburn  &  Moen  Manufacturing  Company  is  the 
heavy  cable  manufactured  for  the  Market  Street  Railway 
Company,  and  which  is  illustrated  on  page  122.  This 
cable  is  31,000  feet  in  length,  is  of  1^  inches  in  diameter, 
weighs,  including  reel  and  truck,  130,000  pounds,  and, 
as  shown,  required  fifty-six  truck  horses  to  haul  it. 
Another  almost  equally  heavy  cable,  30,000  feet  in  length, 
has  recently  been  shipped  to  the  Front  Street  Cable  Rail- 
way Company  of  Seattle,  Wash. 


Herewith  is  illustrated  a  modification  of  the  well- 
known  Lundell  generator  as  constructed  for  service  in 
isolated  lighting  when  the  motive  power  is  furnished  by 
a. gas  engine.  Great  improvements  have  been  made  in 
the  last  few  years  in  gas  engines,  but  up  to  this  date  no  gas 
engine  above  5-horse  power  has  been  available,  it  is  said, 
that  could  be  relied  upon  to  operate  at  uniform  speed. 
Iu  order  to  provide  for  absolutely  uniform  electro-mo- 
tive force,  or,  in  other  words,  uniform  incandescence  of 
electric  lamps  in  such  a  plant,  the  Interior  Conduit  and 
Insulator  Co.  has  built  a  special  generator  which  carries, 
in  addition  to  the  belt  pulley,  a  fly  wheel  of  heavy  rim 
weight.  In  this  fly  wheel  is  stored  up  sufficient  energy  to 
compensate  for  the  slight  inherent  irregularities  in  the 
speed  of  the  gas  engine.  It  will  be  observed  that  extra  care 
has  been  taken  in  furnishing  substantial  pedestals,  heavy 
shaft,  and  modern  self-aligning  and  self-oiling  bearings. 
The  efficiency  of  the  dynamos  is  from  86  per  cent,  for  the 
small  machines  to  95  per  cent,  for  the  largest  machines. 



[Vol.  I,  No.  5. 




Thus  far  the  trolley  wire,  languidly  drooping  earthward,  has  ex- 
ercised a  nice  discretion,  killing  only  its  natural  enemy,  the  horse. 
But  there  are  many  people  on  earth,  and  even  a  trolley  wire  may 
be  indiscreet.— San  Francisco  Examiner. 

The  evidence  that  trees  have  been  killed  by  electricity  has 
been  furnished  by  the  fact  that  in  numberless  instances  the  trees 
through  which  electric  light  wires  pass  died  in  an  hour  during  a 
storm,  while  those  standing  a  few  feet  from  the  wires  were  un- 
injured. These  results  will  raise  the  question  as  to  the  liability 
of  electric  light  companies  for  the  damage  caused  by  the  killing 
of  shade  trees.— San  Mateo  (Cal.)  Leader. 

The  great  possibilities  for  electrical  power  under  the  Southern 
California  Mountain  "Water  Company's  system  is  not  generally 
known  by  the  people  at  large.  Recent  estimates  show  that,  in 
the  2000  feet  fall  of  500  inches  of  Pine  Creek  above  Barrett  dam, 
1600  horse  power  can  be  developed,  and  that,  in  the  1600  foot  fall 
of  1500  inches  from  Cottonwood  Creek,  4300  horse-power  can  be 
developed,  while  between  Barrett  dam  and  the  city,  2200  horse- 
power can  be  developed.— San  Diego  (Cal.)  Union. 

Electricity  is  the  coming  power  for  manufacturing,  transporta- 
tion and  lighting  purposes,  and  the  problem  is  how  and  where  to 
secure  it  best  and  cheapest.  San  Bernardino  will  soon  want 
power  for  electric  cars  and  for  motive  power  in  shops  and  manu- 
factories, and  it  is  well  to  look  after  the  supply,  or,  large  as  it  is, 
it  may  be  too  late  to  secure  it  advantageously  when  wanted. 
There  seems  an  almost  inexhaustible  power  for  the  production  of 
electricity  in  our  mountain  streams,  but  it  is  being  secured  and 
utilized,  and  when  a  large  supply  is  needed  for  San  Bernardino, 
it  may  be  too  late. — San  Bernardino  (Cal.)  Sun. 

The  discovery  of  acetylene  may  serve  as  a  reminder  that  the 
gentlemen  who  covered  many  pages  of  magazines  and  so  many 
columns  of  newspapers  demonstrating  the  certainty  of  the  failure 
of  the  oil  and  coal  fields,  and  bewailing  the  fate  of  the  race  when 
this  day  came,  were  wasting  their  time.  Electricity,  the  devel- 
opment of  water  powers  that  electricity  has  made  available,  the 
discovery  of  acetylene,  and  the  probable  discovery  of  agents  even 
more  valuable,  make  it  likely  that  coal  and  oil  will  be  displaced 
from  use  or  relegated  to  an  unimportant  position  long  before  the 
supply  of  these  products  in  the  earth's  treasuries  have  come  to 
an  end.  It  is  just  as  well  to  avoid  crossing  bridges  before  we  get 
to  them,  and  we  need  not  despair  of  the  future  of  the  race  till  the 
catastrophe  that  may  threaten  it  has  actually  come.  The  re- 
sources of  the  future  may  not  be  inexhaustible,  but  they  are  be- 
yond the  reasoning  of  the  finite  mind. — San  Francisco  Chronicle. 

It  is  quite  common  to  hear  of  irrigation  works  being  utilized  for 
the  generation  of  electric  power.  In  all  parts  of  this  State  where 
large  dams  have  been  constructed  or  are  being  constructed 
or  projected  for  irrigation  purposes,  the  people  are  contemplating 
the  establishment  of  manufacturing  plants  to  be  operated  by 
electricity  generated  by  the  water  power  developed  at  the  dams. 
The  water  power  at  La  Grange  developed  by  the  dam  of  the 
Turlock  and  Modesto  Irrigation  district,  which  dam  cost  $650,000, 
and  is  the  highest  in  the  world,  is  to  be  utilized  in  this  way.  A 
combined  power  and  irrigation  company  has  recently  been  or- 
ganized at  Kaweah,  and  every  day  brings  news  of  similar  enter- 
prises in  other  parts  of  the  State.  The  effects  of  this  union  of 
irrigation  and  electric  power  plants  is  sure  to  be  highly  beneficial 
to  the  public.  The  capital  invested  primarily  for  irrigation  pur- 
poses will  be  earning  interest  in  two  directions.  This  will  result 
in  making  both  irrigation  and  electric  power  cheaper  to  the  con- 

sumer than  either  would  be  without  the  other.  Another  good 
effect  will  be  that  irrigation  projects,  which  would  not  be  under- 
taken on  account  of  the  expense  or  of  the  small  area  to  be  accom- 
modated, can  be  made  protfiable  by  using  the  water  for  the 
generation  of  electric  power.  We  have  no  doubt  that  this  will 
cause  the  development  of  vast  agricultural  areas,  which  would 
otherwise  have  remained  arid  and  unproductive.  The  use  of 
water  for  irrigation  and  motive  power  will  thus  make  deserts  to 
blossom  as  the  rose,  and  convert  dry  pasture  lands  into  rich 
farming  communities  dotted  with  towns  and  villages,  vocal  witli 
the  hum  of  machinery  and  the  songs  of  prosperous  artisans.  It 
is  usual  to  speak  of  Santa  Cruz  County  as  being  in  no  need  of  irri- 
gation. This  is  true,  comparatively  speaking.  Our  county  is  not 
subject  to  the  drouths  which  afflht  other  portions  of  the  State. 
But  irrigation  would  pay  even  in  Santa  Cruz.  A  glance  at  the 
market  gardens  of  Chinese  and  Italians  in  this  vicinity  will  con- 
vince any  observer  of  the  truth  of  this  proposition.  There  are 
scores  of  small  valleys  and  mesas  in  the  county,  which  might  be 
bearing  three  luxuriant  crops  a  year  instead  of  one  crop  as  at 
present.  All  that  is  needed  to  treble  or  quadruple  the  productive 
capacity  of  large  Santa  Cruz  areas  is  to  spread  upon  them  some 
of  the  liquid  treasures  of  the  mountain  streams  that  go  idly  to 
the  sea.  These  streams  should  be  utilized  for  irrigation  and  elec- 
tric power.  Santa  Cruz  should  not  be  behind  in  the  procession, 
which  is  moving  on  towards  wealth  and  prosperity  in  other  parts 
of  the  State  under  the  combined  banners  of  irrigation  and  electric 
power. — Santa  Cruz  (Cal.)  Sentinel. 


Oakland,  Cal. — The  Electric  Specialties  Co.  has  adopted  the 
novel  means  of  advertising  of  giving  evening  street  lectures  on 

Yokohama,  Japan. — A  double  nozzle  six-foot,  150-horse-power 
Pelton  wheel,  to  run  under  120-foot  head,  is  being  installed  in  the 
silk  weaving  mill. 

Salt  Lake  City,  Utah. — F.  M.  Ulmer  is  experimenting  at  the 
Ontario  mine  with  an  electrical  device  designed  to  save  quicksil- 
ver and  all  other  free  metals  in  tailings. 

Blue  Lakes,  Idaho. — I.  B.  Perrine  proposes  to  construct  a 
dryer  for  evaporating  fruit,  in  which  electricity,  presumably  to 
be  generated  at  Shoshone  Falls,  will  be  used  to  generate  heat. 

Reno,  Nev. — A  quarterly  license,  ranging  from  $25  on  corpora- 
tions whose  monthly  receipts  equal  or  exceed  $10,000  down  to  $10 
on  corporations  whose  monthly  receipts  are  between  $1,000  and 
$2,000,  has  been  levied  upon  the  water,  gas  and  electric  lighting 
industries  of  this  city. 

Stockton,  Cal. — The  estimated  steam  power  consumption  in 
this  city  is  approximately  1750-horse-power,  apportioned  princi- 
pally as  follows:  The  Sperry  and  Crown  flour  mills  about  450- 
horse-power  each,  the  Union  Mill  about  300-horse-power,  and  the 
Gas  Company  about  350-horse-power,  the  present  cost  of  same 
being  about  five  dollars  per  horse-power  per  month. 

San  Francisco,  Cal.— The  Electrical  Engineering  Company 
reports  the  sale  of  two  direct-connected  double  worm  gear  electric 
passenger  elevators,  to  be  used  in  Dr.  Hertzstein's  office  building 
and  hospital,  and  one  high-speed  electric  elevator  to  be  used  in 
the  new  Cliff  House.     This  latter  elevator  will  have  a  travel  of 

125  feet,  which  is  the  highest  in  the  city. W.  P.  Freeman  of 

Boston  proposes  to  establish  a  factory  for  the  manufacture  of  rub- 
ber and  electrical  appliances. The  Safety   Electric  Elevator 

Company  has  been  incorporated  by  J.   W.  Gentry  and  others. 

Capital  stock,  $100,000. Among  the  recent  installations  made 

by  the  Girard  Water  Wheel  Company  are  the  following :  A  50- 
horse-power  Girard  wheel  for  the  Channel  Bend  Mining  Company 
near  Volcanoville,  Cal.,  and  a  200-horse-power  Girard  wheel  for 

the  Ontario  Electric  Company  of  Ontario,  Cal. H.  A.  Russell, 

late  manager  of  the  Pacific  Coast  office  of  the  Westinghouse  Elec- 
tric and  Manufacturing  Company,  has  accepted  the  selling  agency 
of  the  General  Electric  Company. 

Nov.,  1895.] 



Reports  of  the  Jffonth, 



San  Fhancisco,  Cal. — The  Superior  Court  has  decided,  in  the 
suit  of  Lucien  Spencer  vs.  The  Market  Street  Kail  way  Company 
for  $25,000  damages  for  personal  injuries,  that  a  street  railway 
company  is  not  liahle  for  injuries  sustained  by  a  person  who  has 
been  pushed  off  a  car  by  some  one  other  than  an  employee. 

Spokane,  Wash.  —Judge  Moore  has  decided  that  the  original 
franchise  of  the  Union  Light  and  Power  Company  has  expired 
by  reason  of  failure  to  begin  operations  in  good  faith  within  the 
time  specified,  or  within  a  reasonable  length  of  time.  An  in- 
junction preventing  the  Chief  of  Police  from  removing  poles  that 
have  been  erected  was  therefore  denied. 

Sacramento,  Cat,.— The  Western  Electric  Company  lias  brought 
suit  in  the  United  States  Circuit  Court  against  the  Capital  Tele- 
phone and  Telegraph  Company  for  alleged  infringement  of  Leroy 
B.  Firman's  patent  No.  252,576,  dated  Januaiy  17,  1882,  on  mul- 
tiple switchboards,  and  on  the  Watson  patent,  No.  270,582,  of  Jan- 
uary 9th,  1883. Judge  Catlin,  of  the  Superior  Court,  has  issued 

a  peremptory  writ  of  mandate  commanding  the  Central  Electric 
Railway  to  sell  and  supply  to  E.  W.  Hale  et  al.,  petitioners,  such 
school  passes  as  the  petitioners  may  require  to  furnish  its  cus- 
tomers. This  the  railway  company  had  refused  to  do  because  of 
a  contract  previously  entered  into  with  another  business  firm,  as 
a  result  of  which  Hale  Bros.  &  Co.  were  prevented  from  receiv- 
ing  such    passes. Allen  L.   Clare  has  sued  the  Sacramento 

Power  &  Light  Co.  for  $50,150  damages  and  costs  for  personal  in- 
juries alleged  to  have  been  received  from  a  charged  guy  wire. 


Stockton,  Cal. — The  Gamewell  Co.  has  sold  to  thecity  twelve 
Standard  Gardner  boxes,  and  three  15  inch  combined  gongs  and 

Los  Angeles,  Cal. — The  Board  of  Public  Works  has  recom- 
mended that  the'  bids  of  Herman  de  Laguna  for  $333.00  for  a  tele- 
phone franchise  be  accepted. 

Tulare,  Cal. — Seven  Excelsior  Gamewell  boxes,  together  with 
a  tower-bell  and  other  Game-well  apparatus,  constitute  the  new 
fire-alarm  system  recently  installed. 

Santa  Barbara,  Cal. — The  fire-alarm  system  has  been  in- 
creased by  the  addition  of  eight  non-interfering  Gamewell  boxes, 
one  bell-striker,  one  combined  gong  and  indicator,  and  four  miles 
of  circuit,  all  of  the  Gamewell  system. 

Eureka,  Cal.— The  John  Vance  Mill  and  Lumber  Company 
has  secured  the  privilege  of  laying  and  maintaining  a  submarine 
telephone  cable  from  Eureka  to  the  Samoa  Mill,  via  Woodley  and 
the  Gunther  Islands,  across  the  intervening  channel. 

San  Jose,  Cal. — The  People's  Telephone  and  Telegraph  Com- 
pany has  been  incorporated  for  the  purpose  of  building  a  tele- 
phone system  in  this  city,  to  work  in  conjunction  with  the  out- 
side lines  of  of  the  California  Telephone  and  Construction  Com- 

Portland,  Or. — The  Oregon  Electrical  Construction  Company 
has  been  incorporated  to  build  and  operate  telephone  and  tele- 
graph lines  and  branch  lines  between  Portland  and  Astoria.  Cap- 
ital, $20,000;  incorporators,  G.  F.  Huesner,  F.  C.  Miller  and  J. 
S.  Urquhart. 

Tucson,  Ariz. — Chas.  F.  Hoff  proposes  to  install  a  telephone 
system  at  Nogales  and  Tucson  this  winter,  and  will  endeavor  to 
connect  Phcenix  with  Prescott  and  later  extend  to  Flagstaff,  after 
which  he  will  work  the  other  way,  from  Tucson  to  Oracle,  thence 
to  Mammoth,  Florence  and  Mesa,  making  a  continuous  line  from 
Nogales  to  Flagstaff. 

Phoenix,  Ariz.— The  Five  Points  Street  Railway  Company  pro- 
poses to  substitute  electric  for  mule  power,  and  to  extend  its  sys- 
tem to  Alhambra  and  Glendale. 

San  Jose,  Cal  —The  Board  of  Trade  has  pledged  itself  to  use 
its  best  endeavors  to  raise  $50,000  towards  the  construction  of  the 
San  Jose  and  Saratoga  Electric  road. 

Santa  Cruz,  Cal.— The  Electric  Railway  Company  denies  the 
report  that  it  will  install  a  power  plant,  as  it  is  under  contract  to 
buy  power  from  the  El'  ctric  Light  Company  until  next  Sep- 

Vancouver,  Wash.— An  electric  road  to  cost  $200,000  is  pro- 
jected to  run  from  this  city  through  Fruit  Valley  to  some  point 
on  Vancouver  Lake  or.  Salmon  Creek. 

Stockon,  Cal.— James  A.  Louttit  states  that  work  on  "the 
Stockton  and  Lodi  Terminal  Railway  will  probably  be  resumed 
soon,  and  that  the  change  in  the  proposed  motive  power  from 
steam  to  electricity  is  contemplated. 

Sacramento,  Cal. — The  Chamber  of  Commerce  has  appointed 
a  committee  to  call  on  the  contestants  along  the  line  of  the  pro- 
posed Orangevale  and  Sunset  Colony  Electric  Railroad,  and  en- 
deavor to  remove  the  temporary  obstacles  in  the  way  of  at  once 
starting  the  work. 

Santa  Monica,  Cal.— The  Pasadena  and  Pacific  Electric  Railway 
Company  proposes  to  build  a  branch  line  on  Oregon  Avenue,  from 

Ocean  Avenue  to  Twenty-seventh  street. The  first  section  of 

the  Los  Angeles  and  Pacific  Electric  Road  is  completed  to  the 
Junction,  and  is  in  operation. 

Oakland,  Cal. — The  San  Pablo  Avenue  Cable  Line  is  to  be 
changed  to  an  electric  system  next  year,  when  it  will  be  extended 
from  Emeryville  along  San  Pablo  avenue  to  West  Berkeley,  with 
a  loop  from  the  main  line  to  the  present  terminus  of  the  Tele- 
graph avenue  system  at  the  University.  Power  will  be  taken 
from  the  Temescal  power-house. 

Seattle,  Wash. — The  Front  Street  Cable  Railway  Company 
has  received  from  Washburn  &  Moen  a  l>8-inch  cable  30,000  feet 
in  length.  This  cable  was  made  in  San  Francisco,  and  was  shipped 
by  rail,  as  it  was  too  heavy  to  handle  by  water. L.  H.  Grif- 
fith, of  this  city,  left  for  Central  America  October  30th,  where  he 
expects  to  build  an  electric  railway. 

Santa  Barbara,  Cal. — The  first  spike  in  the  new  line  of  the 
Santa  Barbara  Consolidated  Electric  Railway  system  was  driven 

by  Mr.  A.  Hope-Doeg  on  October  11th The  Consolidated  Co. 

has  completed  arrangements  to  erect  its  power-house  in  Summer- 
land,  and  will  place  therein  a  500-horse-power  engine  and  boiler, 
and  two  75-horse-power  generators. 

Los  Angeles,  Cal. — W.  D.  Larrabee  has  been  granted  a  special 
franchise  to  construct  and  operate  an  electric  road  for  a  period  of 
twenty-three  months,  from  Fair  Oaks  Avenue,  on  Pasadena  street, 

to  the  Mountain  View  Cemetery,  with  two  branches. Among 

improvements  contemp'ated  by  the  Los  Angeles  Consolidated 
Railway  Company  are  the  equipping  of  the  Boyle  Heights,  East 
Side,  AVest  Lake  and  Grand  Avenue  Cable  Lines  with  electricity, 
and  the  converting  of  the  Central  Avenue  Cable  engine-house  in- 
to an  electric  power-house.  A  1000  horse-power  engine  has  been 
ordered  for  the  latter,  and  bids  are  out  for  a  1200  horse-power  en- 
gine for  the  same  place.    The  company  is  employing  about  600 

men,  400  of  which  operate  the  cars,  etc. The  Boyle  Heights 

and  West  Side  Park  branches  of  the  Los  Angeles  Railway  Com- 
pany will  be  in  operation  by  December. A  bond  has  been  filed 

by  W.  S.  Hook  in  the  sum  of  $10,000  for  the  faithful  carrying  out 
of  the  franchise  granted  him  by  the  Council  for  the  building  of 
an  electric  street  railway  from  the  intersection  of  Freeman  and 
Bush  streets,  southwest  on  Bush  to  Hoover,  thence  south  on 
Hoover  to  Forrester  Avenue. 



[Vol.  I,  No.  5. 


Mesa,  Arizona. — Contractor  Van  Slyke  of  Phienix  is  to  build 
the  Consolidated  Company's  new  power  house. 

Los  Angeles,  Cal. — Ordinance  No.  3151  has  been  passed,  grant- 
ing W.  S.  Hook,  Manager,  a  street  railway  franchise. 

Newcastle,  Cal.— The  pole  line  of  the  South  Yuba  Electric  Co. 
is  being  erected  between  Newcastle  and  Roseville,  and  will  reach 
Sacramento  before  New  Year. 

Lemooke,  Cal.— The  West  Side  Land  and  Canal  Co.  proposes  to 
irrigate  lands  on  the  west  side  of  Kings  River,  raising  the  water 
from  wells  by  means  of  electric  pumping  plants. 

Vancouver,  B.  C— F.  S.  Barnard  has  notified  the  City  Council 
that  he  has  procured  sufficient  English  capital  to  install  a  trans- 
mission plant  for  operating  the  street  railway  and  lighting  sys- 

Tuolumne  County,  Cal. — The  Rawhide  mine  has  ordered  a 
500-horse-power  three-phase  G.  E.  transmission  p.ant,  the  dis- 
tance of  transmission  being  ten  miles,  and  the  generators  to  be 
direct  driven  from  Pelton  wheels. 

Sonora,  Cal.— P.  J.  Sullivan,  Secretary  of  the  Buchanan  Min- 
ing Company,  states  that  the  company  will  build  the  dam  in 
Hunter  Canon,  from  which  ample  power  will  be  derived  to  oper- 
ate the  Buchanan  and  Hunter  mines  by  electric  power. 

City  of  Mexico,  Mexico. — Ramon  Sanchez  has  ordered  a  600 
horse-power  three-phase  transmission  plant  to  be  direct  driven 
from  Pelton  wheels  to  operate  his  paper-mills.  The  order  was 
placed  through  S.  C.  Peck  of  the  International  Thomson-Houston 

Logan,  Utah. — T.  A.  Davis,  promoter  of  the  Hercules  Electric 
Light  Co.,  together  with  P.  M.  Munn  &  Eldon  P.  Bacon,  electri- 
cal engineers,  formerly  of  Telluride,  Colorado,  are  about  to  com- 
mence work  on  the  plan,  which  proposes  to  transmit  1000  electrical 
horse-power  from  the  water-power  of  Logan  Canon,  three  miles 

San  Francisco,  Cal. — The  new  electric  lines  on  Ellis,  O'Far- 
rell,  Devisadero,  Fillmore,  Turk,  Eddy  and  Page  streets  are  now 

in  regular  operation. A  force  of  2000  men  were  put  at  work  on 

the  Ingleside  extension  on  November  1st  in  order  that  the  elec- 
tric road  might  be  completed  to  the  new  race  track  by  Thanks- 
giving Day. 

Sacramento,  Cal. — The  Central  California  Electric  Light  and 
Power  Co.  (The  North  Yuba  Canal  Co.)  has  been  awarded  the 
county  franchise  for  erecting  a  transmission  line  along  the  county 
highways,  between  the  Placer  County  line   near   Antelope   and 

the  city  limits. The  Bee  expresses  the   belief  that  friendly 

relations  exist  between  the  Central  California  Electric  Co.  and 
the  Capital  Gas  Co.,  and  that,  if  the  former  does  not  desire 
to  retail  electric  light  and  power,  its  output  will  probably  be  ac- 
quired by  the  Capital  Gas  Co. 

Fresno,  Cal. — Work  on  the  thirty -five  mile  transmission  plant 
of  the  San  Joaquin  Electric  Company  is  progressing  satisfactorily. 
The  canal  and  flume  are  completed,  the  reservoir  is  well  under 
way,  andfive  carloads  of  copper  wire  is  being  strung.  The  Fresno 
sub-station  is  being  erected  near  the  corner  of  O  and  Fresno 
streets. The  San  Joaquin  Electric  Co.,  which  will  undoubt- 
edly be  in  operation  by  February  1st,  has  thus  far  arranged  to 
supply  power  to  the  Mandary  Planing  Mill,  the  Fresno  Agricul- 
tural Works,  the  Sperry  Flour  Mills  and  the  City  Water  Works. 

Angels,  Cal. — Geo.  W.  McNear  proposes  to  build  a  dam  about 
three  miles  below  Bostwick  Bar  to  develop  about  2000  horse- 
power of  electric  power  for  operating  mines  in  this  vicinity.  The 
Stanislaus  River  at  the  site  of  the  dam  is  155  feet  wide  and  con- 
fined by  cliffs  300  feet  high,  and  40,000  miner's  inches  of  water 
have  been  located.  Henry  L.  Smith  is  to  be  in  charge  of  the  en- 
gineering.  Newspapers    report    that  the    TJtica  mines   have 

contracted  for  a  large  electric  plant  to  furnish  1000  horse-power 
for  running  the  company's  mills.  The  water  wheels  will  be  run 
under  a  head  of  nearly  1700  feet,  and  the  scheme  involves  a  trans- 
mission of  eight  miles  from  Murphy's  Canon  to  Angels. 

Stockton,  Cal. — The  Blue  Lake  Water  Company  is  maturing 
plans  for  installing  an  electric  transmission  from  the  Blue  Lake 
region  down  the  Mokelumne  River  to  Wallace,  and  from  there  on 
to  this  place.  Near  the  Big  Bar  bridge  of  the  Mokelumne  River 
a  fall  of  1043  feet  can  be  developed,  which  is  said  to  be  capable  of  ■ 
generating  50,030  horse-power.  At  the  present,  the  company  is 
taking  water  from  its  reservoirs,  which  is  used  for  mining  pur- 
poses, and,  it  is  stated,  that  there  is  sufficient  water  power  now 
going  to  waste  to  generate  8000  horse-power.  It  is  believed  that 
at  least  2000  horse-power  can  be  used  in  this  city  from  the  outset, 
and  work  will  be  commenced  as  soon  as  sufficient  power  has  been 

contracted  for  to  pay  a  reasonable  return  on  the  investment. 

Still  another  project  for  transmitting  electric  power  to  this  city 
has  been  started,  the  latest  scheme  being  to  utilize  the  water  of 
the  Salt  Spring  Valley  reservoir,  twenty-four  miles  distant.     It  is 

said  that  7000  horse-power  can  be  delivered. Sidney  Newell, 

Jr.,  is  exploiting  an  electric  transmission  project  to  use  the  water 
power  of  the  Blue  Lakes,  forty  miles  distant.  The  installation  of 
two  1000-kilowatt  alternators  is  proposed  at  an  estimated  cost  of 
$164,336,  exclusive  of  buildings,  water-wheel  plant,  water  develop- 
ments or  local  distributing  circuits.  This  project  is  entirely  dis- 
tinct from  the  original  Blue  Lakes  scheme  that  has  long  been  be- 
fore the  public. The  transmission  of  2000  horse-power   from 

Mokelumne  Hill  is  talked  of. 


Tacoma,  Wash. — Since  the  reduction  in  rates  the  business  of 
the  city  lighting  plant  has  been  increased  to  the  fullest  capacity 
of  the  plant,  which  is  5000  incandescents  and  750  arc  lamps. 

San  Bernardino,  Cal. — The  Trustees  have  advertised  for  bids 
for  from  60  to  100  arc  lights,  to_  be  furnished  for  one  year  from 
December  15th,  and  all  bids  to  be  in  by  noon,  December  5th. 

Cathlamet,  Wash. — Will   Smith  expects  to  put  in  an  electric 

light  plant,  to  be  operated  by  water  power  from  Birney  Creek. 

The  Clifton  Cannery  has  been  fitted  up  with  an  electric  light 

San  Pedro,  Cal. — J.  E.  Tult  and  Charles  C. Glass  have  applied 

for  an   electric  lighting    franchise The  Long  Beach  Electric 

Light  Co.,  having  secured  the  city  lighting  franchise,  has  ordered 
a  Corliss  engine  and  dynamo. 

Oakdale,  Cal. — L.  P.  Drexler,  of  San  Francisco,  is  interested 
in  a  project  to  establish  a  light  and  power  plant  for  this  place,  to 
be  operated  by  water  power  taken  from  the  flume  across  the 
Stanislaus  River,  sixty  miles  above. 

Missoula,  Mont. — H.  M.  Byllesby,  President  of  the  Missoula 
Electric  Light  and  Power  Company,  has  arranged  with  the  Bon- 
ner Company  for  improved  facilities  with  which  to  operate  the 
plant,  and  the  work  of  installation  is  progressing  rapidly. 

Modesto,  Cal. — The  Modesto  Gas  Company  has  secured  the 
co  tract  for  street  lighting  for  one  year  from  December  1st  at  the 
rate  of  $3  per  50-candle-power  lamp  per  month,  moonlight  sched- 
ule, and  $4.50  per  50-candle-power  lamp  per  month,  all  night 

Sonora,  Cal. — The  Grant  Bannister  Company  has  bought  the 
electric  lighting  plant  of  the  Sonora  Electric  Light  Company, 
which  will  be  enlarged  by  the  addition  of  a  200-kilowatt  three- 
phase  generator,  and  will  be  moved  about  four  miles  out  of  town, 
where  water  power  is  available. 

Sacramento,  Cal. — The  South  Yuba  Co.  has  been  granted  the 
privilege  to  erect  poles  for  its  proposed  transmission   lines  in 

Sacramento  County. The  annual  contract  for  lighting  the  city 

has  been  awarded  to  the  Sacramento  Electric  Power  &  Light  Co. 
for  $8.75  per  lamp  per  month.  The  former  rate  was  $14.95  per 

Nov.,  1895.] 



Minas  Prietas,  Ariz. — Thomas  Douglas,  of  Pan  Francisco,  lias 
been  appointed  electrician  of  theMinas  Prietas  mills,  mines  and 
telephone  lines. 

Montesano,  Wash. — Albert  Daub  is  to  light  the  city  for  two 
years  in  return  for  electrical  supplies  valued  at  $741,  which  the 
city  has  on  hand. 

Cottage  Grove,  Or. — Mr.  Anderson  is  putting  in  a  plant  for 
city  lighting  in  a  building  adjoining  Stone's  mill,  from  which 
power  will  be  taken. 

Anaconda,  Most. — New  water  wheels,  dynamos,  and  other 
equipments  are  to  be  placed  in  the  plant  of  the  Anaconda  Light 
and  Power  Company. 

Aberdeen-,  Wash. — E.  B.  Benn  and  C.  R.  Green  have  leased 
the  Electric  light  plant  for  one  year,  and  will  inaugurate  needed 
changes  in  the  system. 

Sax  Leaxdro,  Cal. — A  special  election  will  be  held  on  Decem- 
ber 16th  for  the  purpose  of  incurring  an  indebtedness  of  $10,000 
for  an  electric  light  plant. 

Bingham,  Utah. — 0.  B.  Hardy  and  W.  J.  Moorhead  have  re- 
ceived an  electric  franchise  for  operating  a  light  and  power  plant 
in  the  West  Mountain  Mining  district. 

Redwood  City,  Cal. — J.  George  Gardner  is  installing  an  elec- 
tric lighting  plant  here,  and  proposes  to  extend  lighting  cir- 
cuits to  Menlo  Park,  Palo  Alto  and  Woodside. 

Eureka,  Cal. — The  National  Incandescent  Lighting  dynamo 
formerly  used  on  the  Steamer  Humboldt  has  been  taken  from 
the  wreck  of  that  vessel  and  will  be  installed  on  the  steamer  Na- 
tional City. 

Salt  Lake,  Utah. — The  Gas  and  Electric  Light  Company  pro- 
poses to  erect  a  business  block  on  State  street  in  which  will  be 
located  its  offices  and  the  distributing  station  for  the  Big  Cotton- 
wood plant. 

Redwood  City,  Cal. — Chas.  Jones  has  placed  an  isolated  light- 
ing plant  in  his  residence,  consisting  of  a  5-kilowatt  Westing- 
house  multipolar  dynamo  direct,  driven  from  a  small  Pelton 
water-wheel,  operating  under  500-foot  head. 

Riverside,  Cal.— The  Redlands  Electric  Light  and  Power  Co. 
have  contracted  to  furnish  the  city  with  200  horse-power  of  elec- 
tricity for  ten  years  at  $36  per  horse-power  per  year  for  continu- 
ous service,  and  the  amount  of  power  to  be  increased  to  600 
horse-power  when  the  city  may  desire  it. 

Nevada  City,  Cal.— K.  Casper  proposes  to  supplement  the 
present  1000-light  Heisler  incandescent  system  with  a  200-kilo- 
watt  polyphase  generator  for  delivering  light  and  power.  The 
services  of  W.  Stuart-Smith  and  Sidney  Sprout  have  been  re- 
tained as  consulting  and  supervising  engineers. 

Oakland,  Cal.— The  Oakland  Light  and  Motor  Co.  has  elected 
the  following  officers  for  the  coming  year:  Thomas  Addison, 
president ;  W.  S.  Harlow,  vice-president ;  Edward  Barry,  secre- 
tary. The  board  of  directors  consists  of  Thomas  Addison,  F.  F. 
Barbour.  W.  S.  Harlow,  W.  L.  Prather  and  Edward  Barry  ;  super- 
intendent, R.  P.  Valentine. 

Stock rox,  Cal.— The  Stockton  Gas,  Light  and  Heat  Company 
proposes  to  place  a  large  gas  engine  in  its  electric  light  plant,  in 
view  of  which  it  has  entered  into  a  contract  with  Jerome  Haas 
to  sink  a  well  for  natural  gas  at  the  corner  of  Ninth  and  Hunter 
streets. The  Stockton  Gas  and  Electric  Co.  contemplates  man- 
ufacturing ice. 

San  Francisco,  Cal.— The  Pan  Handle  of  Golden  Gate  Park 
has  been  lighted  by  arc  lamps,  as  the  result  of  the  regent  agita- 
tion on  the  subject. The  newspapers  state  that  an  agreement 

has  been  reached  between  the  San  Francisco  Gas  Light  Company 
and  the  Edison  Light  and  Power  Company,  by  which  there  are 
to  be  no  more  hostilities  at  present. 

Salt  Lake  City,  Utah. — The  Salt  Lake  and  Ogden  Company 
has  materially  enlarged  its  plant  by  the  addition  of  new  dynamos 
and  machinery  preparatory  to  meeting  the  competition  of  the 
Citizens'  Electric  Light  Company. The  incandescent  installa- 
tion in  the  Silver  King  Mine  has  been  completed.  A.  V.  Officer 
has  been  appointed  superintendent  of  the  Citizens'  Electric  Light 

Company. A  rate  war  is  in  progress  between  the  Citizens' 

Company  and  the  Salt  Lake  and  Ogden  Company,  as  a  result  of 
which  arc  lights  have  been  put  in  at  $2.50,  where  they  formerly 
brought  $10  50. 

San  Francisco,  Cal. — The  John  M.  Klein's  Electrical  Works 
has  succeeded  W.  J.  O'Connor  to  the  Pacific  Coast  agency  for  the 

Sunbeam  Incandescent  Lamp  Co. The  Mutual  Electric  Light 

Company  has  enlarged  its  plant  by  the  addition  of  a  60-kilowatt 

Westinghouse   alternator. The   contract  for  the   steam    and 

electric  plant  of  the  Parrott  building  has  been  awarded  to  the 
Union  Iron  Works,  which  will  install  six  100-kilowatt  andtwo  30- 
kilowatt,  110  volt  generators,  each  direct  connected  to  a  triple 
expansion  marine  type  engine.  Internal  fired  boilers  are  to  be 
used,  and  the  plant,  which  is  to  be  run  condensing,  is  to  be  wired 
for  320  constant  potential  arcs,  5000  incandescent  and  15  Sprague- 
Pratt  elevator  equipments. 

San  Jose,  Cal. — An  understanding  between  the  Electric  Im- 
provement Company  and  the  San  Jose  Light  and  Power  Company 
is  believed  to  have  been  effected,  though  it  is  denied  by  the  offi- 
cials.  The  Board  of  Trade  has  passed  a  strong  resolution  favor- 
ing municipal  ownership  of  an  electric  lighting  plant,  and  City 
Attorney  W.  B.  Hardy  has  rendered  an  opinion  to  the  Mayor  and 
Common  Council  to  the  effect  that  the  City  has  full  power  to  reg- 
ulate the  price  of  artificial  light.  The  reports  of  combination 
between  the  two  lighting  companies  seem  to  be  confirmed  by  the 
fact  that  the  price  for  arc  lamps  has  been  increased  fifty  cents  per 
week . 

Alameda,  Cal. — It  is  proposed  to  add  a  350-horse-power  com- 
pound condensing  Corliss  engine   and   boilers,   and  a  2500-light 

alternator  to  the   municipal  lighting  plant. Al  V.  Fisher  has 

been  appointed  assistant  engineer  and  collector  of  the  city  light- 
ing plant. The  City  Trustees  have  about   concluded  to  take 

down  the  electric  light  masts. Expert  J.  A.  Sansome  has  ren- 
dered a  report  showing  that  the  cost  of  operating  the  city  electric 
light  plant  for  five  years  ending  March  31,  1895,  to  be  $64,045.67, 
or  $12,809.13  per  year.  The  construction  per  year  is  $3,000,  the 
maintenance  per  year  $9,743;  the  cost  per  lamp  for  90  lamps,  per 
year,  is  $105.25,  and  the  cost  per  lamp,  per  month,  is  $8.25. 

Los  Angeles,  Cal. — W.  B.  Carter  will  place  an  electric  light 
plant  in  the  $15,000  resort  he  proposes  to  erect  at  the  lake  in 

Echo  Park. The  City  Electric  Power  and  Lighting  Company 

proposes  to  furnish  all  city  buildings  with  electric  light  free  of 
charge,  provided  a  special  electric  light  franchise  be  granted  it. 
The  Board  of  Supervisors  has  amended  the  license  ordinance  so 
that  a  tax  of  $15  per  month  shall  be  imposed  on  gas  companies, 
while  the  tax  on  electric  lighting  companies  fhall  be  graduated 
as  follows:  Plants  operating  less  than  500  lights,  $2  per  month  ; 
between  500  and  1000  lights,  $10  per  month;  over  1000  lights,  $15 

per  month. F.N.  Meyers  has  been  elected  President  of  the 

City  Electric  Power  and  Lighting  Co. 

Seattle,  Wash. — A.  L.  Hawley,  assistant  manager,  and  J.  I. 
Robinson,  secretary  of  the  Union  Illuminating  Company,  have 

resigned,  to  take  effect  November  1st. The  combination  that 

has  been  in  existence  for  many  months  between  the  Union  Elec- 
tric Company  and  the  Seattle  Gas  and  Electric  Light  Company, 
which  has  been  operating  as  the  Union  Illuminating  Company, 
has  been  dissolved,  and   its   component   members  are  again  in 

active  competition. F.  H.  Osgood,  A.  L.   Hawley  and  J.  T. 

Robinson  have  submitted  a  tender  to  build  the  city  a  lighting 
plant,  with  poles  or  conduits,  supplying  everything  for  665  incan- 
descent 15-candle-power  lights,  and  81  arcs  of  2000-candle-power 
at  $7.25  per  month  for  the  latter,  and  $1  per  month  for  the  incan- 
descent.   The  city  is  to  purchase  the  plant  in  three  years. 



[Vol.  I,  No.  5. 


Incandescent  Lamp 

-h:  jPls- 


In  Life 
Efficiency  or 
Maintenance  of 
Candle  Power 

In   Points  of 
General — -^ 
Superiority  and 

We  are  always  happy  to  make 
Quotations,  for  our  Prices  if  Prompt- 
ness in  Shipment  Insure  Further 
Orders.  Remember,  too,  that  we 
carry  a  full  line  of  Electric  Railway 

[Jgir  See  Advertisement  Opposite  Page  vi. 

J.  W.  BROOKS  &  CO. 

120  Sutter  Street     =     San  Francisco,  Cal. 


Vol.  I. 

DECEMBER,   1895. 

No.  6. 

£omo  ^osts   of    QfliT  (Compressors. 

By  A.  E.  Chodzko,  M.  E. 

Edward  A.  Rh-    P.  E. 

HE  recent  tests 
made  by  the  military 
authorities  on  the 
dynamite  guns  at 
Fort  Point,  San  Fran- 
cisco, may  lend  some 
interest  to  a  few  par- 
ticulars regarding  air 
compressing  plants, 
which  form  the  vital 
element  of  this  install- 

The  contract  for  the 
construction  of  the 
mechanical  part  of  it, 
with  the  exception  of 
the  guns  and  their 
immediate  fixtures, 
was   awarded   by  the 

Pueumatic  Torpedo  and  Construction  Company  of  New 

York,  and  to  the  Fulton  Engineering  and  Ship  Building 

Works  of  San  Francisco,  upon  the  plans  and  special 

designs  of  Mr.  E.  A.  Eix,  P.  E.,  who 

supervised  the  construction  of  the  plant. 
The  compression  of  air   is  made  in 

three  stages,  from  the  atmosphere  to  the 

working  pressure  of  2,000  lbs.  effective 

per  square  inch.     It  is  performed  in  two 

sets  of    horizontal  engines,   to  both   of 

which   the   subsequent   description   ap- 
plies, they  being  in  all  respects  entirely 

alike.      The  steam  is  supplied  by  four 

boilers,  of  the  horizontal  tubular  type, 

of   750  horse-power  capacity,  arranged 

to   work    either   with   natural   or   with 

forced  draught.     As  will  be  seen  in  the 

annexed  outline  cut    ( Figure  3 ),   two 

steam  cylinders  connected  to  the  same 

shaft   by    cranks    at   an    angle   of    145 

degrees  from  each   other,  each  actuate 

two   air   cylinders    in  tandem,  that  is, 

through    their    piston    tail   rods,    there 

being  on  one  side  one  low  pressure  and 

the  intermediate  or  second  stage  cylinder, 

and  on  the  other  side  one  low  pressure  and  the  high 

pressure  or  finishing  cylinder.     This  duplex  set  therefore 

comprises  two  steam  cylinders  (Figure  4),  operating  two 

Copyrighted  1895,  by  Geo.  P 

intake  cylinders  (Figure  5),  wherein  the  atmospheric  air 
is  compressed  to  about  seventy-five  lbs.  eflective,  to- 
gether with  one  intermediate  cylinder  (Figure  6),  in- 
creasing the  air  pressure  from  seventy-five  to  about  400 
lbs.  effective,  and  one  high  pressure  cylinder  (Figure  7), 
which  takes  the  air  at  400  lbs.  and  compresses  it  to  2,000 
lbs.  effective.  The  intake  or  low  pressure  cylinders  are 
double  acting,  that  is,  they  have  inlet  and  discharge 
valves  at  each  end,  while  the  intermediate  and  high 
pressure  cylinders  are  single  acting,  that  is,  provided 
with  valves  at  one  end  only,  their  pistons  being  plunger 
rams  with  spherical  heads,  connected  to  the  tail  rods  of 
the  intake  cylinders. 

The  special  purpose  which  these  compressors  have  to 
serve  made  their  design  and  construction  subservient  to 
conditions  at  entire  variance  with  the  lines  upon  which 
an  air  compressing  plant  is  usually  established.  The 
main  object  of  the  designer,  when  a  large  power  is  to  be 
used,  as  in  the  case  of  the  Fort  Point  installation,  is 
commonly  to  secure  the  greatest  possible  economy  in  the 
production  of  the  compressed  air.  In  the  present  in- 
stance compound  condensing  engines  of  the  most  ap- 


1 — A  General  View  of  the  Rix  Air  Compressor  Plant. 

proved  type,  and  air  cylinders  working  at  a  moderate 
linear  piston  speed,  would  present  themselves  to  the 
mind  as  advisable.     Such  engines  would  be  established 

Low.    All  Eights  Reserved. 



[Vol.  I,  No.  6. 

in  view  of  a  regular  working  speed,  or  approximately 
so,  and  everything  would  be  provided  to  give  the  eco- 
nomical appliances  a  chance  to  work  to  their  full  ad- 
vantage. At  Fort  Point  the  primary  requirement  was 
to  have  a  plant  as  little  liable  as  possible  to  getting  out 
of  order.  Solidity,  simplicity  and  endurance  were  there- 
fore the  main  points  to  be  considered,  economy  being  a 
desirable  but  decidedly  an   accessory   feature.      Upon 

of  nests  of  copper  pipes  extending  under  the  floor  in 
cemented  trenches,  where  a  stream  of  cold  water  is  con- 
stantly running.  The  proportions  of  these  intercoolers 
have  purposely  been  made  very  ample,  and  their  effect- 
iveness is  fully  demonstrated  by  the  low  temperature  of 
the  air  before  it  enters  the  intermediate  and  the  high 
pressure  cylinders,  which  are  given  hereafter.  A  similar 
cooler  is  provided  for  the  air  at  working  pressure  after 

Figure  2— Elevation  of  the  Rix  Three-Stage  Compressors  for  2,000  lbs.  Pressure. 

these  general  lines,  supplemented  by  conditions  of  ca- 
pacity within  a  given  time,  of  efficiency  in  the  means  of 
cooling  the  air  and  of  practical  effectiveness  of  several 
important  parts,  the  present  plant  was  designed,  built 
and  erected.  The  steam  engines  are  non-condensing 
and  each  cylinder  acts  independently,  that  is,  no  com- 
pounding has  been  adopted.  The  valves  are  provided 
with  Meyers'  cut-off,  regulated  by  hand,  the  governors 
merely  acting  on  the  throttle  in  case  of  racing.  The 
cranks  are  set  at  the  angle  heretofore  indicated,  in  order 
that  the  machine  may  be  balanced  as  nearly  as  possible 
and  yet  the  engines  be  able  to  start  in  any  position. 

In  the  air  cylinders  the  greatest  care  has  been  used  to 
secure  a  cooling  efficiency  as  high  as  possible.  The 
heads  and  the  barrels  of  the  cylinders  are  water-jacketed, 

it  leaves  the  high  pressure  cylinder  and  before  reaching 
the  twenty-four  forged  steel  storage  tubes  which,  through 
a  complete  system  of  pipes  and  manifolds,  and  also  a 
compact  arrangement  of  valves,  can  be  set  in  communica- 
tion with  each  particular  gun,  or  if  so  desired,  with  a 
supplementary  storage  supply  located  iu  the  foundation 
of  the  guns. 

That  the  demand  upon  the  compressors  may  vary  dur- 
ing action  within  widely  distinct  limits  was  exemplified 
by  the  fact  that  while  360  feet  per  minute  is  generally 
considered  as  a  limit  of  piston  velocity  in  water-jacketed 
cylinders,  this  velocity  has  been,  duriug  part  of  the 
trials,  carried  to  563  feet,  or  an  excess  of  fifty-eight  per 
cent.  At  this  high  rate  of  speed  no  undue  heatiug 
could  be  observed  in  the  moving  parts,  and  the  absence 

Figure  3— Ground  Plan  of  Rix  Three-Stage  Compressors  for  2,000  lbs.  Pressure. 

the  water  discharge  pipes  from  the  jackets  being  in  full 
view  and  easily  accessible,  and  the  supply  of  cooling 
water  being  regulated  according  to  its  temperature  at 
the  discharge. 

A  very  elaborate  and  effective  system  of  intercoolers 
has  been  established  between  the  intake  and  inter- 
mediate cylinders,  and  also  between  the  intermediate 
and  high  pressure  cylinders.      These  intercoolers  consist 

of  jarring  and  of  trepidations  was  the  best  evidence  of 
the  remarkable  strength  and  steadiness  of  the  plant.  Of 
course  when  working  at  high  speed,  no  claim  is  nor  could 
be  entertained  to  maintaining  a  satisfactory  cooling  effi- 
ciency in  each  individual  cylinder.  As  before  stated, 
the  intercoolers  are  of  sufficient  size  to  deal  with  the 
heat  liberated  during  the  compression  even  at  high  speed. 
But  when  the  period  of  compression  and  of  course  the 

Dec,  1895.] 



period  of  effective  possible  cooling,  lasts  two-fifteenths  of 
a  second,  the  heat  units  passing  through  the  cylinder 
walls  during  that  time  cannot  be  expected  to  be  many. 
It  might  be  argued  that  the  Riedler  compressors  in  Paris 
work  at  a  nominal.piston  velocity  of  550  feet,  and  occa- 

interesting  evidence  of  the  effectiveness  of  the  inter- 
coolers  and  of  the  regularity  of  the  temperature  of  air 
at  its  entrance  to  each  cylinder.  For  a  range  of  final 
pressures  comprised  between  800  and  2,000  lbs.  effective, 
the  variation  of  temperature  was  only  eight  degrees 
Fahrenheit  for  the  intermediate,  and  three 
degrees  Fahrenheit  for  the  high  pressure 
cylinder,  the  temperature  of  the  engine  room 
being  seventy-five  degrees  Fahrenheit. 

Fahrenheit  Temperature  at 

Gauge  Pressure 
Lbs.  pes  Square  Inch 

Entrance  to 

L.P.  Cyls. 

LP.  Cyls. 

H. P.  Cyls. 





















































Figdre  4— Meyers'  Cut-off  Engine,  Operating  Rix  Compressors. 

sionally  733  feet  per  minute,  but  aside  from  the  fact  that 
the  use  of  a  spray  for  cooling  and  of  mechanically  moved 
valves  are  both  combined  to  reduce  the  rise  of  tempera- 
ture, the  pressures  in  the  two-stage  Riedler  compressor 
are  considerably  lower,  the  air  being  sent  into  the  mains 
at  only  118  lbs.  gauge  per  square  inch,  an  insignificant 
pressure  as  compared  to  2,000  lbs.  per  square  inch. 

Another  point  of  interest  in  the  Fort 
Point  plant  is  the  absence  of  leakage  at 
the  stuffing  boxes  of  the  intermediate  and 
high  pressure  rams.     This  point  has  been 
the  cause  of  much  annoyance  in  similar 
plants  built  elsewhere,  and  the  present  ar- 
rangement  is   the  outcome   of   long    and 
costly  experiments.     The  friction  in  a  run- 
ning joint  capable  of  holding  2,000  lbs  of 
air  pressure   against   the    atmospheric,    is 
necessarily  enormous,  and  after  the  nature, 
the  shape  and  the  size  of  the  packing  had 
been  determined  upon,  it  became  necessary 
to  keep  the  packing  sufficiently  cool  to  pre- 
vent its  rapid  wear.     This  is  effected  by  a 
special  circulation  of  cold  water  inside  the 
rams,  the  arrangement  being  quite  apparent 
on  the  general  plan,  and  that  it  is  success- 
fully  effected   can  be    easily  ascertained. 
This  water  circulation  also    partly    con- 
tributes to  cooling  the  air  under  compres- 
sion.    At  the  nominal  rate  of  speed  of  about  400  feet 
per  minute  of  piston  velocity,  the  compressors  supply  to 
the  storage  tubes  460  cubic  feet  of  air  per  hour  at  2,000 
lbs.  gauge.     The  annexed  abstract  from  trials  made  in 

The  discharge  temperature  of  the  low  pres- 
sure cylinders  gradually  increased  and  then 
remained  stationery  at  320  degrees  Fahren- 
heit. The  intermediate  cylinder  discharge 
likewise  attained  a  temperature  of  292  degrees  Fahren- 
heit, and  the  high  pressure  cylinder,  beginning  at  375  lbs. 
per  square  inch  and  at  a  temperature  of  sixty-six  degrees 
Fahrenheit  delivered  from  the  intercoolers,  gradually 
rose  in  temperature  as  the  pressure  increased  until  it 
reached  2,000  lbs.,  and  after  running  at  that  pressure 
for  one  hour  the  thermometer  indicated  its  maximum, 

view  of  timing  the  'production  of  the  compressors  gives 

Figure  5 — One  of  the  tivo  Initial  Air  Cylinders  of  the  Rix  Compressors.'. 

viz.,  358  degrees  Fahrenheit.  The  sum  total  of  those 
temperatures,  viz.,  970  degrees,  as  compared  to  the 
adiabatic  temperature  of  single-stage  compression  to 
2,000  lbs.,  which  is  1762  degrees  Fahrenheit,  indicate 
the  work  saved  by  the  three-stage  method  of  compres- 



[Vol.  I,  No.  6. 

sion  combined  with  the  jacket  and  ram  cooling  devices. 
The  compression  throughout  the  whole  range  was  prac- 
tically regular,  being  on  an  average  115.1  lbs.  for  each 
500  revolutions  of  both  machines. 

The  mean  of  many  cards  taken  from  the  steam  cylin- 
ders, which  is  reproduced  in  Figure  10, 
showed  that  each  compressor  absorbed 
342.61  i.h.p.,  while  the  cards  from  the 
three  air  cylinders  showed  293.78  i.h.p. 
for  each  compressor.  The  work  then 
absorbed  by  the  friction,  inertia,  etc., 
was  48.83  i.h.p.,  or  14.2%  of  the  in- 
dicated power  employed,  showing  a 
mechanical  efficiency  for  the  compressor 
of  85.8%,  which  is  high,  especially  in 
view  of  the  facts  that  the  engines  were 
new  and  consequently  stiff  to  some  ex- 
tent, and  also  that  some  extra  friction 
is  developed  at  the  ram  stuffing  boxes  as 
compared  with  a  compressor  working  at 
the  usual  air  pressures. 

The  resisting  load  of  48.83  h.p.,  while 
the  compressors  were  doing  full  duty, 
may  be  compared  with  the  friction  load 
on  the  machine  without   air  pressure, 
and  an  interesting  result  obtained.  Cards 
taken   showed  that  this  friction  load   was  32.4   h.p., 
being  .663  of  the  resisting  work  under  load  and  showing 
an  increase  of  50.7%  in  the  resistances  between  no  load 
and  full  load.     The  combined  indicator  cards  illustrated 
herewith  (Figure  10),  are  plotted  from  actual  cards  and 
show  a  saving  of  36.8%    over    adiabatic    single-stage 

The  boilers  for  this  plant  are  of  the  return  tubular 

150  lbs.  to  the  square  inch,  and  fully  satisfied  the  re- 
quirements of  the  Treasury  Department.  The  forced 
draught  was  employed  because  it  was  not  considered 
desirable  to  continue  the  stacks  above  the  roof  and  thus 
give  an  opportunity  for  invading  forces  to  discover  the 

Figure  7 — The  High  Pressure  Ram  of  the  Rix  Compressors. 

type  and  manufactured  by  the  Chandler  &  Taylor  Com- 
pany of  Indianapolis,  Ind.  They  are  seventy-two  inches 
in  diameter  by  sixteen  feet  long,  and  of  a  nominal  h.p. 
of  500,  which  was  increased  by  the  forced  draught  em- 
ployed to  about  750  h.p.     These  boilers  were  tested  to 

Figure  6 — The  Intermediate  Ram  of  the  Rix  Compressors. 

position  of  the  plant.      A  short  stack,  about  fifteen  feet 
in  length,  was  therefore  erected.     The  forced  draught  is 
instituted  by  two  Sturtevant  fans,  with  engines  attached, 
having  cylinders  three  inches  in  diameter  by  a  three  and 
a  half-inch  stroke.     These  fans  each  deliver  12,000  cubic 
feet  per  minute  of  free  air  through  a  twenty-two-inch 
main,  which,  passing  underneath  the.  battery  of  four 
boilers,  is  connected  to  each  by  a  ten-inch  outlet  under- 
neath the  grate  bars.     It  was  found  dur- 
ing the  test  that  these  fans  need  be  run 
only  to  about    60%    of  their  capacity. 
The  engines  exhaust   their  steam    into 
two  National  heaters  of  300  h.p.  each, 
which  furnished  feed  water  to  the  boilers, 
at  a  temperature  of  200  degrees  Fahren- 

The  feed  pumps  are  of  the  Deane  type, 
being  duplex  and  two  in  number;  the 
steam  cylinders  being  six  inches,  the 
water  cylinders  being  four  inches  and 
the  stroke  being  six  inches.  At  a  slow 
piston  speed  these  pumps  furnished  all 
the  necessary  water,  which  was  drawn 
from  the  pits  after  being  heated  by  the 
air  from  the  compressors.  As  an  auxil- 
liary  there  are  installed  alongside  of  the 
feed  pumps  two  Nathan  injectors  of  300 
h.p.  each,  which  are  amply  sufficient  to 
furnish  all]of  the  water  necessary  to  feed 
During  the  test  for  rapidity  of  firing,  while 

the  boilers. 

the  plant  was  supposed  to  be  strained  to  its  utmost,  the 
firemen  had  ample  time  to  observe  the  operation  of  the 
compressor  plant,  showing  that  the  boilers  were  more 
than  sufficient  to  supply  the  steam  necessary  for  the, 

Dec,  1895.] 



proper  operation  of  the  compressors.  The  electrical 
equipment  of  the  installation,  which  was  furnished  by 
the  Electrical  Engineering  Company  of  San  Francisco, 
consists  of  one  thirty-five  k.w.  compound  wound  dynamo, 
shown  in  Figure  3,  and  capable  of  being  worked  up  to 

Figure  8 — The   35  Kilowatt    Generator,  manufactured  by  the  ] 
Electrical  Engineering  Company  of  San  Francisco. 

25%  in  excess  on  its  rated  capacity  for 
thirty  minutes  without  undue  heating. 
This  dynamo,  which  is  driven  by  a  fifty 
h.p.  Armington  &  Sims'  engine  (Figure 
9),  operates  about  forty  lights  in  the 
power  house  and  furnishes  the  current 
necessary  for  operating  the  electric  mo- 
tors by  which  the  guns  are  handled.  A 
substantial  switchboard,  consisting  of 
slate  slabs  bolted  to  an  iron  frame,  has 
been  erected  immediately  back  of  the 
dynamo,  and  on  which  are  placed  the 
necessary  fuse  blocks,  Weston  instru- 
ments and  three  300  ampere  main  line 
switches.  From  the  switchboard  about 
800  feet  of  lead-covered  concentric  cable 
is  run  through  an  underground  conduit 
in  separate  circuits  to  the  motors  operat- 
ing the  three  guns. 

The  compressed  air,  after  leaving  the 
compressors  and  being  confined  in  the 
storage  tanks,  is  distributed  to  the  three  guns  independ- 
ently, through  a  manifold  of  bronze,  having  attached 
five  gauges,  two  registering  2,000  lbs.  and  three  register- 
ing 1,250  lbs.,  all  so  arranged  with  valves  that  any  or 
all  of  the  guns  could  be  operated  at  once.     This  air  is 

carried  to  the  underground  storage  reservoirs  of  the 
guns,  through  a  pipe  having  an  outside  diameter  of  2^ 
inches  and  inside  diameter  of  If  inches,  and  duly  tested 
to  3,500  lbs.  to  the  square  inch  for  tightness.  From  the 
guns  to  these  manifolds  there  are  also  three  copper  pipes, 
each  J  inch  inside  diameter  by  ^  inch  outside  diameter, 
to  register  the  pressures  at  the  manifolds  that  are  con- 
tained in  the  carriages  of  the  guns.  This  is  in  general 
the  description  of  the  air  compressing  plant. 

We  now  come  to  speak  of  the  guns  themselves,  which 
were  manufactured  at  the  West  Point  foundry  on  the 
Hudson,  each  fifteen  inches  in  diameter  with  a  length  of 
fifty  feet.  Each  gun  is  perfectly  balanced  on  its  carriage, 
weighing  about  seventy  tons,  which  is  in  turn  mounted 
upon  concrete  foundations.  The  tests  of  these  guns  for 
their  mechanical  efficiency,  which  may  be  called  their 
ease  of  operation,  showed  that  they  could  be  traversed 
by  the  electric  motors  which  were  situated  in  the  gun 
carriage,  in  an  average  of  one  minute  throughout  the 
entire  360  degrees,  and  they  could  be  changed  from 
extreme  elevation  to  extreme  depression  in  from  eight  to 
eleven  seconds.  Any  one  familiar  with  the  length  of 
time  necessary  to  operate  ordinary  powder  guns  by 
hand,  will  appreciate  the  fact  that  this  facility  of  opera- 
tioa  is  marvelous. 

For  testing  these  guns  for  mechanical  efficiency  the 
requirements  were,  first,  that  forty-five  shots  should  be 
fired  in  the  first  hour  and  thirty  shots  in  the  hour  suc- 
ceeding. Inasmuch  as  the  wastage  of  air  would  be  the 
same  whether  actual  projectiles  were  fired  or  whether 
the  air  was  simply  wasted  through  the  muzzle  of  the 
gun  in  "  air  shots,"  no  projectiles  were  fired  in  this  test, 
and  it  was  found  for  the  first  hour  that  forty-five  shots 
were  fired,  and  the  compressors  running  at  their  normal 

Figuke  9— Armington  &ZSims'  Engine,  driving  the  "Double  E"  Co.'s  Dynamo. 

speed  registered  a  final  pressure  of  1,800  lbs.;  it  being 
thus  demonstrated  that  the  compressors  were  amply  suf- 
ficient to  maintain  any  requirements  which  might  be 
placed  upon  the  gun.  Twenty  air  shots  were  fired  to 
ascertain  the  utmost  rapidity  with  which  the  guns  could 



[Vol.  I,  No.  6. 

be  discharged,  and  the  same  were  discharged  in  seven 
and  one-half  minutes,  though  the  contract  did  not  re- 
quire that  these  shots  should  be  discharged  iuside  of 
thirty  minutes ;  it  being  thus  demonstrated  that  the 
compressors  and  the  guns  were  amply  capable  to  main- 
tain the  test  required  by  the  government. 

The  test  for  rapidity  of  firing  with  actual  projectiles 
next  took  place.  The  projectiles  used  were  pieces  of  gas 
pipe  twelve  inches  in  diameter  and  eight  feet  long, 
loaded  wich  sand.  The  weight  was  1,040  lbs.  Each 
one  of  the  three  guns  was  required  to  fire  five  of  these 
projectiles  in  twenty  minutes. 
The  test  developed  the  fact  that 
these  projectiles  were  all  dis- 
charged from  each  gun  within 
eight  and  one-half  minutes,  and 
they  were  by  far  the  most  inter- 
esting feature  of  the  whole  test. 

Having  no  means  for  main- 
taining the  accuracy  of  their 
flight,  these  projectiles  were 
nevertheless  thrown  for  the  first 
one-half  distance  of  their  flight 
with  precision,  that  is,  they 
maintained  the  position  of  a 
well-directed  projectile,  after 
which  they  tumbled  end  over 
end  and  fell  into  the  sea.  With- 
out any  plain  table  measure- 
ments being  taken  upon  them, 
they  apparently  fell  quite  ac- 
curately within  a  small  target. 
The  time  of  flight  of  these  pro- 
jectiles averaged  about  nineteen 
seconds  for  about  2,200  yards. 

The  questions  of  rapidity  of 
firing  and  of  loading  having 
been  determined,  the  next  test 
was  one  of  accuracy,  and  the 
live  projectiles  were  discharged 
from  these  guns  at  a  distance  of 
5,000  yards.  The  projectiles 
used  were  of  the  eight-inch 
caliber,  the  difference  in  dia- 
meter being  made  up  by  woodcu 
pistons  in  four  sections,  so  that 
the  wooden  pieces  would  fly  off 
after  the  projectiles  had  left  the 
gun,  leaving  it  clear  to  make  its  flight.  The  first  pro- 
jectile flew  5,000  yards  and  exploded ;  the  second 
projectile  flew  5,070  yards  and  exploded;  the  third 
projectile  flew  5,015  yards  and  exploded;  the  fourth  pro- 
jectile flew  5,040  yards  and  exploded;  all  of  these 
projectiles  being  plotted  on  a  plane  table  in  a  rectangle 
seventy  yards  long  by  twenty  yards  wide ;  the  time  of 
flight  being  about  twenty-seven  and  one-half  seconds. 

As  a  matter  of  experiment,  two  shots  were  fired  into 
the  hills  of  Marin  connty  at  a  distance  of  3,550  yards, 
each  with  the  eight-inch  sub-caliber  shell,  loaded  with 
100  lbs.  of  dynamite,  the  first  shot  being  fired  five  days 

previous  to  the  second  shot.  The  shots  struck  within 
forty-five  yards  of  each  other,  and  exploded  in  a  per- 
fectly satisfactory  manner,  in  fact  the  pits  caused  by 
the  explosion  joined  each  other.  The  larger  shells,  viz.: 
the  fifteen-inch  full  caliber  projectiles,  being  eleven  feet 
long  and  weighing  some  1,050  lbs.,  loaded  with  500  lbs. 
of  nitro-gelatine,  were  thrown  into  the  sea  at  a  range  of 
an  average  of  2,100  yards.  They  exploded  practically 
upon  strikiug  the  water,  throwing  into  the  air  a  column 
of  water  about  100  feet  in  diameter  at  the  base,  and, 
from    the   levels    taken  at  the  gun,   about  400  feet  in 

altitude.  The  tests  as  above 
enumerated  were  perfectly  satis- 
factory in  every  respect,  and 
exceeded  in  every  way  the  re- 
quirements of  the  government. 
There  were  no  mistakes  made 
and  no  delays  whatever  caused 
by  the  air  compressing  plant  or 
the  gun  plant,  which  probably 
exceeded  the  government  re- 
quirements in  an  aggregate  of 
over  one  thousand  per  cent.,  if 
the  various  excess  percentages 
of  the  different  tests  were  added 
together,  and  which  reflect  great 
credit  upon  the  manufacturers 
of  the  power  plant,  the  con- 
structing engineer,  the  manufac- 
turers of  the  guns  and  projectiles, 
and  also  the  Pneumatic  Torpedo 
and  Construction  Company  of 
New  York,  which  contracted  for 
and  thus  successfully  carried  to 
completion  their  contract  with 
the  government. 



Ftgvke  10— Steam  and  Three-Stage  Air  Indicator  Cards, 
plotted  from  actual  cards  at  100  r.  p.  m. 

Among  the  most  recent  and 
novel  applications  of  wire  is  the 
wire  flywheel  lately  erected  at 
the  Mannesmann  Tube  Com- 
pany's works,  Germany,  and 
especially  notable  in  view  of  the 
well-known  fact  that  heavy  fly- 
wheels driven  at  high  velocities 
present  such  dangers  of  breaking 
asunder  from  the  great  centri- 
fugal force  developed.  The  wheel  at  the  factory  mentioned 
is  described  by  "Hardware"  as  a  cast-iron  hub  or  boss,  to 
which  are  attached  two  steel-plate  disks  or  cheeks,  about 
twenty  feet  in  diameter.  The  peripheral  space  between 
the  disks  is  filled  in  with  some  seventy  tons  of  No.  5 
steel  wire,  completely  wound  around  the  hub,  the  tensile 
resistance  thus  obtained  being  found  to  be  far  superior 
to  that  of  any  casting.  This  huge  flywheel  is  driven  at 
a  speed  of  240  revolutions  per  minute,  or  a  peripheral 
velocity  of  2.8  miles  per  minute,  or  approximately  250 
feet  per  second,  which  is  said  to  be  nearly  three  times 
the  average  speed  of  any  express  train  in  the  world. 
For  such  a  constructed  flywheel  the  length  of  wire  is 
estimated  at  about  250  miles. 

Dec,  1895.]  THE   JOURNAL  OF    ELECTRICITY.  137 


The  Siemens  &  Halske  Electrical  Company,  since  its 
combination  with  the  Union  Iron  Works  of  San  Fran- 
cisco has  been  effected,  has  installed  several  interesting 
plants,  one  of  the  neatest  of  which  is  that  shown  in  the 
accompanying  illustrations,  reproduced  from  photographs 

Messrs.  Herren-Mylius  and  Fromin  point  out  that  to 
try  to  purify  zinc  by  dry  methods  leads  to  no  favorable 
results.  The  wet  process  can  be  carried  out  only  with 
the  aid  of  electrolysis,  and  this  can  be  done  in  two  ways 
— by  the  deposition  of  the  metals  from  purified  solutions 

Figure  11 — One  of  the  Three  Pneumatic  Dynamite  Gims  at  Fort  Winfield  Scott,  San  Fr 

of  the  lighting  plant  of  the  Occidental  Hotel,  San  Fran- 
cisco. In  this  installation  a  fifty  kw.  125-volt  dynamo 
is  driven  direct  by  a  vertical  compound  engine,  having 
dimensions  of  nine  by  seventeeu  inches  by  a  ten-inch 
stroke.  The  engine  is  of  the  cruiser  type,  with  special 
finish,  large  bearings,  and  conforms  with  government 
specifications  throughout,  operating  at  280  revolutions 
per  minute. 

Practical  counterparts  of  this  equipment,  with  the  single 
exception  that  the  dynamos  deliver  current  at  a  potential 
of  220  volts,  have  just  been  installed  in  the  National 
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